The ideological (re)construction of the position of Swedish in Finland is examined as it took shape during a major year-long debate about the role of Swedish in Finnish education. Data were collected through archival research of the leading national newspapers in the two official languages of Finland: Helsingin Sanomat (Finnish) and Hufvudstadsbladet (Swedish). Circulating and intersecting discourses in newspaper texts are traced in order to examine how these discourses facilitate the negotiation of tensions about the status of Swedish in Finland. Analysis demonstrates how ideological space was opened for destabilizing dominant perspectives about the relative value of languages in Finland. Moreover, it is shown that (re)interpretations of the discourse of ‘Swedish as mandatory’ in education became a fulcrum for leveraging a wider debate about the ‘Finland as bilingual nation’ discourse, which has long been part of the national consciousness.
2008Åland som språksamhälle: Språk och språkliga attityder på Åland ur ett ungdomsperspektiv [Åland as a linguistic community: Language and language attitudes on Åland from a youth perspective.] Stockholm: Dissertations on Bilingualism.
1983Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso.
Andersson, Hakan, and Kjell Herberts
1996“The Case of the Swedish-speaking Finns.”International Review of Education 42 (4): 384–388.
2006Language and Globalization. London: Routledge.
2006“Contradictions of Standard Language in Europe: Implications for the Study of Publics and Practices.”Social Anthropology 14 (2): 163–181.
Gal, Susan, and Kathryn Woolard
(eds) 2001Languages and Publics: The Making of Authority. Manchester: St. Jerome’s Press.
(eds) 2009The Nordic Media Market 2009. Media Companies and Business Activities. Nordicom: Göteborgs Universitet.
2006“Bilingualism as Ideology and Practice.” In Bilingualism. A Social Approach, ed. by Monica Heller, 1–22. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.
(ed.) 2007Bilingualism: A Social Approach. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
2011Paths to Post-Nationalism: A Critical Ethnography of Language and Identity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Heller, Monica, and Alexandre Duchêne
2007“Discourses of Endangerment: Sociolingistics, Globalisation and Social Order.” In Discourses of Endangerment, ed. by Alexandre Duchêne, and Monica Heller, 1–13. London, UK: Continuum.
2002“‘Expert Rhetorics’ in Advocacy for Endangered Languages. Who is Listening, and What Do They Hear?” Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 121: 119–133.
Hornberger, Nancy H.
2005“Opening and Filling Up Implementational and Ideological Spaces in Heritage Language Education.”The Modern Language Journal 89 (4): 605–609.
2007“Global Challenges to Nationalist Ideologies: Language and Education in the Luxembourg Press.” In Language in the Media: Representations, Identities, Ideologies, ed. by Sally Johnson, and Astrid Ensslin, 130–146. London: Continuum.
Hult, Francis M.
2004“Planning for Multilingualism and Minority Language Rights in Sweden.”Language Policy 3 (2): 181–201.
Hult, Francis M.
2010“Analysis of Language Policy Discourses Across the Scales of Space and Time.”International Journal of the Sociology of Language 2021: 7–24.
Huss, Leena, and Anna-Riitta Lindgren
2010“Scandinavia.” In Handbook of Language and Ethnic Identity, ed. by Joshua A. Fishman, and Ofelia García, 255–268. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Irvine, Judith. T., and Susan Gal.
2000“Language Ideology and Linguistic Differentiation.” In Regimes of Language. Ideologies, Polities, and Identities, ed. by P. V. Kroskrity, 35–83. Santa Fe, New Mexico: School of American Research Press.
2007a“Discourses of Endangerment: Contexts and Consequences of Essentializing Discourses.” In Discourses of Endangerment, ed. by Alexandra Duchêne, and Monica Heller, 57–75. London: Continuum.
2007b“Minority Language Movements.” In Bilingualism: A Social Approach, ed. by Monica Heller, 50–70. Hampshire: Palgrave.
Juurakko-Paavola, Taina, and Åsa Palviainen
(ed.) 2011Svenskan i den finska skolan och högre utbildningen. Om kunskaper och motivation genom olika utbildningsstadier [Swedish in Finnish schools and higher education. On knowledge and motivation through different educational stages.] Hämeen ammattikorkeakoulun julkaisuja 11/2011.
Kaplan, Robert B., and Richard B. Baldauf
1997Language Planning: From Practice to Theory. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Kroskrity, Paul V.
(ed.) 2000Regimes of Language: Ideologies, Polities, and Identities. Sante Fe: School of American Research Press.
Laihiala-Kankainen, Sirkka, and Sari Pietikäinen
2010“Contexts and Consequences of Language Ideologies: The Case of Indigenous Sámi Languages in Inari (FIN) and Lovozero (RUS).” In Language Ideologies in Transition. Multilingualism in Russia and Finland, ed. by Mika Lähteenmäki, and Marjatta Vanhala-Anisewski, 57–79. Peter Lang: Frankfurt am Main.
Lemke, Jay L.
