The cognitive poetics of political discourse
This book sets out a framework for investigating audience responses to political discourse. It starts from the premise that audiences are active participants who bring their own background knowledge and political standpoint to the communicative event. To operationalise this perspective, the volume draws on concepts from classical rhetoric alongside contemporary research in cognitive stylistics and cognitive linguistics (including schema theory, Text World Theory, Cognitive Grammar, and mind-modelling, amongst others). It examines the role played by the speaker’s identity, the arguments they make, and the emotions of the audience in the – often critical – reception of political text and talk, using a diversity of examples to illustrate this three-dimensional approach – from political speeches, interviews and newspaper articles, to more creative text-types such as politicised rap music, television satire and filmic drama. The result of this wide-ranging application is a holistic and systematic account of the rhetorical and ideological effects of political discourse in reception.
[Linguistic Approaches to Literature, 31] 2018. xi, 235 pp.
Publishing status: Available
© John Benjamins
Table of Contents
List of figures
Chapter 1. Preliminaries
Part I. Ethos
Chapter 2. Layers of ethos
Chapter 3. The conceptual ecology of ethos
Part II. Logos
Chapter 4. Logos as representation
Chapter 5. Logos as conceptual mapping
Part III. Pathos
Chapter 6. Rhetorical ambience
Chapter 7. Political resonance
Chapter 8. Conclusion
Appendix A. Transcription conventions used in this book
Appendix B. Excerpt from Theresa May’s speech to the 2015 Conservative Party conference
Appendix C. The lessons of history for Jeremy Corbyn
“Overall the book is a novel contribution to political and critical discourse analysis.”
Terry McDonough, Lancaster University, United Kingdom, in Journal of Language and Politics Vol. 19:2 (2020)
(2009) Malcolm X – By Any Means Necessary – Organisation for Afro American Unity. YouTube [online] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WBS416EZsKM&t=272s (accessed 13th July, 2017).
8 Mile (2002) Directed by Hanson , Curtis [Film]. US: Universal Pictures.
Allington, D. and Swann, J.
(2003) Estuary English: Levelling at the Interface of RP and South-Eastern British English. Tübingen: Gunter Narr.
(2001) Ideology and ideological state apparatus. In Althusser, L. (ed.) Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays. New York: Monthly Review, pp. 127–186.
Ames, R. and Mason, M.
Apperly, I. A.
Asch, S. E.
(2014) Post European election poll. Conservative Home [online]. http://www.conservativehome.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/LORD-ASHCROFT-POLLS-Post-Euro-Election-Poll-Summary-May-2014.pdf (accessed 6th September, 2017).
(1984) Our Masters’ Voice: The Language and Body Language of Politics. London; New York: Routledge.
(1996) Closing statement: linguistics and poetics in retrospect. In Weber, J. J. (ed.) The Stylistics Reader. London; New York: Arnold, pp. 36–55.
Atwater, D. F.
(1995) Mindblindness: An Essay on Autism and Theory of Mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
(1993) Flexibility, structure, and linguistic vagary in concepts: Manifestations of a compositional system of perceptual symbols. In Collins, A. C., Gathercole, S. E. and Conway, M. A. (eds) Theories of Memory. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 29–101.
Bartlett, F. C.
(1932) Remembering: An Experimental and Social Study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bateson, F. W.
(1971a) Literature and linguistics: reply by F. W. Bateson. In Fowler, R. (ed.) The Languages of Literature. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, pp. 54–64.
(1971b) Literature and linguistics: reply by F. W. Bateson. In Fowler, R. (ed.) The Languages of Literature. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, pp. 75–9.
Bex, T., Burke, M. and Stockwell, P.
(eds) (2000) Contextualised Stylistics: In Honour of Peter Verdonk. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
(2011) An economics lesson for David Cameron. New Statesman [online]. http://www.newstatesman.com/blogs/david-blanchflower/2011/06/credit-card-cameron-basic (accessed 13th July, 2017).
(2008) Reinvigorating Communities: The Role of Active Citizenship in Building a Better Neighbourhood. Lecture at the Smith Institute, London.
(1997) Dinner Talk: Cultural Patterns of Sociability and Socialization in Family Discourse. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
(1961) The Rhetoric of Fiction. Chicago; London: University of Chicago Press.
(2002) Is there an “implied” author in every film? College Literature, 29 (2), 124–131.
