Cross-linguistic research suggests that the processing of multimorphemic words in a language is tuned by its morphological characteristics. This means the processing pattern of a language either as a first (L1) or a second language (L2) can be influenced by its morphological properties. In L2 acquisition, the question is whether learners demonstrate, like native speakers, a processing pattern that is shaped by the morphological structure of that language or whether they follow an L1-based processing route. The present study explores this via unprimed lexical decision data from L1-English and L1-Russian learners of L2 Turkish. The results revealed decomposition in Russian-speaking participants but not in Turkish speakers or English-speaking participants. This implies L2 proficiency-based differences in the extent of L1 transfer in processing inflection.
2012The storage and composition of inflected forms in adult-learned second language: A study of the influence of length of residence, age of arrival, sex, and other factors. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 15(4): 820–840.
Basnight-Brown, D.M., Chen, L., Hua, S., Kostić, A. & Feldmann, L.
2007Monolingual and bilingual recognition of regular and irregular English verbs: Sensitivity to form similarity varies with first language experience. Journal of Memory and Language 57: 65–80.
Bertram, R., Laine, M. & Karvinen, K.
1999The interplay of word formation type, affixal homonymy, and productivity in lexical processing: Evidence from a morphologically rich language. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 28(3): 213–226.
Bowden, H.W., Gelfand, M.P., Sanz, C. & Ullman, M.T.
2010Verbal inflectional morphology in L1 and L2 Spanish: A frequency effects study examining storage versus composition. Language Learning 60(1): 44–87.
1983Lexical representation. In Language Production: Development, Writing, and Other Language Processes, Vol. 2, B. Butterworth (ed.), 257–294. London: Academic Press.
Caramazza, A., Laudanna, A. & Romani, C.
1988Lexical access and inflectional morphology. Cognition 28: 297–332.
2002An Introduction to English Morphology: Words and their Structure. Edinburgh: EUP.
ChernigovskayaT. & Gor, K.
2000The complexity of paradigm and input frequencies in native and second language verbal processing: Evidence from Russian. Language and Language Behavior 3(2): 20–37.
Chialant, D. & Caramazza, A.
1995Where is morphology and how is it processed? The case of written word recognition. In Morphological Aspects of Language Processing, L.B. Feldman (ed.), 55–76. Hove: Psychology Press.
Clahsen, H., Eisenbeiss, S. & Sonnenstuhl, I.
1997Morphological structure and the processing of inflected words. Theoretical Linguistics 23(3): 201–249.
Clahsen, H., Felser, C., Neubauer, K., Sato, M. & Silva, R.
2010Morphological structure in native and non-native language processing. Language Learning 60(1): 21–43.
Clahsen, H., Balkhair, L., Schutter, J.S. & Cunnings, I.
2013The time course of morphological processing in a second language. Second Language Research 29(1): 7–31.
2009Russian. In The World’s Major Languages, 2nd edn, B. Comrie (ed.), 274–288. London: Routledge.
2002Russian: A Linguistic Introduction. Cambridge: CUP.
2005What makes learning second-language grammar difficult? A review of issues. Language Learning 55(1): 1–25.
2007Introduction to: Early development of nominal and verbal morphology from a typological perspective. In Typological Perspectives on the Acquisition of Noun and Verb Morphology [Antwerp Papers in Linguistics 112], S. Laaha & S. Gillis (eds), 3–9. Antwerp: University of Antwerp.
2002Does form-focused instruction affect the acquisition of implicit knowledge? A review of the research. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 24: 223–236.
Feldman, L.B. & Basnight-Brown
2007Origins of cross-language differences in word recognition. In The Mental Lexicon: Core Perspectives, G. Jarema & G. Libben (eds), 129–158. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Feldman, L.B., Kostic, A., Basnight-Brown, D.M., Filipovic-Durdevic, D. & Pastizzo, M. J.
2010Morphological facilitation for regular and irregular verb formations in native and non-native speakers: Little evidence for two distinct mechanisms. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 13(2): 119–135.
2009English. In The World’s Major Languages, 2nd edn, B. Comrie (ed.), 59–85. London: Routledge.
Frauenfelder, U. & Schreuder, R.
1992Constraining psycholinguistic models of morphological processing and representation: The role of productivity. In Yearbook of Morphology, G. Booij & J. van Marle (eds), 165–183. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Frost, R. & Grainger, J.
2000Cross-linguistic perspectives on morphological processing: An introduction. Language and Cognitive Processes 15(4–5): 321–328.
2010Introduction: Beyond the obvious: Do second language learners process inflectional morphology?Language Learning 60(1): 1–20.