2000“Across the Scales of Time: Artifacts, Activities, and Meanings in Ecosocial Systems.”Mind, Culture, Activity 7 (4): 273–290.
Liebkind, Karmela, Marika Tandefelt, and Tom Moring
2007 “Introduction: Why a Special Issue on the Swedish-Speaking Finns?” International Journal of the Sociology of Language 187–1881: 1–11.
Lightbown, Patsy M., and Nina Spada
1999How Languages are Learned. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Lindgren, Anna-Riitta, Klaus Lindgren, and Mirja Saari
2011 “From Swedish to Finnish in the 19th Century: A Historical Case of Emancipatory Language Shift.” International Journal of Sociology of Language 2091: 17–34.
Lo Bianco, Joseph
2005“Including Discourse in Language Planning Theory”. In Directions in Applied Linguistics, ed. by Paul Bruthiaux, Dwight Atkinson, William G. Eggington, William Grabe, and Vaidehi Ramanathan, 255–263. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Meek, Barbra A.
2007 “Respecting the Language of Elders: Ideological Shift and Linguistic Discontinuity in a Northern Athapascan Community.” Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 17 (1): 23–43.
2006 “Language Planning and National Identity in Sweden: A Performativity Approach.” In Language Ideologies, Policies, and Practices: Language and the Future of Europe, ed. by Clare Mar-Molinero, and Patrick Stevenson, 104–117. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
2007 “A Language Ideology in Print: The Case of Sweden.” In Language in the Media: Representations, Identities, Ideologies, ed. by Sally Johnson, and Astrid Ensslin, 111–129. New York: Continuum.
Moore, Robert E., Sari Pietikäinen, and Jan Blommaert
2010 “Counting the Losses: Numbers as the Language of Language Endangerment.” Sociolinguistic Studies 4 (1): 1–26.
2010Svenskan på offensiven eller på intensiven. [Swedish on the offensive or in intensive care.] Helsinki: Söderströms.
Nevins, M. Eleanor
2004“Learning to Listen: Confronting Two Meanings of Language Loss in the Contemporary White Mountain Apache Speech Community.”Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 14 (2): 269–288.
2007Global Englishes and Transcultural Flows. London: Routledge.
2010Language as a Local Practice. London: Routledge.
Petrovic, John E.
2005“The Conservative Restoration and Neoliberal Defenses of Bilingual Education.”Language Policy 41: 395–416.
2006“Figuring Out the Englishisation of Europe.” In Reconfiguring Europe: The Contribution of Applied Linguistics, ed. by Constant Leung, and Jennifer Jenkins, 65–85. London: Equinox.
in press. “Multilingual Dynamics in Sámiland. Rhizomatic Discourse Approach to Changing Language.” International Journal of Bilingualism.
2010“Sámi Language Mobility: Scales and Discourses of Multilingualism in Polycentric Environment.”International Journal of the Sociology of Language 2021: 79–101.
Pietikäinen, Sari, and Helen Kelly-Holmes
(eds) 2013Multilingualism and the Periphery. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
1984“Orientations in Language Planning.”NABE Journal 8 (2): 15–34.
Rynkänen, Tatjana, and Sari Pöyhönen
2010“Russian-Speaking Young Immigrants in Finland: Educational and Linguistic Challenges to Integration.” In Language Ideologies in Transition: Multilingualism in Finland and Russia, ed. by Mika Lähteenmäki, and Marjatta Vanhala-Aniszewski, 175–194. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
Scollon, Ron, and Suzie Wong Scollon
2004Nexus Analysis: Discourse and the Emerging Internet. London: Routledge.
2007 “Language and Demography: Historical Development.” International Journal of the Sociology of Language 187–188: 35–54.
1942 “Sukunimien suomalaistamisesta. Hieman historiikkia ja periaatteita [On the Finnification of Last Names: Brief History and Some Principles.]” Suomalainen Suomi 1942 (3): 105–113.
Van Dijk, Teun A.
2008Discourse and Power. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Vincze, Laszlo, and Tom Moring
2012“Swedish in Finland: Pushed Back in the Cyberspace?”Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe 11 (2): 25–37.
Östman, Jan-Ola, and Leila Mattfolk
2011“Ideologies of Standardisation: Finland Swedish and Swedish-language Finland.” In Standard Languages and Language Standards in a Changing Europe, ed. by Tore Kristiansen, and Nikolas Coupland, 75–82. Oslo: Novus.
Cited by 29 other publications
2021. Central Theoretical Concepts and the Current Research Context. In Language and Ethnonationalism in Contemporary West Central Balkans, ► pp. 23 ff.
2015. Negotiating language ownership: Hebrew charter schools and the American Jewish press. Language & Communication 45 ► pp. 83 ff.
Barner-Rasmussen, Wilhelm, Claudine Gaibrois & Natalie Victoria Wilmot
2024. Perfection, hybridity or shutting up? A cross-country study of how language ideologies shape participation in international business. International Business Review 33:1 ► pp. 102189 ff.