Borgida-Chiappini, F., Nikerson, C. and Planken, B.
(1997) Stylistics. Abingdon; New York: Routledge.
(2014) Why can’t politicians talk like normal people? YouTube [online] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_xBI8CKy9wQ (accessed 13th July, 2017).
Brassed Off (1996) Directed by Mark Herman [Film]. UK, Channel Four Films.
Brône, G. and Vandaele, J.
Brown, P. and Levinson, S.
(2016b) ‘This is not the end of the world’: situating metaphor in the text-worlds of the 2008 economic crisis’. In Gavins, J. and Lahey, E. (eds) World Building: Discourse in the Mind. London: Bloomsbury.
(2017) Between truth, sincerity and satire. In van den Akker, R., Gibbons, A. and Vermeulen, T. (eds) Metamodernism: Historicity, Affect and Depth after Postmodernism. New York: Rowman and Littlefield.
(in press). Reading political minds: “backstage” politics in audience reception. In Kranert, M. & Horan, G. eds ‘Doing Politics’: Discursivity, performativity and mediation in political discourse. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Bucholtz, M. and Hall, K.
(2014) Rhetoric and poetics: The classical heritage of stylistics. In Burke, M. (ed.) The Routledge Handbook of Stylistics. Abingdon; New York: Routledge.
(2009) Was I offended by this brutal spinmeister? No. I was bored. Guardian [online] https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2009/mar/24/in-the-loop-alastair-campbell (accessed 5th July, 2017).
Carrell, S., Watt, N. and Wintour, P.
(2015) David Cameron aims to highlight risk of political chaos in leaders’ TV debate. Guardian [online] http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2015/apr/01/david-cameron-aims-to-highlight-risk-of-political-chaos-in-leaders-tv-debate (accessed 17th August, 2015).
Carruthers, P. and Smith, P.
(1982) Language and literature: an introductory reader in stylistics London: George Allen and Unwin.
Carter, R. and Stockwell, P.
(2008) Stylistics: retrospect and prospect. In Carter, R. and Stockwell, P. (eds) The Language and Literature Reader. London: Routledge, pp. 291–302.
(2014) Cameron’s conference rap. YouTube [online]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0YBumQHPAeU (accessed 6th June, 2017).
(1990) Coming to Terms: The Rhetoric of Narrative in Fiction and Film. Ithaca; London: Cornell University Press.
(1996) Security metaphors: Cold war discourse from containment to common house. New York: Peter Lang.
Chilton, P. and Schaffner, C.
(2013) You’re ‘avin’ a laugh, intcha, George Osborne? If you’re going to do Fake Commoner Voice, at least commit to it. Tom Chivers [online] https://tommychivers.wordpress.com/2013/04/02/youre-avin-a-laugh-intcha-george-osborne-if-youre-going-to-do-fake-commoner-voice-at-least-commit-to-it/ (accessed 5th July, 2017).
(1957) Syntactic Structures. The Hague: Mouton.
(1965) Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.
Clark, U. and Zyngier, S.
Coe, K. and Reitzes, M.
(1992) The Discourse of Advertising. London; New York: Routledge.
(1994) Discourse and Literature: The Interplay of Form and Mind. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
(2013) George Osborne, gawd bless yer. Guardian [online] https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/apr/07/george-osborne-does-mockney-accent (accessed 5th July, 2017).
(1988) Dialect in Use: Sociolinguistic Variation in Cardiff English. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.
(2009) How In the Loop does us all a disservice. The Guardian [online] https://www.theguardian.com/film/filmblog/2009/apr/20/in-the-loop-tony-blair-alastair-campbell (accessed 13th July 2017).
(2012) The moment Ed Miliband phoned race row MP Diane Abbott to say: apologise or I’ll sack you. Mail Online [online] http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2082527/Diane-Abbott-Twitter-race-row-MP-faces-calls-resign-racist-tweet.html (accessed 5th July, 2017).
Dillard, J. P. and Meijnders, A.
(2002) Persuasion and the structure of affect. In Dillard, J. P. and Pfau, M. (eds) The Persuasion Handbook. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, pp.309–328.
Dorsey and Diaz-Barriga
Du Bois, J. W.
(2002) Stance and consequence. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, New Orleans.
(1999) Basic emotions. In Dalgleish, T. and Power, M. (eds) The Handbook of Cognition and Emotion. Chichester: John Wiley, pp.45–60.