Gor, K. & Chernigovskaya, T.
2001Rules in the processing of Russian verbal morphology. In Current Issues in Formal Slavic Linguistics, G. Zybatow, U. Junghanns, G. Mehlhorn & L. Szucsich (eds), 528–535. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.
Gor, K. & Chernigovskaya, T.
2005Formal instruction and the acquisition of verbal morphology. In Investigations in Instructed Second Language Acquisition, A. Housen & M. Pierrard (eds), 131–164. Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter.
Gor, K. & Cook, S.
2010Nonnative processing of verbal morphology: In search of regularity. Language Learning 60(1): 88–126.
Gor,K. & Jackson, S.
2013Morphological decomposition and lexical access in a native and second language: A nesting doll effect. Language and Cognitive Processes 28(7): 1065–1091.
Göksel, A. & Kerslake, C.
2005Turkish: A Comprehensive Grammar. London: Routledge
1999Decomposition: To what extent? The case of Turkish. Brain and Language 68: 218–224.
Gürel, A. & Uygun, S.
2013Representation of multimorphemic words in the mental lexicon: Implications for second language acquisition of morphology. In Proceedings of the 37th Annual Conference on Language Development, S. Baiz, N. Goldman & R. Hawkes (eds), 122–133. Somerville MA: Cascadilla Press.
Hahne, A., Mueller, J. & Clahsen, H
2006Morphological processing in a second language: Behavioural and event-related potential evidence for storage and decomposition. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 18(1): 121–134.
1989Morphological parsing and the lexicon. In Lexical Representation and Process, W.D. Marslen-Wilson (ed.), 392–408. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press.
Jacob, G., Fleischhauer, E. & Clahsen, H.
2013Allomorphy and affixation in morphological processing: A cross-modal priming study with late bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 16(4): 924–933.
Katz, L., Rexer, K. & Lukatela, G.
1991The processing of inflected words. Psychological Research 53: 25–32.
Kazanina, N., Dukova-Zheleva, G., Geber, D., Kharlamov, V. & Tonciulescu, K.
2008Decomposition into multiple morphemes during lexical access: A masked priming study of Russian nouns. Language and Cognitive Processes 23(6): 800–823.
Kırkıcı, B. & Clahsen, H.
2013Inflection and derivation in native and non-native language processing: Masked priming experiments on Turkish. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 16: 776–791.
1997Turkish. London: Routledge.
2009Turkish and the Turkic languages. In The World’s Major Languages, 2nd edn, B. Comrie (ed.)519–544. London: Routledge.
1996Lexical status of inflectional and derivational suffixes: Evidence from Finnish. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 37: 238–248.
Laine, M. & Koivisto, M.
1998Lexical access to inflected words as measured by lateralized visual lexical decision. Psychological Research 61: 220–229.
Laine, M., Vainio, S. & Hyönä, J.
1999Lexical access routes to nouns in a morphologically rich language. Journal of Memory and Language 40: 109–135.
1998Case and tense in the ‘fossilized’ steady state. Second Language Research 14(1): 1–26.
Laudanna, A. & Burani, C.
1985Address mechanisms to decomposed lexical entries. Linguistics 23: 775–792.
Lehtonen, M. & Laine, M.
2003How word frequency affects morphological processing in monolinguals and bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 6(3): 213–225.
Lehtonen, M., Niska, H., Wande, E., Niemi, J. & Laine, M.
2006Recognition of inflected words in a morphologically limited language: Frequency effects in monolinguals and bilinguals. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 35(2): 121–146.
Lukatela, G., Gligorijevic, B., Kostic, B. & Turvey, A.
1980Representation of inflected nouns in the internal lexicon. Memory and Cognition 8: 415–423.
2007Morphological processes in language comprehension. In The Oxford Handbook of Psycholinguistics, G. Gaskel (ed.), 175–193. Oxford: OUP.
Marslen-Wilson, W. & Tyler, L.K.
1998Rules, representations, and the English past tense. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2 (11): 428–435.
Morris, J. & Stockall, L.
2012Early, equivalent ERP masked priming effects for regular and irregular morphology. Brain and Language 123(2): 81–93.
Münte, T.F., Say, T., Clahsen, H., Schiltz, K. & Kutas, M.
1999Decomposition of morphologically complex words in English: Evidence from event-related brain potentials. Cognitive Brain Research 7: 241–253.
Neubauer, K. & Clahsen, H.
2009Decomposition of inflected words in a second language: An experimental study of German participles. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 31: 403–435.
Niemi, J., Laine, M. & Tuominen, J.
1994Cognitive morphology in Finnish: Foundations of a new model. Language and Cognitive Processes 3: 423–446.
1960A Frequency Count of Turkish Words. Ankara: Milli Egitim Mudurlugu.
Pinker, S. & Ullman, M.T.
2002The past tense debate: The past and future of the past tense. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6(11): 456–463.
Portin, M. & Laine, M.
2001Processing cost associated with inflectional morphology in bilingual speakers. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 4(1): 55–62.
Portin, M., Lehtonen, M. & Laine, M.
2007Processing of inflected nouns in late bilinguals. Applied Psycholinguistics 28: 135–156.
Portin, M., LehtonenM., Harrer, G., Wande, E., Niemi, J. & Laine, M.
2008L1 effects on the processing of inflected nouns in L2. Acta Psychologica 128: 452–465.
2008Mechanisms of verbal morphology processing in heritage speakers of Russian. Heritage Language Journal 6(1): 105–126.
2006Morphological processing of inflection in native speakers and second language learners of English: A masked priming study. MA thesis, University of Essex.
Say, B., Zeyrek, D., Oflazer, K. & Özge, U.
2004Development of a corpus and a treebank for present-day written Turkish. In Current Research in Turkish Lingustics, K. İmer & G. Doğan (eds), 183–192. Famagusta: Eastern Mediterranean University Press.
1995Modelling morphological processing. In Morphological Aspects of Language Processing, L.B. Feldman (ed.), 131–154. Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Sereno, J.A. & Jongman, A.
1997Processing of English inflectional morphology. Memory and Cognition 25(4): 425–437.
2008Morphological processing in a second language: Evidence from psycholinguistic experiments. PhD dissertation, University of Essex.
Silva, R. & Clahsen, H.
2008Morphologically complex words in L1 and L2 processing: Evidence from masked priming experiments in English. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 11(2): 245–260.
Stanners, R.F., Neiser, J.J., Hernon, W.P. & Hall, R.
1979Memory representation for morphologically related words. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 18: 399–412.
Stemberger, J.P. & MacWhinney, B.
1986Frequency and the lexical storage of regularly inflected forms. Memory and Cognition 14(1): 17–26.
1979Recognition of affixed words and the word frequency effect. Memory and Cognition 7: 263–272.
Taft, M. & Forster, K.
1975Lexical storage and retrieval of prefixed words. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 14: 638–647.
1999Acceptability ratings of regular and irregular past-tense forms: Evidence for a dual-system model of language from word frequency and phonological neighborhood effects. Language and Cognitive Processes 14: 47–67.
2005A cognitive neuroscience perspective on second language acquisition: The declarative/procedural model. In Mind and Context in Adult Second Language Acquisition: Methods, Theory and Practice, C. Sanz (ed.), 141–178. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press.
Vainio, S., Pajunen, A. & Hyönä, J.
2014L1 and L2 word recognition in Finnish: Examining L1 effects on L2 processing of morphological complexity and morphophonological transparency. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 36: 133–162.
Vannest, J., Bertram, R., Järvikivi, J. & Niemi, J.
2002Counterintuitive cross-linguistic differences: More morphological computation in English than Finnish. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 31(2): 83–106.
Cited by 6 other publications
Durand López, Ezequiel M.
2021. A bilingual advantage in memory capacity: Assessing the roles of proficiency, number of languages acquired and age of acquisition. International Journal of Bilingualism 25:3 ► pp. 606 ff.
Durand López, Ezequiel M.
2021. Morphological processing and individual frequency effects in L1 and L2 Spanish. Lingua 257 ► pp. 103093 ff.
GÖYMEN, Dilek & Mehmet AYGÜNEŞ
2020. The Processing of Speech Formulas on Turkish: A Masked Priming Study. Dilbilim Araştırmaları Dergisi 31:2 ► pp. 207 ff.
Jacob, Gunnar, Duygu Fatma Şafak, Orhan Demir & Bilal Kırkıcı
2019. Preserved morphological processing in heritage speakers: A masked priming study on Turkish. Second Language Research 35:2 ► pp. 173 ff.
Rızaoğlu, Filiz & Ayşe Gürel
2022. Second language processing of English past tense morphology: The role of working memory. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching 60:3 ► pp. 825 ff.
Uygun, Serkan & Harald Clahsen
2021. Morphological processing in heritage speakers: A masked priming study on the Turkish aorist. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 24:3 ► pp. 415 ff.
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 17 november 2023. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers.
Any errors therein should be reported to them.