The Duhumbi perspective on Proto-Western Kho-Bwa onsets
The eight Western Kho-Bwa varieties are spoken in western Arunachal Pradesh in Northeast India and form a small, coherent sub-group of the Tibeto-Burman (Trans-Himalayan / Sino-Tibetan) language family.This paper presents 96 sound correspondences, mainly between the two Western Kho-Bwa varieties Duhumbi and Khoitam, with additional evidence from other Western Kho-Bwa varieties and other Tibeto-Burman languages whenever deemed illustrative. On basis of these sound correspondences, I propose 282 Western Kho-Bwa proto-forms including a total of 92 onsets. The less common reconstructed Western Kho-Bwa onsets are the uvular onsets and the voiceless nasal and approximant onsets.A unique innovation of the Western Kho-Bwa languages, and indeed the Kho-Bwa languages in general, is the correspondence of initial *s- in other Tibeto-Burman languages to a vocal onset in Proto-Western Kho-Bwa and its descendent varieties. Another relatively unique innovation is the correspondence between Western Kho-Bwa obstruent onsets *b- and *g- ~ *kʰ- ~ *k- and other Tibeto-Burman nasal onsets *m- and *ŋ-, respectively.
- The Kho-Bwa cluster
- The Western Kho-Bwa languages
- The data
- The methodology
- Notational conventions
- 2.Plosive onsets
- 2.1Trivial correspondences
- 2.2Fate of rhotic onset clusters
- 2.3Distinct reflexes before /i/
- 2.4Minor correspondences
- 3.Vocal onsets
- 4.Nasal onsets
- 4.1Trivial correspondences
- 4.2Minor correspondences
- 5.Fricative onsets
- 5.1Trivial correspondences
- 5.2Palatalised onsets
- 5.3Voiceless onsets
- 5.4Minor correspondences
- 6.Affricate onsets
- 6.1Trivial correspondences
- 6.2Palatalised onsets
- 6.3Labialised onsets
- 6.4Minor correspondences
- 7.Approximant onsets
- 7.1Trivial correspondences
- 7.2Voiceless onsets
- 7.3Minor correspondences
- 8.Sound correspondences in loans
- 9.1Notable sound correspondences between the varieties
- 9.2Notable sound correspondences with other Tibeto-Burman languages
Published online: 16 April 2021
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