This study investigates the combined effects of Age of Onset of Acquisition (AOA) and quality and quantity of input on the development of three grammatical structures in French. In a longitudinal and multiple case study including successive (L2) Swedish-French bilingual children (n = 3), simultaneous (2L1) Swedish-French bilingual children (n = 3) and monolingual French children (n = 3), we examine the development of finite verb forms, object pronouns and subject-verb agreement. A distinction is made between structures that are early/ late in different modes of acquisition and less/more difficult. The operationalization of quantity and quality of input is based on individual input profiles. The results show that AOA affects the development of less difficult and early grammatical structures whereas AOA has no influence on more difficult structures that are acquired late. An effect of input is found in the 2L1 children, and in some of the L2 children. This effect is most clear with more difficult and late structures.
(2009) Bilingual first language acquisition. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Gathercole, V. C. M
(2007) Miami and North Wales, so far and yet so near: A constructivist account of morpho-syntactic development in bilingual children. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 101, 224–247.
Gathercole, V. C. M., & Thomas, E. M
(2009) Bilingual first language development: Dominant language takeover, threatened minority language take-up. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 121, 213–238.
(2006) Object (clitic) omission in L2 French: Miss-setting or missing surface inflection? In M.G. O’Brien, C. Shea, and J. Archibald (Eds.), Proceedings of the 8th Generative Approaches to Second Language Acquisition Conference (pp. 63–71). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
Gutiérrez-Clellen, V. F., & Kreiter, J
(2003) Understanding child bilingual acquisition using parent and teacher reports. Applied Psycholinguistics, 241, 267–288.
Hamann, C., & Belletti, A
(2008) Developmental patterns in the acquisition of complement clitic pronouns: Comparing different acquisition modes with an emphasis on French. Rivista di Grammatica Generativa, 311, 39–78.
Hellan, L., & Platzack, C
(1999) Pronouns in Scandinavian languages: An overview. In H. van Riemsdijk (Ed.), Clitics in the languages of Europe (pp. 123–142). Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
(2009) Input as a critical means to an end: Quantity and quality of experience in L2 phonological attainment. In T. Piske & M. Young-Scholten (Eds.), Input matters in SLA (pp. 159–174). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
(2007) Second language acquisition in childhood. In E. Hoff & M. Shatz (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of language development (pp. 387–406). Oxford: Blackwell.
(2010) Bilingual children’s acquisition of English verb morphology: Effects of language dominance, structure difficulty, and task type. Language Learning, 601, 651–680.
Paradis, J., Nicoladis, E., Crago, M., & Genesee, F
(2011) Bilingual children’s acquisition of the past tense: A usage-based approach. Journal of Child Language, 381, 554–578.
Pérez-Leroux, A. T., Pirvulescu, M., & Roberge, Y
(2009) Bilingualism as a window into the language faculty: The acquisition of objects in French-speaking children in bilingual and monolingual contexts. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 12(1), 97–112.
Place, S., & Hoff, E
(2011) Properties of dual language exposure that influence two-year-olds’ bilingual proficiency. Child Development, 821, 1834–1849.
(2012) L1 or L2 acquisition? Finiteness in child second language learners (cL2), compared to adult L2 learners (aL2) and young bilingual children (2L1). In M. Watorek, S. Benazzo, & M. Hickmann (Eds.), Comparative perspectives to language acquisition: A tribute to Clive Perdue (pp. 282–302). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Schwartz, B. D
(2004) On child L2 development of syntax and morphology. Lingue e Linguaggio, 31, 97–132.
(2009) Les apprenants parlent-ils à l’infinitif? Influence de l’input sur la production des verbes par des apprenants adultes du français. Études Romanes de Lund 87, PhD dissertation, Lund University.
(2013) Assessing the role of current and cumulative exposure in simultaneous bilingual acquisition: The case of Dutch gender. Bilingualism: Language and cognition, 16(1), 86–110.
Unsworth, S,.Argyri, F., Cornips, L., Hulk, A, Sorace, A., & Tsimpli, I
(2011) Bilingual acquisition of Greek voice morphology and Dutch gender: What do they have in common?BUCLD 35 Proceedings. Retrieved on 30 January 2012, from [URL]
Unsworth, S., Argyri, F., Cornips, L., Hulk, A., Sorace, A., & Tsimpli, I
(2014) On the role of age of onset and input in early child bilingualism in Greek and Dutch. Applied Psycholinguistics, 35(4), 765–805.
Cited by 17 other publications
BEDORE, LISA M., ELIZABETH D. PEÑA, ZENZI M. GRIFFIN & J. GREGORY HIXON
2016. Effects of Age of English Exposure, Current Input/Output, and grade on bilingual language performance. Journal of Child Language 43:3 ► pp. 687 ff.
2017. Weak interest in the weaker language. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 20:1 ► pp. 29 ff.
Devlin, Anne Marie & Henry Tyne
2021. Retelling Immersion in France. In Language, Mobility and Study Abroad in the Contemporary European Context, ► pp. 64 ff.
2016. Learning to think for speaking about space in child bilingualism. Revue française de linguistique appliquée Vol. XXI:2 ► pp. 49 ff.
2016. Rôles de l’âge, de l’input et de la L1 dans le développement du français par des enfants L2. Revue française de linguistique appliquée Vol. XXI:2 ► pp. 33 ff.
2018. The development of gender in simultaneous and successive bilingual acquisition of French – Evidence for AOA and input effects. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 21:4 ► pp. 674 ff.
Granget, Cyrille, Marie-Ange Dat, Christine Cuet, Pascale El Haj, Fatima Albochi, Ashraf Allawama, F. Neveu, B. Harmegnies, L. Hriba & S. Prévost
2018. Effets de l'âge d’immersion sur la compréhension initiale d’expressions modales épistémiques en français L2. SHS Web of Conferences 46 ► pp. 10005 ff.
Smolander, Sini, Marja Laasonen, Eva Arkkila, Pekka Lahti‐Nuuttila & Sari Kunnari
2021. L2 vocabulary acquisition of early sequentially bilingual children with TD and DLD affected differently by exposure and age of onset. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders 56:1 ► pp. 72 ff.
2021. Input Issues in the Development of L2 French Morphosyntax. Languages 6:1 ► pp. 34 ff.
Thomas, Anita, Jonas Granfeldt & Malin Ågren
2021. Chapitre 19. Le rôle de l’input. In Introduction à l'acquisition des langues étrangères [Pratiques pédagogiques, ], ► pp. 333 ff.
Thomas, Anita & Rosamond Mitchell
2022. Can variation in input explain variation in typical spoken target-language features during study abroad?. Journal of the European Second Language Association 6:1 ► pp. 60 ff.
2016. Early child L2 acquisition: Age or input effects? Neither, or both?. Journal of Child Language 43:3 ► pp. 608 ff.
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 25 may 2023. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers.
Any errors therein should be reported to them.