Allen, Rose Mary
2007Di ki manera? A Social History of Afro-Curaçaoans, 1863–1917. Utrecht: Utrecht University.Google Scholar
Babayiğit, Selma
2014The role of oral language skills in reading and listening comprehension of text: A comparison of monolingual (L1) and bilingual (L2) speakers of English language. Journal of Research in Reading 37(1). 22–47. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Bos, Kees van den. & Henk Lutje-Spelberg
2010Continue Benoemen & Woorden Lezen [Continuous Naming & Word Reading]. Amsterdam: Boom Uitgevers.Google Scholar
Caravolas, Markéta, Arne Lervåg, Sylvia Defior, Gabriela Seidlová Málková & Charles Hulme
2013Different patterns, but equivalent predictors, of growth in reading in consistent and inconsistent orthographies. Psychological Science 24(8). 1398–1407. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Carpenter, Karen & Hubert Devonish
2010Swimming against the tide: Jamaican Creole in education. In Bettina Migge, Isabelle Léglise, & Angela Bartens (eds.), Creoles in Education, 167–182. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Castles, Anne, Kathleen Rastle & Kate Nation
2018Ending the Reading Wars: Reading Acquisition From Novice to Expert. Psychological Science in Public Interest 19(1). 5–51. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), Netherlands Antilles
2001Census 2001. [URL] (September 2022.)
Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS)
2008International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO). [URL]– (August 2022.)
Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), Aruba
2021Census 2001. [URL] (7 August, 2022.)
Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), Bonaire
2021Caribisch Nederland; bevolking, geboorteland, nationaliteit. [URL] (9 August, 2022.)
Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), Curaçao
2022Population of Curaçao. [URL]. (9 August, 2022.)
Chung, Sheila C., Xi Chen & Esther Geva
2019Deconstructing and reconstructing cross- language transfer in bilingual reading development: An interactive framework. Journal of Neuro-linguistics 501. 149–161. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Curran, Patrick J., Stephen G. West & John F. Finch
1996The robustness of test statistics to nonnormality and specification error in confirmatory factor analysis. Psychological Methods 1(1). 16–29. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Cummins, Jim
1981The role of primary language development in promoting educational success for language minority students. In California State Department of Education (eds.), Schooling and language minority students: A theoretical framework, 3–50. Los Angeles: Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, California State University.Google Scholar
1991Interdependence of first- and second-language proficiency in bilingual children. In Ellen Bialystok (ed.), Language processing in bilingual children, 70–89. England: Cambridge University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2000Immersion education for the millennium: What we have learned from 30 years of research on second language immersion. Toronto: University of Toronto, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education.Google Scholar
Dijkhoff, Marta & Joyce Pereira
2010Language and education in Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao. In Bettina Migge, Isabelle Léglise & Angela Bartens (eds.), Creoles in Education, 237–272. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Domínguez De Ramírez, Romilia & Edward Shapiro
2007Cross-language relationship between Spanish and English oral reading fluency among Spanish-speaking English language learners in bilingual education classrooms. Psychology in the Schools 44(8). 795–806. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Dunn, Lloyd M., Leota M. Dunn & Liesbeth Schlichting
2005Peabody picture vocabulary test-III-NL. Amsterdam: Harcourt Test Publishers.Google Scholar
Eckkrammer, Eva
(1999) The standardisation of Papiamentu: New trends, problems and perspectives. Bulletin VALS-ASLA 69(1). 59–74.Google Scholar
Elhassan, Zena, Sheila G. Crewther & Edith L. Bavin
2017The contribution of phonological awareness to reading fluency and its individual sub-skills in readers aged 9-to 12-years. Frontiers in Psychology 8(1). 1–11. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Elst-Koeiman, Melissa van der, Eliane Segers, Ronald Severing & Ludo Verhoeven
2022Learning to read in mother tongue or foreign language: Comparing Papiamento-Dutch reading skills in the post-colonial Dutch Caribbean. Learning and Individual Differences 951. 102–138. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Geva, Esther & Linda S. Siegel
2000Orthographic and cognitive factors in the concurrent development of basic reading skills in two languages. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal 12(1). 1–30. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Hakuta, Kenji, Yuko G. Butler & Daria Witt
2000How long does it take English learners to attain proficiency? California: University of California-Santa Barbara: Minority Research Institute.Google Scholar
Jean, Maureen & Esther Geva
2009The development of vocabulary in English as a second language children and its role in predicting word recognition ability. Applied Psycholinguistics 30(1). 153–185. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Jong, Peter F. de. & Aryan van der Leij
1999Specific contributions of phonological abilities to early reading acquisition: Results from a Dutch latent variable longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology 91(3). 450–476. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Jöreskog, Karl G. & Dag Sörbom
1996LISREL 8: user’s reference guide (2nd ed.) Chicago: Scientific Software International.Google Scholar
Kirby, John R., Alain Desrochers, Leah Roth & Sandy S. V. Lai
2008Longitudinal predictors of word reading development. Canadian Psychology 49 (2). 103–110. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Lervåg, Arne & Vibeke G. Aukrust
2010Vocabulary knowledge is a critical determinant of the difference in reading comprehension growth between first and second language learners. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry 51(5). 612–620. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Levelt, Willem J. M., Ardi Roelofs & Antje S. Meyer
1999A theory of lexical access in speech production. Cambridge University Press 22(1). 1–38. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Leysen, H., Noé, M., Broeck, W. van den, Loncke, M., Liekens, E., Lowette, A., Eynden, L. van den, Keuning, J., & Geudens, A.