Biseth, Heidi, Bryony Hoskins & Lihong Huang
2021. Using IEA International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS) Data: Northern Lights on ICCS. In Northern Lights on Civic and Citizenship Education [IEA Research for Education, 11], ► pp. 1 ff.
2020. Interpreter-mediated Interactions: Parent Participation in Individualized Education Plan Meetings for Deaf Students from Multilingual Homes. Journal of Language, Identity & Education 19:4 ► pp. 227 ff.
2017. Music video covers, minoritised languages, and affective investments in the space of YouTube. Language in Society 46:4 ► pp. 451 ff.
Faingold, Eduardo D.
2023. Summary, Conclusion, and Directions for Future Research. In Language Rights and the Law in Scandinavia, ► pp. 265 ff.
From, Tuuli & Gunilla Holm
2019. Language crashes and shifting orientations: the construction and negotiation of linguistic value in bilingual school spaces in Finland and Sweden. Language and Education 33:3 ► pp. 195 ff.
2023. Students’ Orientations Towards Multilingualism and Social Justice in a Swedish-medium University Degree Program in Educational Sciences in Finland. Journal of Language, Identity & Education 22:6 ► pp. 619 ff.
2015. Discursive Approaches to Policy. In Discourse and Education, ► pp. 1 ff.
Hult, Francis M.
2015. Making Policy Connections across Scales Using Nexus Analysis. In Research Methods in Language Policy and Planning, ► pp. 217 ff.
Hult, Francis M.
2017. Discursive Approaches to Policy. In Discourse and Education, ► pp. 111 ff.
Hult, Francis M.
2023. Sustainable Multilingual Education. In Language and Sustainable Development [Language Policy, 32], ► pp. 51 ff.
2021. English-medium education reform in Kazakhstan: comparative study of educational change across two contexts in one country. Current Issues in Language Planning 22:5 ► pp. 553 ff.
Källkvist, Marie & Francis M. Hult
2016. Discursive mechanisms and human agency in language policy formation: negotiating bilingualism and parallel language use at a Swedish university. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 19:1 ► pp. 1 ff.
Källkvist, Marie & Francis M. Hult
2020. Multilingualism as Problem or Resource? Negotiating Space for Languages Other Than Swedish and English in University Language Planning. In Language Perceptions and Practices in Multilingual Universities, ► pp. 57 ff.
Marton, Enikő & Peter D. MacIntyre
2020. Feedback from L1 users – a potential facilitator of L2 use. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 41:5 ► pp. 457 ff.
Menard, Rusten & Jukka Törrönen
2023. Immigration, Multiculturalism and Biopolitical Projects on ‘Difference’: Negotiating Intersecting Social Divisions From Positions of Privilege and Disadvantage. Nordic Journal of Migration Research 13:1
2020. State management of bilingualism: a comparative analysis of two educational language policies in Japan. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 23:10 ► pp. 1175 ff.
Mård-Miettinen, Karita, Åsa Palviainen & Anu Palojärvi
2018. Dynamics in Interaction in Bilingual Team Teaching: Examples from a Finnish Preschool Classroom. In Preschool Bilingual Education [Multilingual Education, 25], ► pp. 163 ff.
Palviainen, Åsa & Mari Bergroth
2018. Parental discourses of language ideology and linguistic identity in multilingual Finland. International Journal of Multilingualism 15:3 ► pp. 262 ff.
Palviainen, Åsa & Sally Boyd
2013. Unity in Discourse, Diversity in Practice: The One Person One Language Policy in Bilingual Families. In Successful Family Language Policy [Multilingual Education, 7], ► pp. 223 ff.
Palviainen, Åsa & Karita Mård-Miettinen
2015. Creating a bilingual pre-school classroom: the multilayered discourses of a bilingual teacher. Language and Education 29:5 ► pp. 381 ff.
Palviainen, Åsa, Ekaterina Protassova, Karita Mård-Miettinen & Mila Schwartz
2016. Two languages in the air: a cross-cultural comparison of preschool teachers’ reflections on their flexible bilingual practices. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 19:6 ► pp. 614 ff.
Pörn, Michaela & Katri Hansell
2020. The teacher’s role in supporting two-way language learning in classroom tandem. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 23:5 ► pp. 534 ff.
Saarinen, Taina & Pasi Ihalainen
2018. Multi-sited and historically layered language policy construction: parliamentary debate on the Finnish constitutional bilingualism in 1919. Language Policy 17:4 ► pp. 545 ff.
Siiner, Maarja, Francis M. Hult & Tanja Kupisch
2018. Situating Language Acquisition Planning. In Language Policy and Language Acquisition Planning [Language Policy, 15], ► pp. 1 ff.
Siiner, Maarja & Svetlana L’nyavskiy-Ekelund
2017. Priming Language Political Issues as Issues of State Security: A Corpus-Assisted Discourse Analysis of Language Ideological Debates in Estonian Media Before and After the Ukrainian Crisis. In Language Policy Beyond the State [Language Policy, 14], ► pp. 25 ff.
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 28 november 2023. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers.
Any errors therein should be reported to them.