Article published In:
Styles, Standards and Meaning in Lesser-Studied Languages
Edited by Uri Horesh, Jonathan R. Kasstan and Miriam Meyerhoff
[Language Ecology 4:1] 2020
► pp. 95114


Anderson, Atholl
2015Ancient origins 3000 BC- AD 1300. In Atholl Anderson, Judith Binney and Aroha Harris eds. Tangata Whenua: A History. Auckland: Bridget Williams Books. 3–29. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Barrington, John M., and Timothy H. Beaglehole
1974Māori Schools in a Changing Society. Wellington: New Zealand Council for Educational Research.Google Scholar
Bell, Allan
2016Succeeding waves: Seeking sociolinguistic theory for the twenty-first century. In Nicolas Coupland, ed. Sociolinguistics: Theoretical Debates. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 391–416. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Benton, Richard A.
1991The Māori Language: Dying or Reviving? Honolulu: East West Center (Reprinted by New Zealand Council for Educational Research in 1997).Google Scholar
Boersma, Paul and David Weenink
2009Praat: doing phonetics by computer (Version 6.0.29) [Computer program]. Accessed August 12, 2019, from [URL]
Cheshire, Jenny
1982Variation in an English Dialect. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.Google Scholar
Chirkova, Katia, James N. Stanford, and Dehe Wang
2018A long way from New York City: socially stratified contact-induced phonological convergence in Ganlo Ersu (Sichuan, China). Language Variation and Change 301: 109–145. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Eckert, Penelope
2012Three waves of variation study: The emergence of meaning in the study of sociolinguistic variation. Annual Review of Anthropology 411: 87–100. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2019The limits of mening: Social indexicality, variation, and the cline of interiority. Language 95(4): 751–776. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Fishman, Joshua A.
1991Reversing Language Shift: Theoretical and Empirical Foundations of Assistance to Threatened Languages. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Gordon, Elizabeth, Lyle Campbell, Jennifer Hay, Margaret Maclagan, Andrea Sudbury, and Peter Trudgill
2004New Zealand English: Its Origins and Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Harlow, Ray
2007Māori: A Linguistic Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Harlow, Ray, Peter J. Keegan, Jeanette King, Margaret Maclagan and Catherine I. Watson
2005Te whakahuatanga i te reo Māori : Kua ahatia e tātou i roto i ngā tau 100 kua hipa nei? [The pronunciation of Māori: What have we done to it in the last 100 years?]. He puna Kōrero – Journal of Maori and Pacific Development 6(1): 45–57. ISSN 1175–3099.Google Scholar
2009The changing sound of the Māori language. In J. N. Stanford and D. R. Preston eds. Quantitative Sociolinguistic Studies of Indigenous Minority Languages. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 129–152. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Harlow, Ray, Winifred Bauer, Margaret Maclagan, Catherine I. Watson, Peter J. Keegan and Jeanette King
2011Interrupted transmission and rule loss in Māori: The case of ka . Oceanic Linguistics 50(1): 51–65. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Hay, Jennifer, Margaret Maclagan and Elizabeth Gordon
2008New Zealand English. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Holmes, Janet
1997aMaori and Pakeha English: Some New Zealand social dialect data. Language in Society 26(1): 65–101. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
1997bSetting new standards: Sound changes and gender in New Zealand English. English World-Wide 18(1): 107–142. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Keegan, Peter J., Catherine I. Watson, Jeanette King, Margaret Maclagan and Ray Harlow
2012The role of technology in measuring changes in the pronunciation of Māori over generations. In T. Ka’ai, M. O. Laoire, N. Ostler, R. Ka’ai-Mahuta, D. Mahuta and T. Smith eds. Language Endangerment in the 21st Century: Globalisation, Technology and New Media, Proceedings of Conference FEL XVI. AUT University, Auckland, New Zealand: Te Ipukarea – The National Māori Language Institute, AUT University/Foundation for Endangered Languages. 65–71.Google Scholar
King, Jeanette
2018Māori: Revitalization of an endangered language. In Kenneth Rehg and Lyle Campbell, eds. The Oxford Handbook of Endangered Languages. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 592–612.Google Scholar
King, Jeanette, Ray Harlow, Catherine I. Watson, Peter J. Keegan and Margaret Maclagan
2009Changing pronunciation of the Māori language: Implications for revitalization. In Jon Reyhner and Louise Lockard, eds. Indigenous Language Revitalization: Encouragement, Guidance & Lessons Learned Copyright © 2009 by Northern Arizona University [URL] Flagstaff, Arizona: Northern Arizona University. 85–96. [URL] (accessed 27 June 2019).
