Article published in:
Bilingualism and Executive Function: An interdisciplinary approach
Edited by Irina A. Sekerina and Lauren Spradlin
[Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism 6:5] 2016
► pp. 590604


Alladi, S., Bak, T.H., Duggirala, V., Surampudi, B., Shailaja, M., Shukla, A.K., Chaudhuri, J.R., & Kaul, S.
(2013) Bilingualism delays age at onset of dementia, independent of education and immigration status. Neurology, 81 (22), 1938–1944. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Allin, S., Masseria, C., & Mossialos, E.
(2009) Measuring socioeconomic differences in use of health care services by wealth versus by income. American Journal of Public Health, 99, 1849–1855. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bak, T.
(2016) The impact of bilingualism on cognitive aging and dementia: finding a path through a forest of confounding variables. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bak T., & Alladi, S.
(2016) Bilingualism, dementia and the tale of many variables: Why we need to move beyond the Western world. Commentary on Lawton et al. (2015) and Fuller-Thomson (2015) Cortex 74, 315–317. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bak, T.H., Nissan, J.J., Allerhand, M.M., & Deary, I.J.
(2014) Does bilingualism influence cognitive aging? Annals of Neurology, 75, 959–963. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bialystok, E., Craik, F. I., & Freedman, M.
(2007) Bilingualism as a protection against the onset of symptoms of dementia. Neuropsychologia, 45, 459–464. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bialystok, E., Craik, F. I., Klein, R., & Viswanathan, M.
(2004) Bilingualism, aging, and cognitive control: Evidence from the Simon task. Psychology and Aging, 19, 290–303. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Chertkow, H., Whitehead, V., Phillips, N., Wolfson, C., Atherton, J., & Bergman, H.
(2010) Multilingualism (but not always bilingualism) delays the onset of Alzheimer disease: Evidence from a bilingual community. Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders, 24 (2), 118–125. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Craik, F. I., Bialystok, E., & Freedman, M.
(2010) Delaying the onset of Alzheimer’s disease: bilingualism as a form of cognitive reserve. Neurology, 75, 1726–1729. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Crane, P.K., Gibbons, L.E., Arani, K., Nguyen, V., Rhoads, K., McCurry, S.M., Launer, L., Masaki, K., & White, L.
(2009) Midlife use of written Japanese and protection from late life dementia. Epidemiology, 20, 766–774. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Farias, S.T., Mungas, D., Reed, B.R., Harvey, D., & DeCarli, C.
(2009) Progression of Mild Cognitive Impairment to Dementia in Clinic- vs Community-Based Cohorts. Archives of Neurology, 66 (9), 1151–1157. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Fratiglioni, L, Paillard-Borg, S., & Winblad, B.
(2004) An active and socially integrated lifestyle in late life might protect against dementia. Lancet Neurology, 3 (6), 343–353. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Fuller-Thomson, E.
(2015) Emerging evidence contradicts the hypothesis that bilingualism delays dementia onset. A Commentary on “Age of dementia diagnosis in community dwelling bilingual and monolingual Hispanic Americans” by Lawton et al., 2015. Cortex, 66, 170–172. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Fuller-Thomson, E., & Kuh, D.
(2014) The healthy immigrant effect may confound the link between bilingualism and delayed onset of Alzheimer’s disease. Cortex, 52, 128–130. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Fuller-Thomson, E., Nuru-Jeter, A., Richardson, D., Raza, F., & Minkler, M.
(2013) The Hispanic Paradox and older adults’ disabilities: is there a healthy migrant effect?. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 10, 1786–1814. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Glymour, M.
(2006) Using Causal Diagrams to Understand Common Problems in Social Epidemiology. In J. Oakes, & J. Kaufman (Eds.). Methods in Social Epidemiology (pp. 393–428). San Francisco: Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
Gollan, T.H., Salmon, D.P., Montoya, R.I., & Galasko, D.R.
(2011) Degree of bilingualism predicts age of diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease in low-education but not in highly educated Hispanics. Neuropsychologia, 49, 3826–3830. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Guzman-Velez, E., & Tranel, D.
(2015) Does Bilingualism contribute to cognitive reserve? Cognitive and neural perspectives. Neuropsychology, 29 (1), 139–150. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hill, T., Angel, J., & Balistreri, K.
(2012) Does the ‘healthy immigrant effect’ extend to cognitive aging? In J. Angel, F. Torres-Gil, & K. Markides (Eds.). Aging, Health, and Longevity in the Mexican-Origin Population (pp. 19–33). New York: Springer. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hinton, L., Franz, C.E., Yeo, G., & Levkoff, S.E.
(2005) Conceptions of dementia in a multi-ethnic sample of family caregivers. Journal of American Geriatric Society, 53(8), 1405–1410. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kaushanskaya M., & Prior A.
(2015) Variability in the effects of bilingualism on cognition: it is not just about cognition, it is also about bilingualism. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 18, 27–28. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kavé, G., Eyal, N., Shorek, A., & Cohen-Mansfield, J.
(2008) Multilingualism and cognitive state in the oldest old. Psychology and Aging, 23, 70–79. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kormi-Nouri, R., Shojael, R.S., Moniri, S., Gholami, A.R., Akbari-Zardkhaneh, S., & Nilsson, L.G.
(2008) The effect of childhood bilingualism on episodic and semantic memory tasks. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 49, 93–109. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kovács, Á.M., & Mehler, J.
(2009) Cognitive gains in 7-month-old bilingual infants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 106, 6556–6560. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lawton, D.M., Gasquoine, P.G., & Weimer, A.A.
(2015) Age of dementia diagnosis in community dwelling bilingual and monolingual Hispanic Americans. Cortex, 66, 141–145. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Loizou, M., & Stuart, M.
(2003) Phonological awareness in monolingual and bilingual English and Greek five-year-olds. Journal of Research on Reading, 26, 3–18. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Luk, G., & Bialystok, E.
(2013) Bilingualism is not a categorical variable: Interaction between language proficiency and usage. Journal of Cognitive Psychology (Hove, England), 25 (5), 605–621. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Luk, G., Bialystok, E., Craik, F.I., & Grady, C.L.
(2011) Lifelong bilingualism maintains white matter integrity in older adults. Journal of Neuroscience, 16, 16808–16813. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Manly, J.J., Jacobs, D.M., Touradji, P., Small, S.A., & Stern, Y.
(2002) Reading level attenuates differences in neuropsychological test performance between African American and White elders. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 8, 341–348. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Paap, K.R., Johnson, H.A., & Sawi, O.
(2016) Should the search for bilingual advantages in executive function continue? Cortex, 74, 305–314. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Prior, A. & Gollan, T.H.
(2011) Good Language-Switchers are Good Task-Switchers: Evidence from Spanish-English and Mandarin-English Bilinguals. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 17, 682–691. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Sachdev, P. & Valenzuela, M.
(2009) Brain and cognitive reserve. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 17 (3): 175–178. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Sanders, A.E., Hall, C.B., Katz, M.J., & Lipton, R.B.
(2012) Non-native language use and risk of incident dementia in the elderly. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 29, 99–108.Google Scholar
Scaltritti, M., Peressotti, F., & Miozzo, M.
(2015) Bilingual advantage and language switch: What’s the linkage?. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Schweizer, T.A., Ware, J., Fischer, C.E., Craik, F.I., & Bialystok, E.
(2012) Bilingualism as a contributor to cognitive reserve: evidence from brain atrophy in Alzheimer’s disease. Cortex, 48 (8), 991–996. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Stern, Y.
(2002) What is cognitive reserve? Theory and research application of the reserve concept. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 8, 448–460. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2012) Cognitive reserve in ageing and Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet Neurology, 11 (11), 1006–1012. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Tao, L., Taft, M., & Gollan, T.
(2015) The Bilingual Switching Advantage: Sometimes Related to Bilingual Proficiency, Sometimes Not. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 21, 531–544. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Valian, V.
(2014) Bilingualism and cognition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 18, 3–24. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Yeung, C.M., St. John, P.D., Menec, V., & Tyas, S.L.
(2014) Is bilingualism associated with a lower risk of dementia in community-living older adults? Cross-sectional and prospective analyses. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, 28, 326–332. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Yow, W.Q., & Li, X.
(2015) Balanced bilingualism and early age of second language acquisition as the underlying mechanisms of a bilingual executive control advantage: why variations in bilingual experiences matter. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 164. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Zahodne, L.B., Schofield, P.W., Farrell, M., Stern, Y., & Manly, J.J.
(2014) Bilingualism does not alter age-related cognitive decline or dementia risk among Spanish-speaking immigrants. Neuropsychology, 28, 238–246. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Cited by

Cited by 7 other publications

Jafari, Zahra, Daniela Perani, Bryan E. Kolb & Majid H. Mohajerani
2021. Bilingual experience and intrinsic functional connectivity in adults, aging, and Alzheimer's disease. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Crossref logo
Mendez, Mario F.
2019. Bilingualism and Dementia: Cognitive Reserve to Linguistic Competency. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 71:2  pp. 377 ff. Crossref logo
Reyes, Anny, Brianna M. Paul, Anisa Marshall, Yu‐Hsuan A. Chang, Naeim Bahrami, Leena Kansal, Vicente J. Iragui, Evelyn S. Tecoma, Tamar H. Gollan & Carrie R. McDonald
2018. Does bilingualism increase brain or cognitive reserve in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy?. Epilepsia 59:5  pp. 1037 ff. Crossref logo
Rieker, Jennifer A., José Manuel Reales & Soledad Ballesteros
2020. The Effect of Bilingualism on Cue-Based vs. Memory-Based Task Switching in Older Adults. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14 Crossref logo
Sekerina, Irina A. & Lauren Spradlin
2016. Bilingualism and executive function. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism 6:5  pp. 505 ff. Crossref logo
Struys, Esli, Jill Surmont, Piet Van de Craen, Olga Kepinska & Maurits Van den Noort
2019. Bilingual language control across modalities. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism 9:4-5  pp. 542 ff. Crossref logo
Surmont, Jill, Piet Van de Craen, Olga Kepinska, Maurits Van den Noort & Maurits Van den Noort
2021.  In Psycholinguistic Approaches to Production and Comprehension in Bilingual Adults and Children [Benjamins Current Topics, 117],  pp. 39 ff. Crossref logo

This list is based on CrossRef data as of 19 august 2021. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.