Two-way immersion (TWI) programs have provided an effective bilingual alternative to monolingual approaches to educating language minority students. This article reviews the research related to two program design questions: are TWI programs effective for different groups of students within the program and what role does school context play in the program’s effectiveness?
(2004) Two-way bilingual immersion (TWI) with low-income urban student populations: Dilemmas of equity. Paper presented at the Symposium BilingLatAm. Retrieved from [URL]
(2000) A Texas two-way immersion program: Its effects on linguistic and academic achievement. Bilingual Research Journal, 24(3), 225–248.
(2008) Experiences and perspectives of African American students and their parents in a two-way Spanish immersion program. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.
August, D., & Hakuta, K
(1997) Improving schooling for language-minority children. A research agenda. Washington, D.C.: National Academic Press.
(2007) Development of English skills need not suffer as a result of immersion: Grades 1 and 2 writing assessment in a Korean/English two-way immersion program. Language Learning, 57(2), 299–332.
(2009) The long-term effects of a K-5 dual language program on middle school student achievement and biculturalism. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY.
Bearse, C.I., & de Jong, E.J
(2008) Cultural and linguistic investment: Adolescents in a secondary two-way immersion program. Equity & Excellence in Education, 41(3), 325–340.
(2005) Complex contexts and ideologies: Bilingual education in conflict-ridden areas. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 4(1), 1–20.
(2008) Successful African American students in two-way immersion programs: Parent and student perceptions. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.
(2009) Multilingual education in Germany: Discourses, practices, and experiences in two-way immersion. In M.E. Torres-Guzman & J. Gómez (Eds.), Global perspectives on multilingualism: Unity in diversity (pp. 106–133). New York: Teachers College Press.
Calderón, M., & Carreón, A
(2000) A two-way bilingual program: Promise, practice and precautions. Baltimore, MD: Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed at Risk. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 447706).
Cazabon, M., Nicoladis, E., & Lambert, W.E
(1998) Becoming bilingual in the Amigos two-way immersion program. Santa Cruz, CA: National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning.
Christian, D., & Genesee, F
(2004) Project 1.2 two-way immersion. Final Progress Report. Report prepared for the Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence. Retrieved from [URL]
Cobb, B., Vega, D., & Kronauge, C
(2006) Effects of an elementary dual language immersion school program on junior high school achievement. Middle School Research Journal, 1(1), 27–47.
(2009) Reading achievement of English language learners in 50/50 and 90/10 two-way dual language programs. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.
(2000) Learning in two languages: A case study of a two-way bilingual education program at the middle school. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, State University of New York, Albany, NY.
de Jong, E.J
(2013) Foundations for multilingualism in education: From principles to practice. Philadelphia, PA: Caslon Publishing.
de Jong, E.J., & Bearse, C.I
(2014) Dual Language programs as a strand within a secondary school: Dilemmas of school organization and the TWI mission. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 17(1), 15–31.
de Jong, E.J., & Bearse, C
(2011) The same outcomes for all? High school students reflect on their two-way immersion program experiences. In D.J. Tedick, D. Christian, & T.W. Fortune (Eds.), Immersion education: Practices, policies, possibilities (pp. 104–122). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
de Jong, E.J., & Howard, E
(2009) Integration in two-way immersion education: Equalising linguistic benefits for all students. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 12(1), 81–99.
Fortune, T.W.with Menke, M.R
(2010) Struggling learners and language immersion education: Research-based, practitioner-informed responses to educators’ top questions. Minneapolis, MN: Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition, University of Minnesota.
(2001) Key policy milestones and directions in the education of English language learners. Prepared for the Rockefeller Foundation Symposium Leveraging Change: An Emerging Framework for Educational Equity, April 5, 1001, Washington DC. Retrieved from [URL]
(2001) Mixing beginners and native speakers in minority language immersion: Who is immersing whom?The Canadian Modern Language Review, 57(3), 443–474.
(2003) Two-way immersion education programs: A multilevel analysis of the effects of native language and home language use on the development of narrative writing ability in English and Spanish. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
Howard, E.R., Sugarman, J., & Christian, D
(2003) Trends in two-way immersion education: A review of the research. Report 63. Baltimore, MD: Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed At Risk (CRESPAR).
Howard, E.R., Sugarman, J., Christian, D., Lindholm-Leary, K.J., & Rogers, D
(2007) Guiding principles for dual language education (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.
(2007) The perceived effectiveness of dual language programs at the middle school level. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA.
(2011) Learning from success stories: Leadership structures that support dual language programs over time in New York City. International Journal of Bilingual Education & Bilingualism, 14(2), 187–206.
(2006) Two-way language immersion students: How do they fare in middle and high school? Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California Irvine, Irvine CA and University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA.
(2004) The acquisition of academic English by children in two-way programs: What does the research say? Retrieved from [URL]
(1999) Two-way bilingual education: Analysis of an inner-city program. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI.