King, Jeanette, Margaret Maclagan, Ray Harlow, Peter J. Keegan and Catherine I. Watson
2010aThe MAONZE corpus: Establishing a corpus of Maori speech. New Zealand Studies in Applied Linguistics 16(2): 1–16.Google Scholar
2011aThe MAONZE corpus: Transcribing and analysing Māori speech. New Zealand Studies in Applied Linguistics 17(1): 32–48.Google Scholar
2011bThe MAONZE project: changing uses of an indigenous language database. Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory 7(1): 37–57. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
King, Jeanette, Catherine I. Watson, Margaret Maclagan, Ray Harlow, and Peter J. Keegan
2010bMāori women‘s role in sound change. In J. Holmes and M. Marra eds. Femininity, Feminism and Gendered Discourse. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. 191–211.Google Scholar
Krupa, Viktor
1982The Polynesian Languages: A Guide (Languages of Asia and Africa 4). London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
Labov, William
1966The Social Stratification of English in New York City. Washington D. C.: Center for Applied Linguistics.Google Scholar
1972Sociolinguistic Patterns. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
1994Principles of Linguistic Change, volume 1. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
2001Principles of Linguistic Change, volume 2. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Maclagan, Margaret A. and Elizabeth Gordon
1996Women’s role in sound change: The case of two New Zealand closing diphthongs. New Zealand English Journal 101: 5–9.Google Scholar
1999Data for New Zealand social dialectology: The Canterbury Corpus. New Zealand English Journal 131: 50–58.Google Scholar
Maclagan, Margaret A., Elizabeth Gordon, and Gillian Lewis
1999Women and sound change: Conservative and innovative behaviour by the same speakers. Language Variation and Change 11(1): 19–41. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Maclagan, Margaret and Jennifer Hay
2007Getting fed up with our feet: Contrast maintenance and the New Zealand English ‘short’ front vowel shift. Language Variation and Change 19(1): 1–25. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Maclagan, Margaret A. and Jeanette King
2002The pronunciation of wh in Māori – a case study from the late nineteenth century. Te Reo 451: 45–63.Google Scholar
2007Aspiration of Plosives in Māori: Change Over Time. Australian Journal of Linguistics 27 (1): 81–96. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Maclagan, Margaret, Ray Harlow, Jeanette King, Peter J. Keegan and Catherine I. Watson
2004New Zealand English influence on Māori pronunciation over time. Te Reo 471: 7–27.Google Scholar
2013The role of women in Māori sound change. In Yousif Elhindi and Theresa McGarry eds. Gender-linked Variation across Languages. Champaign, Illinois: Common Ground. 5–21.Google Scholar
Maclagan, Margaret, Catherine I. Watson, Ray Harlow, Jeanette King and Peter J. Keegan
2009a/u/ fronting and /t/ aspiration in Māori and New Zealand English. Language Variation and Change 21(2): 175–192. (Published online by Cambridge University Press 08 July 2009) DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Maclagan, Margaret, Catherine I. Watson, Jeanette King, Ray Harlow, Laura Thompson and Peter J. Keegan
2009b “Investigating Changes in the Rhythm of Maori over time”, 10th Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association: Interspeech 2009, Brighton, September 6–10. p 1531–1534, ISSN 1990-9772.
McFarland, Agnes
2015Te Kākahu Whakataratara o Ngāi Tūhoe. PhD dissertation. Massey University. Available online at [URL]
Milroy, L.
1980Language and Social Networks. Oxford: BlackwellGoogle Scholar
Pihama, Leonie
2018Colonization and the importation of ideologies of race, gender, and class in Aotearoa. In Elizabeth McKinley and Linda Tuhiwai Smith eds. Handbook of Indigenous Education. Singapore: Springer. 1–20. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
R Core Team
2017R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. Available online: [URL]
Rewi, Poia
2010Whaikōrero. Auckland: Auckland University Press.Google Scholar
Salmond, Anne
1975Hui: A Study of Māori Ceremonial Gatherings. Wellington: A.H & A.W. Reed.Google Scholar
Simon, Judith and Linda Tuhiwai Smith
1998The Native Schools Cystem: Ngā Kura Māori. Auckland: Auckland University Press.Google Scholar
Stoakes, Hywel, Catherine Watson, Peter Keegan, Margaret Maclagan, Jeanette King, Ray Harlow
2019The Dynamics of Closing Diphthong Formant Trajectories in Te Reo Māori, Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Melbourne, Australia, 989–993.Google Scholar
Stanford, James N.
2016A call for more diverse sources of data: variationist approaches in non-English contexts. Journal of Sociolinguistics 20(4): 525–541. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Watson, Catherine I., Margaret Maclagan, Jeanette King, and Ray Harlow
2008The English Pronunciation of Successive Groups of Maori Speakers. INTERSPEECH 2008 – 9th Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association, Brisbane, Australia, September 22–26 2008; ISCA Archive, [URL] Page 338–341.
Watson, Catherine I., Jeanette King, Stephen Bier, Margaret Maclagan, Ray Harlow, Laura Thomson and Peter J. Keegan
2011Prosodic clues in language recognition: how much information do listeners need to identify Māori and English. Te Reo 541: 83–111.Google Scholar
Watson, Catherine I., Margaret M. Maclagan, Jeanette King, Ray Harlow and Peter J. Keegan
2016Sound change in Māori and the influence of New Zealand English. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 46(2): 185–218. Published online: 28 March 2016 doi:  DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Watson, Catherine I., Peter J. Keegan, Margaret Maclagan, Ray Harlow and Jeanette King
2017The motivation and development of MPAi, a Māori Pronunication Aid. Proceedings of Interspeech 2017. International Speech Communication Association. Stockholm, Sweden, August 20–24 2017 2063–2067. DOI logoGoogle Scholar