Article published in:
Language Ecology
Vol. 3:1 (2019) ► pp. 5888


Aboh, Enoch O.
2016Creole distinctiveness: A dead end. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 31: 400–418. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Aceto, Michael and Jeffrey P. Williams
eds. 2003Contact Englishes of the Eastern Caribbean. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Allsopp, Richard
ed. 2003Dictionary of Caribbean English Usage. Mona: University of the West Indies Press.Google Scholar
Baayen, R. Harald, Doug J. Davidson, and Douglas M. Bates
2008Mixed-effects modelling with crossed random effects for subjects and items. Journal of Memory and Language 59: 390–412. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Baker, Gordon
2007No Island is an Island: The Impact of Globalization on the Commonwealth Caribbean. London: Chatham House.Google Scholar
Bakker, Peter
2016You got Gunbe, but we got the numbers: Feature pools show that creoles are still typologically distinct. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 31: 419–435. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bickerton, Derek
1975Dynamics of a Creole System. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
1980Creolization, linguistic universals, natural semantax and the brain. In Richard R. Day ed. Issues in English Creoles. Papers from the 1975 Hawaii Conference. Heidelberg: Groos. 1–18. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bloomfield, Leonard
1984Language. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Blondeau, Helene and Naomi Nagy
2008Subordinate clause marking in Montreal Anglophone French and English. In Miriam Meyerhoff and Naomi Nagy, eds. Social Lives in Language – Sociolinguistics and Multilingual Speech Communities. John Benjamins: Amsterdam. 273–314. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Brown, Keith
ed. 2006The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, 2nd ed. Oxford: Elsevier.Google Scholar
[ p. 84 ]
Buchstaller, Isabelle and Alexandra D’Arcy
2009Localized globalization: A multi-local, multivariate investigation of quotative be like . Journal of Sociolinguistics 13: 291–331. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Chambers, Jack K. and Peter Trudgill
1998Dialectology, 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Chomsky, Noam
2001Derivation by phase. In Michael J. Kenstowicz, ed. Ken Hale: A Life in Language. Cambridge: MIT Press. 1–52.Google Scholar
Clachar, Arlene
2015Processing subject relative clauses in English: Evidence from child speakers of English-lexified creoles. Applied Linguistics 36: 635–640.Google Scholar
Comrie, Bernard
1976Tense. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Curtis, Debra
2009Pleasures and Perils: Girls’ Sexuality in a Caribbean Consumer Culture. London: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
Daleszynska, Agata
2010What’s gender got to do with it? Investigating the effect of gender and place on /t, d/ deletion in Bequia. Proceedings of the Summer School of Sociolinguistics, The University of Edinburgh.Google Scholar
2011Variation in Past Tense Marking in Bequia Creole: Apparent Time Change and Dialect Levelling. PhD dissertation. University of Edinburgh.Google Scholar
2013The local, the global, and the authentic: Language change and authenticity in Bequia. Zeitschrift fur Anglistik und Amerikanistik: A Quarterly of Language, Literature and Culture 60: 275–294.Google Scholar
DeCamp, David
1971Towards a generative analysis of a post-creole speech continuum. In Dell Hymes, ed. Pidginization and Creolization of Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 349–370.Google Scholar
Deuber, Dagmar
2009The English we speaking: Morphological and syntactic variation in educated Jamaican speech. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 24: 1–52. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2014English in the Caribbean: Variation, Style and Standards in Jamaica and Trinidad. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Eckert, Penelope
2000Linguistic Variation as Social Practice. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Erker, D. and Gregory R. Guy
2012The role of lexical frequency in syntactic variability: Variable subject personal pronoun expression in Spanish. Language 88: 526–557. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Escure, Genevieve
2006Variation in pidgins and creoles. In Keith Brown, ed. The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, 2nd ed. Oxford: Elsevier. 380–387. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Fon Sing, Guillaume
2017Creoles are not typologically distinct from non-Creoles. Language Ecology 1(1): 44–74. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Francis, Winthrop N.
1983Dialectology: An Introduction. London: Longman.Google Scholar
González-Vilbazo, Kay and Luis López
2012Little v and parametric variation. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 30: 33–77. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Gumperz, John J.
1968The speech community. International Encyclopedia of Social Sciences 9: 381–386. [Reprinted (1971) in Language in Social Groups . Stanford: Stanford University Press. 114–128.]Google Scholar
Gumperz, John
1982Language and Social Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
[ p. 85 ]
Guy, Gregory R.