Ekman, P. and Cordoro, D.
Elahi, B. and Cos, G.
(2002) Lose Yourself [CD]. Aftermath, Shady, Interscope.
(2013) Our fair Chancellor resorts to mockney. Financial Times [online] https://www.ft.com/content/52851b6c-9e05-11e2-9ccc-00144feabdc0 (accessed 5th July, 2017).
(2013) ‘Mockney’ George Osborne backs the Briddish who wanna work. Telegraph [online]. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/politics/georgeosborne/9966717/Mockney-George-Osborne-backs-the-Briddish-who-wanna-work.html (accessed 5th July, 2017).
(2013) A fact finding analysis on the impact on the Member States’ social security systems of the entitlements of non-active intra-EU migrants to special non-contributory cash benefits and healthcare granted on the basis of residence. European Commission [online] http://ec.europa.eu/employment_social/empl_portal/facebook/20131014%20GHK%20study%20web_EU%20migration.pdf (accessed 14th July, 2017).
Eysenck, M. W. and Keane, M. T.
(1990) Cognitive Psychology: A Student’s Handbook. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
(1995) Media Discourse. London: Bloomsbury.
(2000) New Labour, New Language? London; New York: Routledge.
(2001) Language and Power. Harlow: Longman.
Fairclough, N. and Fairclough, I.
(2012) Political Discourse Analysis: A Method for Advanced Students. London; New York: Routledge.
(1985) Mental Space: Aspects of Meaning Construction in Natural Language. Cambridge, MS; London: MIT Press.
Fauconnier, G. and Turner, M.
(2002) The Way We Think: Conceptual Blending and the Mind’s Hidden Complexities. New York: Basic Books.
Fausey, C. and Matlock, T.
(2011) Can grammar win elections? Political Psychology, 32(4), 563–574.
(2014) A State of Play: British Politics on Screen, Stage and Page, from Anthony Trollop to The Thick of It. London: Bloomsbury.
(1980) Is there a Text in this Class? The Authority of Interpretative Communities. London; Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Fiske, S. T., Neuberg, S. L., Beattie, A. E. and Milberg, S. J.
Fiske, S. T. and Neuberg, S. L.
Fiske, S. and Taylor, S.
(1991) Social Cognition (1st Ed). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Fiske, S. T. and Taylor, S. E.
(2011) Melody and rhythm in ancient political discourse: On how emotions induce persuasion. In van Haaften, T., Jansen, H., de Jong, J. and Koetsenruijter, W. (eds) Bending Opinion: Essays on Persuasion in the Public Domain. Leiden University Press. Retrieved June 6, 2017, from Project MUSE database.
(1975) Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. New York: Random House.
(1984) Truth and power. In Rabinow, P. (ed.) The Foucault Reader. London: Penguin, pp. 51–75.
(1971a) Literature and linguistics. In Fowler, R. (ed.) The Languages of Literature. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, pp. 43–53.
(1971b) Literature and linguistics. In Fowler, R. (ed.) The Languages of Literature. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, pp. 65–74.
(1991) Language in the News: Discourse and Ideology in the Press. Abingdon; New York: Routledge.
(2008) Linguistic criticism. In Stockwell, P. and Carter, R. (eds) The Language and Literature Reader. Abingdon; New York: Routledge, pp. 49–59.
Fowler, R., Kress, G., Hodge, R. and Trew, T.
(1979) Language and Control. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Frank, D. A.
Frank, D. A. and McPhail, M. L.
(2005) Barack Obama’s address to the 2004 Democratic National Convention: Trauma, compromise, consilience, and the (im)possibility of racial reconciliation. Rhetoric and Public Affairs, 8 (4), 51–593.
Gavins, J. and Simpson, P.
(2009) Incorporated but not embodied? In Brone, G. and Vandaele, J. (eds) Cognitive Poetics: Goals, Gains and Gaps. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 445–50.
(2003) Why we’re so smart. In Gentner, D. and Goldin-Meadow, S. (eds) Language in mind: Advances in the study of language and thought. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp.195–235.
Gentner, D. and Markman, A.
(1994) The Poetics of Mind: Figurative Thought, Language and Understanding. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
(2003) Prototypes in dynamic meaning construal. In Gavins, J. and Steen, G. (eds) Cognitive Poetics in Practice. London: Routledge, pp. 27–40.
Gilbert, D. T.