(2001) Dual language education. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
(2011) Student outcomes in Chinese two-way immersion programs: Language proficiency, academic achievement, and student attitudes. In D.J. Tedick, D. Christian, & T.W. Fortune (Eds.), Immersion education: Practices, policies, possibilities (pp. 81–103). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Lindholm-Leary, K.J., & Block, N
(2010) Achievement in predominantly low SES/Hispanic dual language schools. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 13(1), 43–60.
Lindholm-Leary, K.J., & Borsato, G
(2005) Hispanic high schoolers and mathematics: Follow-up of students who had participated in two-way bilingual elementary programs. Bilingual Research Journal, 29(3), 641–652.
Lindholm-Leary, K.J., & Ferrante, A
(2003) Middle school students’ attitudes toward school and college: Influence of two-way immersion (Final report). Santa Cruz, CA: Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence.
Lindholm-Leary, K.J., & Hernández, A
(2011) Achievement and language proficiency of Latino students in dual language programmes: Native English speakers, fluent English/previous ELLs, and current ELLs. Journal of Multilingual & Multicultural Development, 32(6), 531–545.
Lindholm-Leary, K.J., & Howard, E.R
(2008) Language development and academic achievement in two-way immersion programs. In T.W. Fortune & D.J. Tedick (Eds.), Pathways to multilingualism. Evolving perspectives on immersion education (pp. 177–200). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
(2002) Do some school-age children have no language? Some problems of construct validity in the Pre-Las Español. Bilingual Research Journal, 26(2), 213–238.
Milian, M., & Pearson, V
(2005) Students with visual impairments in a dual-language program: A case study. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 99(11), 715–720.
Montone, C.L., & Loeb, M.I
(2000) Implementing two-way immersion programs in secondary schools. Santa Cruz, CA: Center for Research on Education, Diversity, & Excellence.
(2010) The biliteracy achievement of Latino English learners in two-way immersion elementary programs. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Loyola Marymount University, Los Angeles, CA.
(2009) Achievement of children identified with special needs in two-way Spanish immersion programs. Unpublished doctoral dissertation,Washington, DC: George Washington University.
Nicoladis, E., Taylor, D., Lambert, W.E., & Cazabon, M
(1998) What two-way bilingual programmes reveal about the controversy surrounding race and intelligence. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 1(2), 134–148.
(2007) A dual immersion strand programme in California: Carrying out the promise of dual language education in an English-dominant context. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 10(6), 752–768.
(2008) Building and destroying students’ ‘academic identities’: The power of discourse in a two-way immersion classroom. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 21(6), 647–667.
(2010) Race, power, and equity in a multiethnic urban elementary school with a dual language “strand” program. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 41(1), 94–114.
(2000) Preparing for the future: Experiences and perceptions of African Americans in two-way bilingual immersion programs. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
(2010) A quantitative analysis of the achievement of children with special needs in two-way immersion programs and English as a second language in Texas. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX.
(1997) Effects of two-way immersion on the ethnic identification of third language students: An exploratory study. Bilingual Research Journal, 21(1), 43–63.
(2002) Problematizing the “dual” in a dual-immersion program: A portrait. Linguistics and Education, 13(1), 65–87.
(2011) The social and academic lives of students in a two-way immersion classroom: The active process of identity construction. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA.
Thomas, W., Collier, V., & Collier, K
(2011) English learners in North Carolina, 2010. Fairfax, VA: George Mason University. Retrieved from [URL]
Thomas, W.P., & Collier, V
(2002) A national study of school effectiveness for language minority students’ long-term academic achievement: Final report. Santa Cruz, CA and Washington, DC: Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence. Retrieved from [URL]
(1997) Dual-language immersion programs: A cautionary note concerning the education of language-minority students. Harvard Educational Review, 67(3), 391–429.
(2004) Bilingualism and biliteracy for all? Unpacking two-way immersion at second grade. Language & Education, 18(1), 69–92.
Cited by 6 other publications
Canas, Angela, Veronica Bordes Edgar & Joy Neumann
2020. Practical Considerations in the Neuropsychological Assessment of Bilingual (Spanish-English) Children in the United States: Literature Review and Case Series. Developmental Neuropsychology 45:4 ► pp. 211 ff.
de Jong, Ester J.
2018. Two‐Way Immersion. In The TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching, ► pp. 1 ff.
2021. Acquisition of Spanish verbal morphology by child bilinguals: Overregularization by heritage speakers and second language learners. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 24:1 ► pp. 56 ff.
Leung, Genevieve, Yuuko Uchikoshi & Rosina Tong
2018. “Learning Cantonese will help us”: Elementary school students’ perceptions of dual language education. Bilingual Research Journal 41:3 ► pp. 238 ff.
Tedick, Diane J. & Pamela M. Wesely
2015. A review of research on content-based foreign/second language education in US K-12 contexts. Language, Culture and Curriculum 28:1 ► pp. 25 ff.
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 26 september 2023. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers.
Any errors therein should be reported to them.