Orthographic bias in L3 lexical knowledge
Learner-related and lexical factors
In this paper, we examine some of the factors that might influence the accessing of meanings of written and spoken L3 words. We tested learners of L3 French who had Finnish as their L1 and were highly competent in L2 English. They were presented with L3 French words in written and spoken form, and were asked to give a possible translation for the target word in L1 and to rate their level of confidence in the meaning given. Because of their instructional learning background, we expected orthographic forms to be more familiar than phonological ones. This hypothesis was confirmed. The meanings of the L3 words presented were accessed more easily and more accurately in the orthographic than in the phonological modality, although this asymmetry decreased with a higher level of proficiency. The confidence ratings were negatively affected by a similarity to L2 words. General implications for L3 lexical knowledge are discussed.
Keywords: vocabulary, lexical knowledge, language-internal effects, proficiency, cross-linguistic effects, L3, phonology, orthography
Published online: 21 January 2016
Cited by 1 other publications
Veivo, Outi, Juhani Järvikivi, Vincent Porretta & Jukka Hyönä
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 19 august 2021. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.
Baayen, R.H., Davidson, D.J. & Bates, D.M.
Baddeley, A.D., Papagno, C. & Vallar, G.
Chenu, F. & Jisa, H.
Christensen, R.H.B. & Brockhoff, P.B.
Council of Europe
de Bot, K. & Jaensch, C.
de Groot, A.M.B.
de Groot, A.M.B., Delmaar, P. & Lupker, S.J.
de Groot, A.M.B. & Hoeks, J.C.J.
Grainger, J., Diependaele, K., Spinelli, E., Ferrand, L. & Farioli, F.
Hufeisen, B. & Marx, N.
(2007) How can DaFnE and EuroComGerm contribute to the concept of receptive multilingualism? Theoretical and practical considerations. In J.D. ten Thije & L. Zeevaert (eds.), Receptive multilingualism, linguistic analyses, language policies and didactic concepts, Hamburg studies on multilingualism 6, (307–321). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Huhta, A., Luoma, S., Oscarson, M., Sajavaara, K., Takala, S. & Teasdale, A.
(2002) DIALANG: A diagnostic language assessment system for learners. In J.C. Alderson (ed.), Common European framework of reference for languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. Case studies (130–145). Strasbourg: Council of Europe. http://www.lancs.ac.uk/researchenterprise/dialang/about
Kroll, J.F., Gullifer, J.W. & Rossi, E.
Lagrou, E., Hartsuiker, R. & Duyck, W.
Lemhöfer, K. & Dijkstra, T.
Lindgren, E. & Muñoz, C.
Llama, R., Cardoso, W. & Collins, L.
Luce, P.A. & Pisoni, D.B.
Milton, J. & Meara, P.
Murray, W.S. & Forster, K.I.
Nelson, J., Balass, M. & Perfetti, C.A.
New, B., Pallier, C., Ferrand, L. & Matos, R.
(2001) Une base de données lexicales du français contemporain sur internet: LEXIQUE. L’Année Psychologique 101, 447–462. http://www.lexique.org DOI:
Quené, H. & Van den Bergh, H.
Robinson, P. & Ellis, N.
Schwartz, A., Kroll, J. & Diaz, M.
Serrano, R., Llanes, À. & Tragant, E.
Simon, E., Escudero, P. & Broersma, M.
(2010) Learning minimally different words in a third language: L2 proficiency as a crucial predictor of accuracy in an L3 words learning task. In K. Dziubalska-Kołaczyk, M. Wrembel & M. Kul (eds.), Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on the Acquisition of Second Language Speech, New Sounds 201, Poznań, Poland, 1-3 May 2010 (439–444). Poznan: Adam Mickiewicz University.
Le trésor de la langue francaise informatisé [online], ATILF [retrieved on 15.6.2013]. Available at: http://atilf.atilf.fr/.
Veivo, O. & Järvikivi, J.
Williams, S. & Hammarberg, B.
Ziegler, J.C., Muneaux, M. & Grainger, J.