1980Variation in the group and the individual: The case of final stop deletion. In William Labov, ed. Locating Language in Time and Space. New York: Academic Press. 1–36.Google Scholar
1991Explanation in variable phonology: An exponential model of morphological constraints. Language Variation and Change 3:1–22. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2013The cognitive coherence of sociolects: How do speakers handle multiple sociolinguistic variables? Journal of Pragmatics 52: 63–71. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hackert, Stephanie
2004Urban Bahamian Creole: System and Variation. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hinrichs, Lars
2006Code-switching on the Web: English and Jamaican Creole in E-mail Communication. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hymes, Dell
1972Models of the interaction of language and social life. In John Gumperz and Dell Hymes, eds. Directions in Sociolinguistics: The Ethnography of Communication. New York: Holt, Rhinehart and Winston. 35–71.Google Scholar
Irvine, Alison
2004A good command of the English language: Phonological variation in the Jamaican acrolect. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 19: 41–76. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, Daniel Ezra
2009Getting off the GoldVarb standard: Introducing Rbrul for mixed-effects variable rule analysis. Language and Linguistic Compass 3: 359–383. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Labov, William
1969Contraction, deletion, and inherent variability of the English copula. Language 45: 715–762. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
1971The notion of ‘system’ in creole languages. In Dell Hymes, ed. Pidginization and Creolization of Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 447–472.Google Scholar
1972Language in the Inner City. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
1989The child as linguistic historian. Language Variation and Change 1: 85–97. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
1998Coexistent systems in African-American English. In Salikoko Mufwene, ed. African American English: Structure, History and Use. London: Routledge. 110–153.Google Scholar
Labov, William, Sharon Ash, and Charles Boberg
2006The Atlas of North American English: Phonetics, Phonology and Sound Change. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Levin, Beth and Malka Rappaport Hovav
1995Unaccusativity: At the syntax-lexical semantics interface. Linguistic Inquiry Monograph 26. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
McWhorter, John H.
2003Pidgins and creoles as models of language change: The state of the art. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 23: 202–212. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Meyerhoff, Miriam
2009aReplication, transfer and calquing: Using variation as a tool in the study of language contact. Language Variation and Change 21: 1–21. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2009bMen argue but the women doz trace: Gender and language variation in Bequia (St Vincent and the Grenadines). Sargasso: 115–133.Google Scholar
[ p. 86 ]
2017Writing a linguistic symphony: Analysing variation while doing language documentation. Canadian Journal of Linguistics/Revue canadienne de linguistique 62: 525–549. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Meyerhoff, Miriam and Steffen Klaere
2017A case for clustering speakers and linguistic variables: Big issues with smaller samples in language variation. In Isabelle Buchstaller and Beat Siebenhaar, eds. Language Variation – European Perspectives VI: Selected Papers from the Eight International Conference on Language Variation in Europe (ICLaVE 8). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 23–46. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Meyerhoff, Miriam and James N. Stanford
2015“Tings change, all tings change”: The changing face of sociolinguistics with a global perspective. In Dick Smakman and Patrick Heinrich, eds. Globalising Sociolinguistics. London: Routledge. 1–15.Google Scholar
Meyerhoff, Miriam and James A. Walker
2007The persistence of variation in individual grammars: Copula absence in ‘urban sojourners’ and their stay-at-home peers, Bequia (St Vincent and the Grenadines). Journal of Sociolinguistics 11: 346–366. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2012Grammatical variation in Bequia (St Vincent and the Grenadines). Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 27: 209–234. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2013aBequia Talk (St Vincent and the Grenadines). Westminster: Battlebridge Publications.Google Scholar
2013bAn existential problem: The sociolinguistic monitor and variation in existential constructions on Bequia (St Vincent and the Grenadines). Language and Society 42: 407–428. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Michaelis, Susanne, Philippe Maurer, Martin Haspelmath, and Magnus Huber
eds. 2013The Survey of Pidgin and Creole Languages. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Nagy, Naomi and Miriam Meyerhoff
2008The social lives of linguistics. In Miriam Meyerhoff and Naomi Nagy, eds. Social Lives in Language – Sociolinguistics and Multilingual Speech Communities. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 1–17. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Patrick, Peter L.