(1998) Ordinary personology. In Gilbert, D. T., Fiske, S. T., and Lindzey, G. (eds) The Handbook of Social Psychology (4th edition). New York: McGraw-Hill, pp.89–150.
(1959) The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. London: Penguin.
(1974) Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organisation of Experience. Boston: Northeastern University Press.
(1981) Forms of Talk. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
(2009) The Encomium of Helen. In Williams, J. (ed.) An Introduciton to Classical Rhetoric: Essential Readings. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
Grady, J., Oakley, T. and Coulson, S.
(2010) The formation of the intellectuals. In Leitch, V. B. (ed.) The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism. London; New York: W. W. Norton and Co., pp. 1002–1008.
(2012) Diane Abbott apologises over Twitter racism row. The Guardian [online]. http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2012/jan/05/diane-abbott-accused-racism-twitter (accessed 16th June, 2015).
(2015) Nick Clegg: George Osborne I a very dangerous man. The Guardian [online] https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2015/apr/06/nick-clegg-george-osborne-is-a-very-dangerous-man (accessed 12th July, 2017).
(1966) Descriptive linguistics in literary studies. In Halliday, M. and McIntosh, A. (eds) Patterns of Language: Papers in General, Descriptive and Applied Linguistics. London: Longman, pp. 56–69.
Halliday, M. A. K.
(1971) Linguistic function & literary style: An inquiry into the language of William Golding’s The Inheritors. In Chatman, S. (ed.) Literary Style: A Symposium. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 330-368.
(1996) Linguistic function and literary style: an enquiry into the language of William Goulding’s The Inheritors . In Weber, J. J. (ed.) The Stylistics Reader. London; New York: Arnold, pp. 56–86.
Halliday, M. A. K. and Hasan, R.
(1976) Cohesion in English. Abingdon: Routledge.
Halliday, M. A. K. and Matthiessen, C.
(2004) An Introduction to Functional Grammar (3rd ed.). London: Hodder Education.
(1969) The personal is political. CarolHanisch.org [online] http://www.carolhanisch.org/index.html (accessed 14th July, 2017).
(2015) Audit of political engagement 12. Hansard Society [nline] https://assets.contentful.com/xkbace0jm9pp/3Rh8DJ77x6QGOG6Ei020kS/dc15490944711a83936ce24107230242/Audit_of_Political_Engagement_12__2015_.PDF (accessed 5th July, 2017).
(2014) Discourse, Grammar and Ideology: Functional and Cognitive Perspectives. London: Bloomsbury.
(2002) Creating things that are not: the role of negation in the poetry of Wislawa Szymborska. Journal of Literary Semantics, 30(2), 113–32.
(2003) Negation as a stylistic feature in Joseph Heller’s Catch-22: a corpus study. Style, 37(3), 318–41.
Hullet, C., Louden, A. and Mitra, A.
(2009) Against the Sophists. In Williams, J. (ed.) An Introduciton to Classical Rhetoric: Essential Readings. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
Ivie, R. and Giner, O.
(2015a) Hunt: Debate showed chaos of Labour coalition. ITV [online]. http://www.itv.com/news/update/2015-04-16/hunt-debate-showed-miliband-secret-negotiations/ (accessed 17th August, 2015).
(2015b) The ITV Leaders’ Debate Live | UK Election 2015 | ITV News. YouTube [online] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vc6YH4-IHME (accessed 12th July, 2017).
(1960) Closing Statement: Linguistics and Poetics. In Sebeok, T. (ed.) Style in Language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp.350–377.
(2000) Don’t throw out the baby with the bathwater: in defence of theoretical eclecticism in Stylistics. PALA Occasional Papers [online] http://www.pala.ac.uk/resources.html (accessed 14th July, 2017).
(2010b) Opposition in Discourse: The Construction of Oppositional Meaning. London; New Yok: Continuum.
Kaal, B., Maks, I., and van Elfrinkhof, A.
Kirkham, S. and Moore, E.
Kranert, M. and Horan, G.
eds (forthcoming) ‘Doing Politics’: Discursivity, performativity and mediation in political discourse. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Kress, G. and van Leeuwen, T.
(1996) Reading Images: The Grammar of Visual Design. London: Routledge.
(2001) Social and linguistic stereotyping: A cognitive approach to accents. Estudios Ingleses de la Universidad Complutense, 9, 129–145.
