Article published in:
Language Ecology
Vol. 3:1 (2019) ► pp. 5888
References
Aboh, Enoch O.
2016Creole distinctiveness: A dead end. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 311: 400–418. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Aceto, Michael and Jeffrey P. Williams
eds. 2003Contact Englishes of the Eastern Caribbean. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Allsopp, Richard
ed. 2003Dictionary of Caribbean English Usage. Mona: University of the West Indies Press.Google Scholar
Baayen, R. Harald, Doug J. Davidson, and Douglas M. Bates
2008Mixed-effects modelling with crossed random effects for subjects and items. Journal of Memory and Language 591: 390–412. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Baker, Gordon
2007No Island is an Island: The Impact of Globalization on the Commonwealth Caribbean. London: Chatham House.Google Scholar
Bakker, Peter
2016You got Gunbe, but we got the numbers: Feature pools show that creoles are still typologically distinct. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 311: 419–435. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bickerton, Derek
1975Dynamics of a Creole System. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
1980Creolization, linguistic universals, natural semantax and the brain. In Richard R. Day ed. Issues in English Creoles. Papers from the 1975 Hawaii Conference. Heidelberg: Groos. 1–18. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bloomfield, Leonard
1984Language. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Blondeau, Helene and Naomi Nagy
2008Subordinate clause marking in Montreal Anglophone French and English. In Miriam Meyerhoff and Naomi Nagy, eds. Social Lives in Language – Sociolinguistics and Multilingual Speech Communities. John Benjamins: Amsterdam. 273–314. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Brown, Keith
ed. 2006The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, 2nd ed. Oxford: Elsevier.Google Scholar
Buchstaller, Isabelle and Alexandra D’Arcy
2009Localized globalization: A multi-local, multivariate investigation of quotative be like . Journal of Sociolinguistics 131: 291–331. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Chambers, Jack K. and Peter Trudgill
1998Dialectology, 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Chomsky, Noam
2001Derivation by phase. In Michael J. Kenstowicz, ed. Ken Hale: A Life in Language. Cambridge: MIT Press. 1–52.Google Scholar
Clachar, Arlene
2015Processing subject relative clauses in English: Evidence from child speakers of English-lexified creoles. Applied Linguistics 361: 635–640.Google Scholar
Comrie, Bernard
1976Tense. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Curtis, Debra
2009Pleasures and Perils: Girls’ Sexuality in a Caribbean Consumer Culture. London: Rutgers University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Daleszynska, Agata
2010What’s gender got to do with it? Investigating the effect of gender and place on /t, d/ deletion in Bequia. Proceedings of the Summer School of Sociolinguistics, The University of Edinburgh.Google Scholar
2011Variation in Past Tense Marking in Bequia Creole: Apparent Time Change and Dialect Levelling. PhD dissertation. University of Edinburgh.Google Scholar
2013The local, the global, and the authentic: Language change and authenticity in Bequia. Zeitschrift fur Anglistik und Amerikanistik: A Quarterly of Language, Literature and Culture 601: 275–294.Google Scholar
DeCamp, David
1971Towards a generative analysis of a post-creole speech continuum. In Dell Hymes, ed. Pidginization and Creolization of Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 349–370.Google Scholar
Deuber, Dagmar
2009The English we speaking: Morphological and syntactic variation in educated Jamaican speech. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 241: 1–52. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2014English in the Caribbean: Variation, Style and Standards in Jamaica and Trinidad. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Eckert, Penelope
2000Linguistic Variation as Social Practice. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Erker, D. and Gregory R. Guy
2012The role of lexical frequency in syntactic variability: Variable subject personal pronoun expression in Spanish. Language 881: 526–557. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Escure, Genevieve
2006Variation in pidgins and creoles. In Keith Brown, ed. The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, 2nd ed. Oxford: Elsevier. 380–387. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Fon Sing, Guillaume
2017Creoles are not typologically distinct from non-Creoles. Language Ecology 1(1): 44–74. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Francis, Winthrop N.
1983Dialectology: An Introduction. London: Longman.Google Scholar
González-Vilbazo, Kay and Luis López
2012Little v and parametric variation. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 301: 33–77. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Gumperz, John J.
1968The speech community. International Encyclopedia of Social Sciences 91: 381–386. [Reprinted (1971) in Language in Social Groups . Stanford: Stanford University Press. 114–128.]Google Scholar
Gumperz, John
1982Language and Social Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Guy, Gregory R.
1980Variation in the group and the individual: The case of final stop deletion. In William Labov, ed. Locating Language in Time and Space. New York: Academic Press. 1–36.Google Scholar
1991Explanation in variable phonology: An exponential model of morphological constraints. Language Variation and Change 31:1–22. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2013The cognitive coherence of sociolects: How do speakers handle multiple sociolinguistic variables? Journal of Pragmatics 521: 63–71. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hackert, Stephanie
2004Urban Bahamian Creole: System and Variation. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hinrichs, Lars
2006Code-switching on the Web: English and Jamaican Creole in E-mail Communication. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hymes, Dell
1972Models of the interaction of language and social life. In John Gumperz and Dell Hymes, eds. Directions in Sociolinguistics: The Ethnography of Communication. New York: Holt, Rhinehart and Winston. 35–71.Google Scholar
Irvine, Alison
2004A good command of the English language: Phonological variation in the Jamaican acrolect. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 191: 41–76. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, Daniel Ezra
2009Getting off the GoldVarb standard: Introducing Rbrul for mixed-effects variable rule analysis. Language and Linguistic Compass 31: 359–383. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Labov, William
1969Contraction, deletion, and inherent variability of the English copula. Language 451: 715–762. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
1971The notion of ‘system’ in creole languages. In Dell Hymes, ed. Pidginization and Creolization of Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 447–472.Google Scholar
1972Language in the Inner City. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
1989The child as linguistic historian. Language Variation and Change 11: 85–97. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
1998Coexistent systems in African-American English. In Salikoko Mufwene, ed. African American English: Structure, History and Use. London: Routledge. 110–153.Google Scholar
Labov, William, Sharon Ash, and Charles Boberg
2006The Atlas of North American English: Phonetics, Phonology and Sound Change. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Levin, Beth and Malka Rappaport Hovav
1995Unaccusativity: At the syntax-lexical semantics interface. Linguistic Inquiry Monograph 261. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
McWhorter, John H.
2003Pidgins and creoles as models of language change: The state of the art. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 231: 202–212. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Meyerhoff, Miriam
2009aReplication, transfer and calquing: Using variation as a tool in the study of language contact. Language Variation and Change 211: 1–21. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2009bMen argue but the women doz trace: Gender and language variation in Bequia (St Vincent and the Grenadines). Sargasso: 115–133.Google Scholar
2017Writing a linguistic symphony: Analysing variation while doing language documentation. Canadian Journal of Linguistics/Revue canadienne de linguistique 621: 525–549. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Meyerhoff, Miriam and Steffen Klaere
2017A case for clustering speakers and linguistic variables: Big issues with smaller samples in language variation. In Isabelle Buchstaller and Beat Siebenhaar, eds. Language Variation – European Perspectives VI: Selected Papers from the Eight International Conference on Language Variation in Europe (ICLaVE 8). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 23–46. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Meyerhoff, Miriam and James N. Stanford
2015“Tings change, all tings change”: The changing face of sociolinguistics with a global perspective. In Dick Smakman and Patrick Heinrich, eds. Globalising Sociolinguistics. London: Routledge. 1–15.Google Scholar
Meyerhoff, Miriam and James A. Walker
2007The persistence of variation in individual grammars: Copula absence in ‘urban sojourners’ and their stay-at-home peers, Bequia (St Vincent and the Grenadines). Journal of Sociolinguistics 111: 346–366. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2012Grammatical variation in Bequia (St Vincent and the Grenadines). Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 271: 209–234. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2013aBequia Talk (St Vincent and the Grenadines). Westminster: Battlebridge Publications.Google Scholar
2013bAn existential problem: The sociolinguistic monitor and variation in existential constructions on Bequia (St Vincent and the Grenadines). Language and Society 421: 407–428. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Michaelis, Susanne, Philippe Maurer, Martin Haspelmath, and Magnus Huber
eds. 2013The Survey of Pidgin and Creole Languages. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Nagy, Naomi and Miriam Meyerhoff
2008The social lives of linguistics. In Miriam Meyerhoff and Naomi Nagy, eds. Social Lives in Language – Sociolinguistics and Multilingual Speech Communities. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 1–17. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Patrick, Peter L.
1999Urban Jamaican Creole: Variation in the Mesolect. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Poplack, Shana
ed. 2000The English History of African American English. Malden, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Poplack, Shana and Sali A. Tagliamonte
2001African American English in the Diaspora: Tense and Aspect. Malden, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Rickford, John R.
1987Dimensions of a Creole Continuum: History, Texts and Linguistic Analysis of Guyanese Creole. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
2002Implicational scales. In J. K. Chambers, Peter Trudgill and Natalie Schilling-Estes, eds. The Handbook of Language Variation and Change. Oxford: Blackwell. 142–167.Google Scholar
Rickford, John R. and Faye McNair-Knox
1994Addressee- and topic- influenced style shift: A quantitative sociolinguistic study. In D. Biber and E. Finegan, eds. Sociolinguistic Perspectives on Register. New York: Oxford University Press. 235–276.Google Scholar
Roy, Joseph and Stephen Levey
2014Mixed effects models and unbalanced sociolinguistic data: The need for caution. Poster presented at NWAV43, Chicago.
Sankoff, Gillian
1993Focus in Tok Pisin. In Francis Byrne and Donald Winford, eds. Focus and Grammatical Relations in Creole Languages. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 117–140. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Sankoff, David, Sali A. Tagliamonte, and Eric Smith
2005Goldvarb X: A variable rule application for Macintosh and Windows. Department of Linguistics, University of Toronto.Google Scholar
Santa Ana, Otto
1996Sonority and syllable structure in Chicano English. Language Variation and Change 81: 63–89. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Schleef, Erik and Meyerhoff, Miriam
2010Sociolinguistic methods for data collection and analysis. In Miriam Meyerhoff and Erik Schleef, eds. The Routledge Sociolinguistics Reader: Edited Readings and Teaching Materials. London: Routledge. 1–27.Google Scholar
Sebba, Mark
1997Contact Languages: Pidgins and Creoles. London: Macmillan. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Singler, John Victor
1988The homogeneity of the substrate as a factor in pidgin/creole genesis. Language 641: 27–51. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
St Vincent and the Grenadines tourism statistics
2013St Vincent and the Grenadines Tourism Authority Report. http://​exploresvg​.com​/index​.php​/en​/about​-svg​/tourism​-statistics (accessed 15 February 2015).
Szmrecsanyi, Benedikt
2013Grammatical Variation in British English Dialects: A Study in Corpus-based Dialectometry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Tagliamonte, Sali A.
2006Analysing Sociolinguistic Variation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2011Comparative sociolinguistics. In Sali A. Tagliamonte, ed. Variationist Sociolinguistics: Change, Observation, Interpretation. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. 162–177.Google Scholar
Van Herk, Gerard and Shana Poplack
2003Rewriting the past: Bare verbs in the ‘Ottawa Repository of Early African American Correspondence’ . Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 181: 231–266. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Velupillai, Viveka
2015Pidgins, Creoles and Mixed Languages: An Introduction. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2016Partitioning the timeline: A cross-linguistic survey of tense. Studies in Language 401: 93–136. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Walker, James A.
2000Presented Accounted for: Prosody and Aspect in Early African American English. PhD dissertation. University of Ottawa.Google Scholar
2005The ain’t constraint: Not-contraction in Early African American English. Language Variation and Change 171: 1–17. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2010aVariation in Linguistic Systems. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
2010bAffairs of state: Defining and coding stativity in English and English-based Creole. In James A. Walker, ed. Aspect in Grammatical Variation. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 95–109. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Walker, James A., Michael Dunn, Aymeric Daval-Markussen, and Miriam Meyerhoff
2015Modelling the speech community through multiple variables: Trees, networks and clades. Poster presented at NWAV44, Toronto.
Walker, James A. and Miriam Meyerhoff
2006Zero copula in the Caribbean: Evidence from Bequia. American Speech 811: 146–163. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Walker, James A. and Jack Sidnell
2011Negation in Bequia. In Lars Hinrichs and Joseph Farquharson, eds. Variation in the Caribbean. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 39–56. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Williams, Jeffrey P.
2003The establishment and perpetuation of Anglophone white enclave communities in the Eastern Caribbean. In Michael Aceto and Jeffrey P. Williams, eds. Contact Englishes of the Eastern Caribbean. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 95–119. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Winford, Donald
1992Back to the past: The BEV/creole connection revisited. Language Variation and Change 41: 311–357. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
1993Predication in Caribbean English Creoles. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar