Clitic pronouns in Archaic Chinese
This article provides evidence for the so far neglected existence of two clitic pronouns, yǐ 以 and yǔ 與, in Archaic Chinese (10th c. – 3rd c. BC) in immediately verb-adjacent position: ‘yǐ/yǔ-V’. While yǔ only encodes the comitative/associative, yǐ encodes all kinds of (argument and adjunct) roles, depending on the semantics of the verb involved. We argue that the clitic pronouns yǐ and yǔ can neither be analysed as stranded prepositions left behind after extraction of their complement (as, e.g., in English) nor as orphan prepositions, i.e., PPs with an in situ null pronoun as complement (as, e.g., in French). This ties in with the general ban against prepositions lacking an overt complement, observed throughout the history of Chinese.
Keywords: Archaic Chinese, syntax, ban on preposition stranding, orphan preposition, applicative, 以 yǐ
Published online: 16 April 2021
[ p. 91 ]References
2012a Focus and Archaic Chinese Word Order. Proceedings of the 22nd North American Conference on Chinese Linguistics (NACCL-22) and the 18th International Conference on Chinese Linguistics (IACL-18), vol. 2, ed. by Lauren Eby Clemens & Chi-Ming Louis Liu, 84–101. Available at: https://naccl.osu.edu/proceedings/naccl-22_iacl-18
Baxter, William H. & Laurent Sagart
Djamouri, Redouane & Waltraud Paul
Djamouri, Redouane, Barbara Meisterernst & Waltraud Paul
2009 Particles in Classical Chinese: Complementizers and Topic Markers. Paper presented at the 29th International Conference on Historical Linguistics, Radboud University, Nijmegen, 10–14 August 2009.
Djamouri, Redouane, Waltraud Paul & John Whitman
2013a Syntactic Change in Chinese and the Argument – Adjunct Asymmetry. Breaking Down the Barriers: Interdisciplinary Studies in Chinese Linguistics and Beyond ed. by Guangshun Cao, Hilary Chappell, Redouane Djamouri & Thekla Wiebusch, 577–594. Taipei: Academia Sinica [Language and Linguistics monograph series].
[ p. 92 ]
Gabelentz, Georg, von der
2016 Such errors could have been avoided – Review of Old Chinese: A New Reconstruction by William H. Baxter, Laurent Sagart. Journal of Chinese Linguistics 44:1.175–230. https://www.jstor.org/stable/24774965
Huang, C.-T. James
2012 Vedic Preverbs as Markers of Valency-Changing Derivations Transitivity and Objecthood in Indo-European (Evidence from Old Indo-Aryan). Studies in Language 36:4.721–746. Available at: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/781d/be014b311dc646f708b45bfe3c4349082cac.pdf
Legge, James D. D.
2010 Object Preposing in Classical and Pre-Medieval Chinese. Journal of East Asian Linguistics 19:1.75–102. Retrieved February 21, 2021, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40607863.
1997 On Word Order in Archaic Chinese. Cahiers de Linguistique – Asie Orientale 26:2.3–20. https://www.persee.fr/doc/clao_0153-3320_1997_num_26_1_1502.
Ruwet, Nicolas[ p. 93 ]
1990 En et y: deux clitiques pronominaux antilogophoriques. Langages 97.51–81. Available at: http://www.persee.fr/doc/lgge_0458-726x_1990_num_25_97_1574.
Thesaurus Linguae Sericae
An Historical and Comparative Encyclopaedia of Chinese Conceptual Schemes General Editor Christoph Harbsmeier 何莫邪 Associate Editor Jiang Shaoyu 蔣紹愚 Available at http://tls.uni-hd.de/home_en.lasso
Wang, Li 王力
Yang, Shuda 杨树达