(2011a) It’s a matter of great concern that Britain’s economic recovery has ground to a halt – Ed Balls. Labour [online]. http://www2.labour.org.uk/concern-that-britains-economic-recovery-has-ground-to-a-halt,2011-01-25 (accessed 11th June, 2015).
(2011b) Government are simply far too casual about the crucial need to get people back to work – Byrne. Labour [online]. http://archive.labour.org.uk/government-casual-about-need-to-get-people-work (accessed 11th June, 2015).
(2011c) Prison & probation officers having their work undermined by cuts that go too far and too fast – Khan. Labour [online]. http://archive.labour.org.uk/prison-officers-having-their-work-undermined (accessed 11th June, 2015).
(2011d) Deputy Prime Minister seems to admit that Government’s decision to cut too far too fast risks increasing unemployment – Leslie. Labour [online]. http://archive.labour.org.uk/governments-decision-risks-increasing-unemployment (accessed 11th June, 2015).
(2011e) Ed Miliband’s speech at the launch of Labour’s local election campaign. Labour [online]. https://archive.labour.org.uk/ed-milibands-speech-at-labours-local-election-campaign-launch (accessed 11th June, 2015).
(1966) The Social Stratification of English in New York City. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lakoff, G. and Johnson, M.
(1980) Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
(1999) Philosophy in the Flesh. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
Lambert, W. E., Hodgson, R. C., Gardner, R. C. and Fillenbaum, S.
(1987) Foundations of Cognitive Grammar Vol. 1: Theoretical prerequisites. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
(1991) Foundations of Cognitive Grammar Vol. 2: Descriptive Application. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Larsen, J. T., McGraw, A. P. and Cacioppo, J. T.
(1991) Emotion and Adaptation. New York: Oxford University Press.
(1999) The cognition-emotion debate: A bit of history. In Dalgleish, T. and Power, M. (eds) The Handbook of Cognition and Emotion. Chichester: John Wiley, pp. 3–19.
(2008) Language in Literature: Style in Foregrounding. Abingdon; New York: Routledge.
(2010) The unstoppable rise of Russell Brand. The Guardian [online] https://www.theguardian.com/media/2010/apr/06/russell-brand (accessed 13th July, 2017).
(2012) You Talkin’ to Me: Rhetoric from Aristotle to Obama. London: Profile Books.
London Evening Standard
(2012) Diane Abbott in racist jibe storm. The London Evening Standard [online]. http://www.standard.co.uk/news/diane-abbott-in-racist-jibe-storm-7304601.html (accessed 16th June, 2015).
Los Angeles Times
(2008) Jesse Jackson explains those Tuesday-night tears. Los Angeles Times [online] http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/washington/2008/11/obama-jackson.html (accessed 13th July, 2017).
(1999) The philosophy of cognition and emotion. In Dalgleish, T. and Power, M. (eds) The Handbook of Cognition and Emotion. Chichester: John Wiley, pp.21–44.
Marks, G. and Miller, N.
(forthcoming). Intertextuality in Practice. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
(2013) George Osborne’s ‘man of the people’ accent ridiculed. The Independent [online] http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/george-osbornes-man-of-the-people-accent-ridiculed-8675419.html (accessed 13th July, 2017).
(2015) Theresa May’s speech to the Conservative Party conference – in full. The Independent [online] http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/theresa-may-s-speech-to-the-conservative-party-conference-in-full-a6681901.html (accessed 13th July, 2017).
(2008) Language and Power: An Introduction to Institutional Discourse. London; New York: Continuum.
Merrill, N., Gallo, E. and Fivush, R.
(1995) Feminist Stylistics. New York; London: Palgrave.
Mooney, A. and Evans, B.
(1999) Language, Society and Power. Abingdon; New York: Routledge.
Moore, E. and Podesva, R. J.
Moors, A., Ellsworth, P., Scherer, K. and Frijda, N.
Morris, G. and Chenail, R.
(eds.) (1995) The Talk of the Clinic: Explorations in the Analysis of Medical and Therapeutic Discourse. Abingdon; New York: Routledge.
Murphy, J. M.
(2016) Political Metaphor Analysis: Discourse and Scenarios. London: Bloomsbury.
(2016) Reading the Dystopian Short Story. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Sheffield.
(2006) Modality: Overview and linguistic issues. In Frawley, W. (ed.) The Expression of Modality. Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter, pp.1–26.