1999Urban Jamaican Creole: Variation in the Mesolect. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Poplack, Shana
ed. 2000The English History of African American English. Malden, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Poplack, Shana and Sali A. Tagliamonte
2001African American English in the Diaspora: Tense and Aspect. Malden, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Rickford, John R.
1987Dimensions of a Creole Continuum: History, Texts and Linguistic Analysis of Guyanese Creole. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
2002Implicational scales. In J. K. Chambers, Peter Trudgill and Natalie Schilling-Estes, eds. The Handbook of Language Variation and Change. Oxford: Blackwell. 142–167.Google Scholar
Rickford, John R. and Faye McNair-Knox
1994Addressee- and topic- influenced style shift: A quantitative sociolinguistic study. In D. Biber and E. Finegan, eds. Sociolinguistic Perspectives on Register. New York: Oxford University Press. 235–276.Google Scholar
Roy, Joseph and Stephen Levey
2014Mixed effects models and unbalanced sociolinguistic data: The need for caution. Poster presented at NWAV43, Chicago.
[ p. 87 ]
Sankoff, Gillian
1993Focus in Tok Pisin. In Francis Byrne and Donald Winford, eds. Focus and Grammatical Relations in Creole Languages. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 117–140. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Sankoff, David, Sali A. Tagliamonte, and Eric Smith
2005Goldvarb X: A variable rule application for Macintosh and Windows. Department of Linguistics, University of Toronto.Google Scholar
Santa Ana, Otto
1996Sonority and syllable structure in Chicano English. Language Variation and Change 8: 63–89. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Schleef, Erik and Meyerhoff, Miriam
2010Sociolinguistic methods for data collection and analysis. In Miriam Meyerhoff and Erik Schleef, eds. The Routledge Sociolinguistics Reader: Edited Readings and Teaching Materials. London: Routledge. 1–27.Google Scholar
Sebba, Mark
1997Contact Languages: Pidgins and Creoles. London: Macmillan. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Singler, John Victor
1988The homogeneity of the substrate as a factor in pidgin/creole genesis. Language 64: 27–51. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
St Vincent and the Grenadines tourism statistics
2013St Vincent and the Grenadines Tourism Authority Report. http://​exploresvg​.com​/index​.php​/en​/about​-svg​/tourism​-statistics (accessed 15 February 2015).
Szmrecsanyi, Benedikt
2013Grammatical Variation in British English Dialects: A Study in Corpus-based Dialectometry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Tagliamonte, Sali A.
2006Analysing Sociolinguistic Variation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2011Comparative sociolinguistics. In Sali A. Tagliamonte, ed. Variationist Sociolinguistics: Change, Observation, Interpretation. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. 162–177.Google Scholar
Van Herk, Gerard and Shana Poplack
2003Rewriting the past: Bare verbs in the ‘Ottawa Repository of Early African American Correspondence’ . Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 18: 231–266. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Velupillai, Viveka
2015Pidgins, Creoles and Mixed Languages: An Introduction. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2016Partitioning the timeline: A cross-linguistic survey of tense. Studies in Language 40: 93–136. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Walker, James A.
2000Presented Accounted for: Prosody and Aspect in Early African American English. PhD dissertation. University of Ottawa.Google Scholar
2005The ain’t constraint: Not-contraction in Early African American English. Language Variation and Change 17: 1–17. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2010aVariation in Linguistic Systems. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
2010bAffairs of state: Defining and coding stativity in English and English-based Creole. In James A. Walker, ed. Aspect in Grammatical Variation. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 95–109. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Walker, James A., Michael Dunn, Aymeric Daval-Markussen, and Miriam Meyerhoff
2015Modelling the speech community through multiple variables: Trees, networks and clades. Poster presented at NWAV44, Toronto.
Walker, James A. and Miriam Meyerhoff
2006Zero copula in the Caribbean: Evidence from Bequia. American Speech 81: 146–163. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Walker, James A. and Jack Sidnell
2011Negation in Bequia. In Lars Hinrichs and Joseph Farquharson, eds. Variation in the Caribbean. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 39–56. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
[ p. 88 ]
Williams, Jeffrey P.
2003The establishment and perpetuation of Anglophone white enclave communities in the Eastern Caribbean. In Michael Aceto and Jeffrey P. Williams, eds. Contact Englishes of the Eastern Caribbean. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 95–119. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Winford, Donald
1992Back to the past: The BEV/creole connection revisited. Language Variation and Change 4: 311–357. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
1993Predication in Caribbean English Creoles. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar