The focus of the paper is a phenomenon well documented in both monolingual and bilingual English acquisition: argument omission. Previous studies have shown that bilinguals acquiring a null and a non-null argument language simultaneously tend to exhibit unidirectional cross-language interaction effects — the non-null argument language remains unaffected but over-suppliance of overt elements in the null argument language is observed. Here subject and object omission in both ASL (null argument) and English (non-null argument) of young ASL-English bilinguals is examined. Results demonstrate that in spontaneous English production, ASL-English bilinguals omit subjects and objects to a higher rate, for longer, and in unexpected environments when compared with English monolinguals and bilinguals; no effect on ASL is observed. Findings also show that the children differentiate between their two languages — rates of argument omission in English are different during ASL vs. English target sessions differ. Implications for the general theory of bilingual effects are offered.
(2000) A discourse-pragmatic explanation for argument representation in child Inuktitut. Linguistics, 38(3), 483–521.
(2011) Issues and Alternatives. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of California, Santa Cruz.
(2004) Resumption as Resource Management. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Stanford University.
Bahan, B., Kegl, J., Lee, R., MacLaughlin, D., & Neidle, C.
(2000) The licensing of null arguments in American Sign Language. Linguistic Inquiry 311, 1–27.
Berk, S. & Lillo-Martin, D.
(2012) The two-word stage: Motivated by linguistic and cognitive constraints?Cognitive Psychology 65, 118–140.
Bhatt, R. & Pancheva, R.
(2006) Implicit arguments. Blackwell Companion to Syntax, 558–588. Oxford: Blackwell.
Biberauer, T., Holmberg, A., Roberts, I., & Sheehan, M.
(2010) Parametric Variation: Null Subjects in Minimalist Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
(2009) Bimodal bilingualism in hearing, native users of American Sign Language. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Gallaudet University.
Blais, M.J., Oshima-Takane, Y.Genesee, F., & Hirakawa, M.
(2010) Cross-linguistic influence on argument realization in Japanese-French bilinguals. Proceedings of the Boston University Conference on Language Development (BUCLD) 341, 34–45. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
(1990) Subjectless sentences in child language. Linguistic Inquiry 2(1), 491–504.
Borer, H. & Wexler, K.
(1987) The maturation of syntax. In T. Roeper & Williams, E., (Eds.) Parameter Setting, 123–172. Dordrecht: Reidel.
Borer, H. & Rohrbacher, B.
(2002) Minding the absent: Arguments for the full competence hypothesis. Language Acquisition 10(2), 123–175.
Boster, C. T.
(1997) Processing and parameter setting in language acquisition: A computational approach. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Connecticut, Storrs.
Brackenbury, T., Ryan, T., & Messenheimer, T.
(2006) Incidental word learning in a hearing child of deaf adults. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 11(1), 76–93.
(1973) A First Language. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Cantone, K. F.
(2007) Code-switching in Bilingual Children. The Netherlands: Springer
Capirci, O., Iverson, J. M., Montanari, S., & Volterra, V.
(2002) Gestural, signed and spoken modalities in early language development: The role of linguistic input. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 5(1), 25–37.
Casey, S. & Emmorey, K.
(2009) Co-speech gesture in bimodal bilinguals. Language and Cognitive Processes 24(2), 290–312.
Chamberlain, C. & Mayberry, R. I.
(2008) American Sign Language syntactic and narrative comprehension in skilled and less skilled readers: Bilingual and bimodal evidence for the linguistic basis of reading. Applied Psycholinguistics 29 (3), 367–388.
Chen Pichler, D., Hochgesang, J., Lillo-Martin, D., & Quadros, R.
(1999) Lexical selection in bilinguals: Do words in the bilingual’s two lexicons compete for selection?Journal of Memory and Language. 411, 365–397.
Den Dikken, M.
(2011) The Distributed Morphology of code-switching. Paper presented at 2010 UIC Bilingualism Forum. University of Chicago, IL.
Donati, C. & Branchini, C.
(2009) Challenging linearization: Simultaneous mixing in the production of bimodal bilinguals. Proceedings of the European Summer School on Language, Logic and Information (ESSLI), Bordeaux, France, July 2009.
Emmorey, K., Borinstein, H. B., Thompson, R., & Gollan, T. H.
(2008) Bimodal bilingualism. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 11(1), 43–61.
Emmorey, K., Luk, G., Pyers, J.E., & Bialystok, E.
(2008) The source of enhanced cognitive control in bilinguals. Psychological Science 19(12), 1201–1206.
(1992) Resumptive pronouns in islands. In Goodluck, H. & Rochemont, M. (eds.) Island Constraints: Theory, Acquisition and Processing, 89–108. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
(1990) The head parameter in ADL. In Edmondson, W. H. & Karlsson, F. (eds.) SLR ’87: Papers from the Fourth International Symposium on Sign Language Research, 75–85. Hamburg: Signum.7 3Y6
(2007) Subjects, topics and the interpretation of pro: A new approach to the Null Subject Parameter. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 251, 691–734.
(1991) The metrical basis for children’s subjectless sentences. Journal of Memory and Language 30(4), 431–451.
González-Vilbazo, K. & Lòpez, L.
(2012) Little v and parametric variation. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 30(1), 33–77.
Guerriero, S., Cooper, A., Oshima-Takane, Y., & Kuriyama, Y.
(2001) A discourse-pragmatic explanation for argument realization and omission in English and Japanese children’s speech. Proceedings of BUCLD 251, 319–330. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
Hacohen, A. & Schaeffer, J.
(2007) Subject realization in early Hebrew/English bilingual acquisition: The role of crosslinguistic influence. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 10(3), 333–344.
(2010) Transfer at the syntax-pragmatics interface: Pronominal subjects in bilingual Turkish. Second Language Research 26(3), 355–378.
(2005) Is There a Little Pro? Evidence from Finnish. Linguistic Inquiry 361, 533–564.
(1999) The Development of Null Arguments in a Cantonese-English Bilingual Child. Unpublished Masters in Philology thesis, Chinese University of Hong Kong.
Hughes, M. & Allen, S.
(2008) Child-directed speech and the development of referential choice in child English. Presented at the International Association for the Study of Child Language Conference, Edinburgh, Scotland, July 2008.
Hulk, A., & Müller, N.
(2000) Bilingual first language acquisition at the interface between syntax and pragmatics. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 3(3), 227–244.
(2011) Missing Subjects in Early child Language. In J. De Villiers & T. Roeper (eds.), Handbook of Generative Approaches to Language Acquisition, 13–52. The Netherlands: Springer.
Jarque, M. J.
(2010) Sign bilingualism: Language development, interaction, and maintenance in sign language contact situations. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 13(2), 265–268.
Johnson, J., Watkins, R., & Rice, M.
(1992) Bimodal bilingual language development in a hearing child of deaf parents. Applied Psycholinguistics 13(1), 31–52.
Juan-Garau, M. & Perez-Vidal, C.
(2000) Subject realization in the syntactic development of a bilingual child. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 31, 173–192.
(2012) When the quiet surfaces: ‘Transfer’ of argument omission in the speech of ASL-English bilinguals. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Connecticut.
(2013a) She said __ was ok: Embedded subject omission in the English of ASL-English bilinguals. Presented at the LSA 2013 (Winter). Boston, MA, January 2013.
Kovelman, I., Baker, S.A., & Petitto, L.A.
(2008) Bilingual and monolingual brains compared: An fMRI investigation of syntactic processing and a possible “neural signature” of bilingualism. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 20(1), 153–169.
Kovelman, I., Shalinsky, M. H., White, K. S., Schmitt, S. N., Berens, M. S., Paymer, N., & Petitto, L.
(2009) Dual language use in sign-speech bimodal bilinguals: FNIRS brain imaging evidence. Brain and Language 109(2–3), 112–123.
Kroll, J. F., Bobb, S. C., & Wodniecka, Z.
(2006) Language selectivity is the exception, not the rule: Arguments against a fixed locus of language selection in bilingual speech. Bilingualism 9(2), 119–135.
Liceras, J., Fernández Fuertes, R., & de la Fuente, A.
(2012) Subject and copula omission in the English grammar of English-Spanish bilinguals: On the issue of directionality of interlinguistic influence. First Language, 321: 88–115
(1991) Universal Grammar and American Sign Language: Setting the Null Argument Parameters. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Lillo-Martin, D., Berk, S., Hopewell-Albert, C. & Quadros, R., Müller, de
(2015) MLU and Sign Language development. Presented at the 2nd International Conference on Sign Language Acquisition. University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands, July 2015.
Lillo-Martin, D., Quadros, R., Koulidobrova, H., & Chen Pichler, D.
(2009) Bimodal Bilingual Cross-Language Influence in Unexpected Domains. Proceedings of Generative Approaches to Language Acquisition (GALA), Lisbon, Portugal, September 2009.
Lillo-Martin, D., Koulidobrova, H., Quadros, R., & Chen Pichler, D.
(2010) Bilingual Language Synthesis: Evidence from WH-Questions in Bimodal Bilinguals. Proceedings of the 36th Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
(2000) The architecture of the bilingual language faculty: Evidence from code-switching. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 3(1), 7–54.
(2004) The CHILDES Project: Tools for Analyzing Talk. 3rd Edition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Marshall, J., Atkinson, J., Woll, B., & Thacker, A.
(2005) Aphasia in a bilingual user of British Sign Language and English: Effects of cross-linguistic cues. Cognitive Neuropsychology 22(6), 719–736.
(1999) Two modes – two languages? In L. S. Messing & R. Campbell (eds.) Gesture, Speech, and Sign, 83–200. Oxford University Press, New York.
(2007) Argument representation in Japanese/English simultaneous bilinguals: Is there a crosslingusitic influence?Proceedings of BUCLD 311, 441–450. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
(2000) Discourse cohesion in sign and speech. International Journal of Bilingualism 4(3), 279–300.
(1998) Transfer in bilingual first language acquisition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 1(3), 151–175.
Murphy, J., & Slorach, N.
(1983) The language development of pre-preschool hearing children of deaf parents. British Journal of Disorders of Communication 18(2), 118–126.
Nunes, J. & Müller de Quadros, R.
(2007) Phonetic realization of multiple copies in Brazilian Sign Language. In Josep Quer (ed.) Signs of the Time, 179–192. Hamburg: Signum.
Petitto, L.A., Katerlos, M., Levy, B.G., Gauna, K., Tetreault, K., & Ferraro, V.
(2001) Bilingual signed and spoken language acquisition from birth: implications for the mechanisms underlying early bilingual language acquisition. Journal of Child Language 281, 453–496.
Petitto, L. A. & Holowka, S.
(2002) Evaluating attributions of delay and confusion in young bilinguals: Special insights from infants acquiring a signed and spoken language. Sign Language Studies 3(1), 4–33.
Petitto, L. A. & Kovelman, I.
(2003) The Bilingual Paradox: How signing-speaking bilingual children help us to resolve it and teach us about the brain’s mechanisms underlying all language acquisition. Learning Languages 8(3), 5–18.
Petroj, V., Guerrera, K., & Davidson, K.
(2014) ASL-dominant code-blending in the whispering of bimodal bilingual children. Proceedings of BUCLD 381, 319–330. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
(2008) Sign and Speech in Family Interaction: Language Choices of Deaf Parents and their Hearing Children. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Texas, Austin.
Quadros, R., Lillo-Martin, D., & Mathur, G.
(2001) What does deaf children’s language acquisition teach us about the stage of optional infinitives?Letras De Hoje 36(3), 391–397.
Quadros, R. & Lillo-Martin, D.
(2007) Aquisição das Línguas de Sinais e a morfologia verbal nas Línguas de Sinais Brasileira e Americana. In Anais do I Encontro do Nordeste em Aquisição da Linguagem (I ENEAL 2005) 11, 1–14. Recife: UNICAP (CD ROM).
Quadros, R. Müller de, Lillo-Martin, D., & Chen Pichler, D.
(2015) Reference tracking in the narratives of early bimodal bilingual children. Presented at Theoretical Issues in Sign Language Research (TISLR) 12, Melbourne, Australia, January 2016.
(2005) Grammatically-based target-inconsistencies in child language. Proceedings of the Inaugural Conference of GALANA. Cambridge, MA: UCONN/MIT Working Papers in Linguistics.
Roberts, I. & Holmberg, A.
(2010) Introduction: Parameters in minimalist theory. In T. Biberauer, A. Holmberg, I. Roberts & M. Sheehan (Eds.), Parametric variation: Null subjects in minimalist theory (pp. 1–57). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Roeper, T. & Weissenborn, J.
(1990) How to make parameters work: Comments on Valian. In Frazier, L. and de Villiers, J. (Eds.) Language Processing and Language Acquisition. (pp. 147–162). Dordrecht: Kluwer.
(1983) Talking about the there and then: The emergence of displaced reference in parent–child discourse. In K. E. Nelson (ed.), Children’s Language, vol. 41. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Sachs, J., Bard, B., & Johnson, M.
(1981) Language learning with restricted input: Case studies of two hearing children of deaf parents. Applied Psycholinguistics 2 (1), 33–54.
(2007) Notes on East Asian Argument Ellipsis. Language Research 431, 203–227.
Sandler, W. & Lillo-Martin, D.
(2006) Sign Language and Linguistic Universals. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Schiff, N. & Ventry, I.
(1976) Communication problems in hearing children of deaf parents. Journal of Speech & Hearing Disorders, 41(3), 348–358.
(1988) Hearing children of deaf parents. In D. Bishop and K. Mogford (Eds.) Language Development in Exceptional Circumstances (pp. 47–61). Edinburgh etc.: Churchill Livingstone.
Schmitz, K., Patuto, M., & Muller, N.
(2012) The null-subject parameter at the interface between syntax and pragmatics: Evidence from bilingual German-Italian, German-French and Italian-French children. First Language 32(1–2), 205–238.
Seal, B. & Hammett, L.
(1995) Language intervention with a hearing child whose parents are deaf. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology 4(4), 15–21.
Serratrice, L. & Sorace, A.
(2003) Overt and Null Subjects in Monolingual and Bilingual Italian Acquisition. Proceedings of BUCLD 271, 739–750. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
Serratrice, L., Sorace, A., & Paoli, S.
(2004) Crosslinguistic influence at the syntax-pragmatics interface: Subjects and objects in English-Italian bilingual and monolingual acquisition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 7 (3), 183–205.
Serratrice, L., Sorace, A., Filiaci, F., & Baldo, M.
(2011) Pronominal objects in English–Italian and Spanish–Italian bilingual children. Applied Psycholinguistics, 1–27.
2018. Acquisition of Classifier Constructions in HKSL by Bimodal Bilingual Deaf Children of Hearing Parents. Frontiers in Psychology 9
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 25 may 2023. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers.
Any errors therein should be reported to them.