Article published in:Language Immersion Education: A research agenda for 2015 and beyond
Edited by Diane J. Tedick and Siv Björklund
[Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education 2:2] 2014
► pp. 288–302
One-way immersion in Europe
Historic, current, and future perspectives on program implementation and student population
One-way immersion programs were originally designed to provide monolingual majority language speakers a good mastery of a second, foreign, heritage, or indigenous language. This article provides a brief overview of the design of one-way-immersion programs as part of bilingual education in Europe by presenting some of the immersion programs from the following contexts: Basque country, Catalonia, Finland, Ireland and Wales. The implementation of these programs in different European contexts is analysed by looking at different functions of the programs and demographic characteristics in their student populations. The article concludes with a discussion on perspectives about and challenges for one-way immersion programs in the future.
Keywords: one-way immersion, Basque immersion, Swedish immersion, Catalan immersion, immersion in Europe, immersion program models, Irish immersion, Welsh immersion
Published online: 12 September 2014
Arenas i Sampera, J.
Arnau, J., & Vila, F.X.
Artigal, J.M., Anglada, F., Aragonés, N., Flamerich, M.D., Ral, M., Ruiz, M., Ventura, M., & Voltas, M.
Basque Government. (
2013) V Encuesta Sociolingüística 2011 [V Sociolinguistic Survey 2011]. Basque Government: Vitoria-Gasteiz. Retrieved from http://www.euskara.euskadi.net/contenidos/informacion/argitalpenak/es_6092/adjuntos/VEncuesta.pdf
(2006) Immersion students in the matriculation examination. Three years after immersion. In S. Björklund, K. Mård–Miettinen, M. Bergström, & M. Södergård (Eds.), Exploring dual-focussed education. Integrating language and content for individual and societal needs (pp. 123–134). Vaasa: University of Vaasa.
Björklund, S., & Mård–Miettinen, K.
Björklund, S., Mård–Miettinen, K., & Mäenpää, T.
Björklund, S., Mård–Miettinen, K., & Savijärvi, M.
(2012) The State, official–language education and minorities: Estonian-language instruction for Estonia’s Russian–speakers and the Võro. In Z. Bekerman & T. Geisen (Eds.), International handbook of migration, minorities and education. Understanding cultural and social differences in processes of learning (pp. 195–212). Dordrecht: Springer.
(2011) Third language learning and trilingual education in the Basque Country. In I. Bangma, C. van der Meer, & A. Riemersma (Eds.), Trilingual primary education in Europe. Some developments with regard to the provisions of trilingual primary education in minority language communities of the European Union (pp. 32–45). Leeuwarden: Fryske Akademy.
Cenoz, J., & Etxaque, X.
(2013) From bilingualism to multilingualism: Basque, Spanish and English in higher education. In C. Abello–Contesse, P. Chandler, M. López–Jiménez, & R. Chacón–Beltrán (Eds.), Bilingual and multilingual education in the 21st century. Building on experience (pp. 85–106). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Cenoz, J., Genesee, F., & Gorter, D.
Central Statistics Office. (
Dalton-Puffer, C., Llinares, A., Lorenzo, F., & Nikula, T.
European Union. (
(2013) French immersion enrolment skyrockets as a new linguistic category emerges. The Globe and Mail, January 28 2013 Retrieved from http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/education/french-immersion-enrolment-skyrockets-as-a-new-linguistic-category-emerges/article7935100/?page=all
Gaelscoileanna Teo. (
2013) Irish-medium education outside the Gaeltacht 2012-2013. Retrieved from http://www.gaelscoileanna.ie/assets/Irish-Medium-Education_English.pdf
Hickey, T., Lewis, G., & Baker, C.
Huguet, A., Navarro, J.–L., Chireac, S.-M., & Sansó, C.
(2013) Annual statistical report 2012-2013. Department of Education and Skills. Retrieved from http://www.education.ie/en/Publications/Statistics/Statistical-Reports/
Lasagabaster, D., & Sierra, J.M.
Lewis, G., Jones, B., & Baker. C.
Mehisto, P., Marsh, D., & Frigols, J.
Ó Duibhir, P.
Swain, M., & Lapkin, S.
Thomas, E.M., Apolloni, D., & Lewis, G.
Welsh Assembly Government. (
2007) Defining schools according to Welsh medium provision. Department for Children, Education, Lifelong Learning and Skills. Retrieved from http://wales.gov.uk/dcells/publications/publications/guidanceandinformation/pre2009/defining-schools-welsh-medi2.pdf?lang=en
Welsh Government. (
2013) School census results, 2013. Digital Education Resource Archive (DERA). University of London, Institute of Education. Retrieved from http://dera.ioe.ac.uk/18003/1/130711-school-census-results-2013-en.pdf
Cited by 2 other publications
Mård-Miettinen, Karita, Stephanie Arnott & Marie-Josée Vignola
Pakarinen, Sanna & Siv Björklund
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 18 september 2021. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.