(1988) Fuck the Police. In: Straight Outta Compton [CD]. Priority, Ruthless.
Oatley, K. and Johnson-Laird, P. N.
(2008) Full text: Obama’s victory speech. BBC News [online] http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/us_elections_2008/7710038.stm (accessed 13th July, 2017).
(2003) Critical Discourse Analysis and Language Cognition. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
(2010) George Osborne’s speech to the party conference in full. Guardian [online] https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2010/oct/04/george-osborne-speech-conservative-conference (accessed 14th July, 2017).
Palmer, F. R.
(1986) Mood and Modality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Peplow, D., Swann, J., Trimarco, P., and Whiteley, S.
(2016) The Discourse of Reading Groups: Integrating Cognitive and Sociocultural Perspectives. Abingdon; New Yrk: Routledge.
(1983) Modal Expressions in English. London: Francis Pinter.
Podesva, R. J.
(2012) Ed Miliband rings Diane Abbott during live interview on Twitter race row. YouTube [online] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o6h-NHq8BNw (accessed 12th July, 2017).
Premack, D. and Woodruff, G.
(1903) Institutes of Oratory; or, Education of an Orator. London: George Bell and Sons.
Radio 5 Live
(2015) BBC Radio 5. 25th August. 8.30am.
(2003) Stance accretion. Paper presented at the Language, Interaction, and Social Organization Research Focus Group, University of California, Santa Barbara.
Richards, I. A.
(1936) The Philosophy of Rhetoric. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
(2006) Women framed: The gendered turn in mediated political discourse. In Byerly, C. and Ross, K. (eds) Women and media: International perspectives. Oxford: Blackwell, pp.60–80.
(1978) Principles of categorisation. In Rosch, E. and Lloyd, B. (eds) Cognition and Categorization. Hillsdale, NJ: Laurence Erlbaum, pp. 189–207.
Rosch, E. and Mervis, C.
Rosch, E., Mervis, C., Gray, W., Johnson, D. and Boyes-Braem, P.
Rowland, R. C. and Jones, J. M.
Russell, J. A.
Russell, J. A. and Caroll, J. M.
Ryan, M. -L.
(2009) In the Loop: Review. The Telegraph [online] http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/film/filmreviews/5165467/In-The-Loop-Review.html (accessed 14th July, 2017).
(1966) Course in General Linguistics. New York; London: McGraw-Hill.
(2011) Populist elements in contemporary American political discourse. The Sociological Review, 58(2), 167–188.
Semino, E. and Culpeper, J.
Schank, R. C. and Abelson, R.
(1977) Scripts, Plans, Goals and Understanding. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
‘Series 3 – Episode 1’
(2005) The Thick of It. Series 1, episode 1. BBC 4, 24th October.
(2004) Trust the Text: Language, Corpus and Discourse. London; New York: Routledge.
(2012) MP Apologises After Tweet Sparks Race Row. Sky News [online]. http://news.sky.com/story/915384/mp-apologises-after-tweet-sparks-race-row (accessed 16th June, 2015).
Smith, C. A. and Lazarus, R. S.
(1990) Emotion and adaptation. In Pervin, L. A. (ed.) Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research. New York: Guilford, pp. 609–637.
Stewart, F. R.
(2000) (Sur)real stylistics: from text to contextualising. In Bex, T., Burke, M. and Stockwell, P. (eds) Contextualising Stylistics: in Honour of Peter Verdonk. Amsterdam: Rodopi, pp. 15–38.
(2002) Cognitive Poetics: An Introduction. London: Routledge.
(2009) Texture: A Cognitive Aesthetics of Reading. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Strongman, K. T. and Woosley, J.
(1996) Text and Corpus Analysis. Oxford: Blackwell.
(2011) Language, Gender and Children’s Fiction. London: Bloomsbury.
(ed.) (2017) Context Counts: Papers on Language, Gender and Power. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
(2007) Media Discourse: Representation and Interaction. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Talbot, M., Atkinson, K. and Atkinson, D.
(2003) Language and Power in the Modern World. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
(2012) Diane Abbott forced to apologise in racism row after claiming ‘White people love playing divide and rule’. The Telegraph [online]. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/politics/labour/8996425/Diane-Abbott-forced-to-apologise-in-racism-row-after-claiming-White-people-love-playing-divide-and-rule.html (accessed 16th June, 2015).
(2014) Ed Balls turns on Ed Miliband for forgetting the deficit. The Telegraph [online] http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/politics/ed-miliband/11144884/Ed-Balls-turns-on-Ed-Miliband-for-forgetting-deficit.html (accessed 14th July, 2017).
(2015) Election debates: Who won according to Twitter? The Telegraph [online] http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/general-election-2015/politics-blog/11512203/Election-debates-Who-does-Twitter-think-is-winning.html (accessed 14th July, 2014).
Thibodeau, P. H. and Boroditsky, L.
(2011) Metaphors we think with: the role of metaphor in reasoning. PLoS ONE. 6(2). http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0016782.
(2001) Power Talk: Language and Interaction in Institutional Discourse. Abingdon; New York: Routledge.
(1979) What the papers say: Linguistic variation and ideological difference. In Fowler, R., Hodge, G. K., Kress, G. and Trew, T. (eds) Language and Control. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
(2000) First steps towards a usage-based theory of language acquisition. Cognitive Linguistics, 11(1/2), 61–82.
(1996) Stylistics and its discontents: or, getting off the Fish “hook”. In Weber, J. J. (ed.) The Stylistics Reader. London; New York: Arnold, pp. 117–37.
Ungerer, F. and Schmid, H. -J.
(1996) An Introduction to Cognitive Linguistics. Harlow: Longman.
(1997) What is political discourse analysis? In Blommaert, J. and Bulcan, C. (eds) Political Linguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 11–52.
(1998) Ideology: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
(2001) Critical Discourse Analysis. In Schiffrin, D., Tannen, D., and Hamilton, H. E. (eds) The Handbook of Discourse Analysis. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 352–371.
(2002) Discourse and racism. In Goldberg, D. and Solomos, J. (eds) The Blackwell Companion to Racial and Ethnic Studies. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 145–159.
(2009) Critical Discourse Studies: a Socio-Cognitive Approach. In Wodak, R. and Meyer, M. (eds) Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis. London: Sage, pp.62–86.
(2014) Discourse – Cognition – Society: Curren state and prospects of the socio-cognitive approach to discourse. In Cap, P. and Hart, C. (eds) Contemporary Critical Discourse Studies. London: Bloomsbury, pp. 121–146.
van Leeuwen, T.
van Peer, W.
(1986) Stylistics and Psychology: Investigations of Foregrounding. London: Taylor and Francis.
van Peer, W. and Andringa, E.
(1990) Stylistic intuitions: an empirical study. Language and Style, 23(2), 235–46.
van Peer, W., Hakemulder, F., Hakemulder, J. and Zyngier, S.
(2007) Muses and Measures: Empirical Research Methods for the Humanities. Newcastle-Upon-Tyne: Cambridge Scholars.
van Peer, W., Hakemulder, F. and Zyngier, S.
(2005) Painting, poetry, parallelism: ekphrasis, stylistics and cognitive poetics. 14(3): 231–244.
Watson, D., Wiese, D., Vaidya, J. and Tellegen, A.
(2009) The complete Bushisms. Slate Magazine [online] http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/bushisms/2000/03/the_complete_bushisms.html (accessed 12th July, 2017).
(1999) Text Worlds: Representing Conceptual Space in Discourse. London: Longman.
(2016) Building resonant worlds: Experiencing the text-worlds of The Unconsoled . In Gavins, J. and Lahey, E. (eds) World Building: Discourse in the Mind. London: Bloomsbury, pp. 165–182.
(ed.) (2009) An Introduciton to Classical Rhetoric: Essential Readings. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
(2015) The lessons of history for Jeremy Corbyn. The Telegraph [online] http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/politics/Jeremy_Corbyn/11860651/The-lessons-of-history-for-Jeremy-Corbyn.html (accessed 13th July, 2017).
Wodak, R. and Meyer, M.
(2009) Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis. London: Sage.
Zyngier, S., Bortolussi, M., Chesnokova, A. and Auracher, J.
Cited by other publications
No author info given
Neurohr, Benedict & Lizzie Stewart-Shaw
Statham, Simon & Rocío Montoro
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 09 april 2020. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.
Literature & Literary Studies
BIC Subject: CFG – Semantics, Pragmatics, Discourse Analysis
BISAC Subject: LAN009030 – LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / Pragmatics
U.S. Library of Congress Control Number: 2018026493