2009Drie-Minuten-Toets [Three-Minutes-Test]. Arnhem: Cito.Google Scholar
Little, Todd D.
2013Methodology in the social sciences: Longitudinal structural equation modeling. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Lotherington, Heather
1998Trends and tensions in post-colonial language education in the South Pacific. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 1(1). 65–75. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Mägiste, Edith
1979The competing language systems of the multilingual: A developmental study of decoding and encoding processes. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior (18)11. 79–89. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Melby-Lervåg, Monica & Arne Lervåg
2011Cross-linguistic transfer of oral language, decoding, phonological awareness and reading comprehension: A meta-analysis of the correlational evidence. Journal of Research in Reading 34(1). 114–135. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Melby-Lervåg, Monica, Solveig-Alma H. Lyster & Charles Hulme
2012Phonological skills and their role in learning to read: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin 138 (2). 322–352. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Ministry of Education and Culture of the Netherlands Antilles
2005Funderend onderwijs achtergrond en vooruitblik [Foundation education background and preview]. Netherlands Antilles: Publicatie Overheid Nederlandse Antillen.Google Scholar
Mishra, Ranjita & Rhona Stainthorp
2007The relationship between phonological awareness and word reading accuracy in Oriya and English: A study of Oriya- speaking fifth-graders. Journal of Research in Reading 30(1). 23–37. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Moll, Kristina, Frank Ramus, Jürgen Bartling, Jennifer Bruder, Sarah Kunze, Nina Neuhoff, Silke Streiftau, Heikki Lyytinen, Paavo H. T. Leppänen, Kaisa Lohvansuu, Dénes Tóth, Ferenc Honbolygó, Valéria Csépe, Caroline Bogliotti, Stéphanie Iannuzzi, Jean-Francois Démonet, Emilie Longeras, Sylviane Valdois, Florence GeorgeKaren Landerl
2014Cognitive mechanisms underlying reading and spelling development in five European orthographies. Learning and Instruction 29(1). 65–77. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Murtagh, Edward J.
1982Creole and English used as languages of instruction in bilingual education with Aboriginal Australians: Some research findings. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 36 1. 15–33. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Narain, Goretti
1995Een studie naar het Papiamentu en het Nederlands van kleuters op Curaçao en Nederland [A study of the Papiamentu and Dutch of in the kindergarten in Curaçao and the Netherlands]. Tillburg: Tillburg University, Doctoral Dissertation.
National Reading Panel (NRP)
2000Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. Chicago: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.Google Scholar
Netten, Andrea, Mienke Droop & Ludo Verhoeven
2011Predictors of reading literacy for first and second language learners. Reading and Writing 24(1). 413–425. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Obondo, Margaret A.
2007Tensions between English and mother tongue teaching in post-colonial Africa. In Jim Cummins & Chria Davison (eds.), International handbook of English language teaching, 37–50. New York: Springer International Handbooks of Education. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Ouellette, Gene P.
2006What’s meaning got to do with it: The role of vocabulary in word reading and reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology 98 (3). 554–566. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Pan, Jinger, Catherine McBride-Chang, Hua Shu, Hongyun Liu, Yuping Zhang & Hong Li
2011What is in the naming? A 5-year longitudinal study of early rapid naming and phonological sensitivity in relation to subsequent reading skills in both native Chinese and English as a second language. Journal of Educational Psychology 103 (4). 897–908. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Patel, Tanya K., Margaret J. Snowling & Peter F. de Jong
2004Across-linguistic comparison of children learning to read in English and Dutch. Journal of Educational Psychology 96(4). 785–797. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Peng, Peng, Marcia Barnes, Cuicui Wang, Wei Wang, Shan Li, Lee H. Swanson & Sha Tao
2018A meta-analysis on the relation between reading and working memory. Psychological Bulletin 144(1). 48–76. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Pereira, Joyce
2018Valorization of Papiamento in Aruban society and education, in historical, contemporary and future perspectives. Curaçao: University of Curaçao, Doctoral Dissertation.
Pereira, Joyce & Marta Römer-Dijkhoff
2020Papiaments van levensbelang voor de ontwikkeling van de leerlingen van Aruba, Curaçao en Bonaire [Papiamento is vital for the development of the pupils of Aruba, Curaçao and Bonaire]. Levende Talen Magazine 107(8). 24–28.Google Scholar
Pham, Andy V. & Ramzi M. Hasson
2014Verbal and Visuospatial Working Memory as Predictors of Children’s Reading Ability. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 29(5). 467–477. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Pikulski, John J. & David J. Chard
2005Fluency: Bridge Between Decoding and Reading Comprehension. The Reading Teacher 58(6). 510–519. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Prins-Winkel, Anna C.
1973Kabes Duru?: Een onderzoek naar de onderwijssituatie op de Benedenwindse Eilanden van de Nederlandse Antillen, in verband met het probleem van de vreemde voertaal bij het onderwijs. Assen: Van Gorcum.Google Scholar
Raudszus, Henriette, Eliane Segers & Ludo Verhoeven
2021Patterns and predictors of reading comprehension growth in first and second language readers. Journal of Research Reading 44(2). 400–417. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Raven, John C.
1958Coloured Progressive Matrices. London: H.K. Lewis & Co.Google Scholar
Ryu, Ehri
2011Effects of skewness and kurtosis on normal-theory based maximum likelihood test statistic in multilevel structural equation modeling. Behavioural Research 43(1). 1066–1074. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Scheltinga, Femke, Linda Horsels, Jos Keuning & Judith Stoep
2013Testinstrumentarium Taalontwikkelingsstoornissen (T-TOS): Achtergrond, inhoud en toepassing [Testing instruments Language development disorders (T-TOS): Background, content and application]. The Netherlands: Expertisecentrum Nederlands en Cito.Google Scholar
Severing, Ronald
1997Geletterdheid en onderwijssucces op Curaçao [Literacy and educational success in Curaçao]. Nijmegen: Nijmegen University, Doctoral Dissertation.
2018Prueba di Tres Minüt [Three Minutes Test]. Curaçao: University of Curaçao.Google Scholar
Severing, Ronald & Christa Weijer
2008Fundashon pa planifikashon di idioma [Language planning and language policy in Curaçao]. In Nicolas Faraclas (ed.), Linguistic Studies on Papiamentu, 247–260. Curaçao: Fundashon pa Planifikashon di Idioma.Google Scholar
Seymour, Phillip H. K., Mikko Aro, Jane. M. Erskine & Network, C. W. C. A. A.
2003Foundation literacy acquisition in European orthographies. British Journal of Psychology 94(2). 143–174. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Share, David
2004Orthographic learning at a glance: On the time course and developmental onset of self-teaching. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 87(4). 267–298. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Siegel, Jeff
1997Using a pidgin language in formal education: Help or hindrance? Applied Linguistics 18(1). 86–100. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2006Keeping creoles and dialects out of the classroom: Is it justified? In Shondel Nero (ed.), Dialects, Englishes, Creoles, and Education, 39–67. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
2010Bilingual literacy in creole contexts. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development (31)41. 383–402. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Simmons-McDonald, Hazel
2010Introducing French Creole as a language of instruction in education in St. Lucia. In Bettina Migge, Isabella Léglise, & Angela Bartens (eds.), Creoles in Education, 183–210. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Stuurgroep Herstructurering Onderwijs
1988Renobacion di Enseñansa – Prioridad pa future [Innovation in Education – Priority for the Future]. Aruba: general government.Google Scholar
Swanson, Lee H., Xinhua Zheng & Olga Jerman
2009Working memory, short-term memory, and reading disabilities: A selective meta-analysis of the literature. Journal of Learning Disabilities 42(3). 260–287. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Tabachnick, Barbara G. & Linda S. Fidell
2013Using Multivariate Statistics (6th ed.). Boston: Pearson.Google Scholar
Thomas, Wayne P. & Virgina Collier
2002A national study of school effectiveness for language minority students’ long-term academic achievement. Berkeley UC: George Mason University, Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence.Google Scholar
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
2016If you don’t understand, how can you learn? Policy Paper 24. UNESCO Global Education Monitoring Report. [URL]
Veii, Kazuvire & John Everatt
2005Predictors of reading among Herero-English bilingual Namibian school children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 8(3). 239–254. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Verhoeven, Ludo & Jan van Leeuwe
2009Modeling the growth of word-decoding skills: Evidence from Dutch. Scientific Studies of Reading 13(3). 205–223. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Verhoeven, Ludo, Jan van Leeuwe & Anne Vermeer
2011Vocabulary growth and reading development across the elementary school years. Scientific Studies of Reading 15(1). 8–25. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Wolf, Maryanne & Patricia Bowers
1999The double-deficit hypothesis for the developmental dyslexias. Journal of Educational Psychology 91(3). 415–438. DOI logoGoogle Scholar