Much Linguistic Landscape scholarship relies on visual data collection, primarily the use of still photography; however, the field has yet to address the theoretical underpinning of such visual and spatial representation. Furthermore, digital video is currently as easy to capture and share as digital photographs were when Linguistic Landscape studies first became prominent in the early 2000s. With these two points in mind, this article first grounds the documentation and analysis of the Linguistic Landscape in a theory of visual representation; it then provides a framework for videographic methodologies drawing on recent work in the related fields of anthropology and cultural geography. An example study utilizing non-participatory videography is summarized in which digital video recordings were used to capture and convey the Linguistic Landscape.
Bigham, D., Curzan, A., Erard, M., Maune, M., Okrent, A., McCulloch, G., Whiteman, N., & Zimmer, B.
(2015, January) Popularizing Linguistics through Online Media. Presentation at the annual Linguistic Society of America Conference, Portland, Oregon.
Blackwood, R. J., Lanza, E., & Woldemariam, H.
(Eds.) (2016) Negotiating and Contesting Identities in Linguistic Landscapes. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.
(2013) Ethnography, Superdiversity and Linguistic Landscapes. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
Brown, K. D.
(2012) The linguistic landscape of educational spaces: Language revitalization and schools in Southeastern Estonia. In D. Gorter, H. F. Marten, & L. V. Mensel (Eds.), Minority Languages in the Linguistic Landscape (pp. 281–298). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Bucholtz, M. & Hall, K.
(2016) Embodied sociolinguistics. In N. Coupland (Ed.), Sociolinguistics: Theoretical Debates (pp. 173–197). Cambridge: Cambridge UP.
Dagenais, D., Moore, D., Sabatier, C., Lamarre, P., & Armand, F.
(2009) Linguistic landscape and language awareness. In E. Shohamy & D. Gorter (Eds.), Linguistic Landscape: Expanding the Scenery (pp. 253–269). New York: Routledge.
Elliott, L. & Phillips-Boyle, S.
(Producers) (2014, Sept 25) Linguistic Landscape of the Kensington Market [Video file]. Retrieved from [URL]
(2000) Towards a Philosophy of Photography. (A. Mathews, Trans.) London: Reaktion. (Original work published 1983).
Garrett, B. L.
(2010) Videographic geographies: Using digital video for geographic research. Progress in Human Geography, 35(4) 521–541.
(2010) Responses to the linguistic landscape in Memphis, Tennessee: An urban space in Transition. In E. Shohamy, E. Ben-Rafael, & M. Barni (Eds.), Linguistic Landscape in the City (pp. 252–271). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
(2002) The real thing? Contesting the myth of documentary realism through classroom analysis of films on planning and reconstruction. In T. Cresswell and D. Dixon D (Eds.), Engaging Film: Geographies of Mobility and Identity (pp. 209–225). Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
(2006) Introduction: The study of linguistic landscape as a new approach to multilingualism. In D. Gorter (Ed.), Linguistic Landscape: A New Approach to Multilingualism (pp. 1–6). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Gorter, D., & Cenoz, J.
(2015) Linguistic landscapes inside multilingual schools. In B. Spolsky, O. Inbar-Lourie, & M. Tannenbaum (Eds.), Challenges for Language Education and Policy (pp. 151–169). New York: Routledge.
Groom, N. & Littlemore, J.
(2011) Doing Applied Linguistics: A Guide for Students. Oxon: Routledge.
Hult, F. M.
(2014) Drive-thru linguistic landscaping: Constructing a linguistically dominant place in a bilingual space. International Journal of Bilingualism, 18(5), 507–523.
Ivkovic, D., & Lotherington, H.
(2009) Multilingualism in cyberspace: Conceptualising the virtual linguistic landscape. International Journal of Multilingualism, 6(1), 17–36.
(2016, April). Semiotic Landscapes and Literary Imagination in James Joyce's Ulysses. Presentation at the Linguistic Landscape 8 Workshop, Liverpool, England.
(2012) Video-Analysis: Methodological Aspects of Interpretive Audiovisual Analysis in Social Research. In H. Knoblauch, B. Schnettler, J. Raab, & H. Soeffner (Eds.), Video Analysis: Methodology and Methods: Qualitative Audiovisual Data Analysis in Sociology, 3rd ed (pp. 9–26). Frankfurt: Peter Lang.
Knoblauch, H., & Tuma, R.
(2011) Videography: An interpretative approach to analyzing video recorded social interaction. In E. Margolis and L. Pauwels (Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Visual Research Methods (pp. 414–430). London: SAGE.
Laihonen, P. & Szabó, T. P.
(2017) Investigating visual practices in educational settings: schoolscapes, language ideologies and organizational cultures. In M. Martin-Jones & D. Martin (Eds.), Researching multilingualism: Critical and ethnographic approaches (pp. 121–138). London: Routledge.
Landry, R., & Bourhis, R. Y.
(1997) Linguistic landscape and ethnolinguistic vitality: An empirical study. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 16(1), 23–49.
Lee, H., & Choi, B.
(2016, April) A Geolocative Linguistic Landscape Project in Korean Language Education. Presentation at the annual American Association of Applied Linguistics Conference, Orlando, Florida.
Leeman, J., & Modan, G.
(2009) Commodified language in Chinatown: A contextualized approach to linguistic landscape. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 13(3), 332–362.
Lou, Jackie Jia
(2016, April) Ways of Walking, Ways of Seeing: Doing Mobile Video Ethnography in Linguistic Landscape Research. Presentation at the annual American Association of Applied Linguistics Conference, Orlando, Florida.
Magnini, V. P., Miller, T., & Kim, B. (Peter)
(2011) The psychological effects of foreign-language restaurant signs on potential diners. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 35(1), 24–44.
(2010) Showing seeing in the Korean linguistic cityscape. In E. Shohamy, E. Ben-Rafael, & M. Barni (Eds.), Linguistic Landscape in the City (pp. 199–215). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
(2007) Walking with video. Visual Studies, 22(3), 240–252.
(2008) An urban tour: The sensory sociality of ethnographic place-making. Ethnography, 9(2), 175–196.
Rubdi, R., & Ben Said, S.
(2015) Conflict, Exclusion and Dissent in the Linguistic Landscape. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
(2012–13) Video methodologies and engaging with mobilities. Chimera: Geographical Journal, University College Cork, 261, 64–74.
Shohamy, E., & Gorter, D.
(2009) Introduction. In E. Shohamy & D. Gorter (Eds.), Linguistic Landscape: Expanding the Scenery (pp. 1–10). New York: Routledge.
Shohamy, E., & Waksman, S.
(2009) Linguistic landscape as an ecological arena: Modalities, meanings, negotiations, education. In E. Shohamy & D. Gorter (Eds.), Linguistic Landscape: Expanding the Scenery (pp. 313–331). New York: Routledge.
Stroud, C., & Jegels, D.
(2014) Semiotic landscapes and mobile narrations of place: Performing the local. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 2014(228), 179–199.
Szabó, T. P.
(2015) The Management of Diversity in Schoolscapes: An Analysis of Hungarian Practices. Apples – Journal of Applied Language Studies, 9(1), 23–51.
Tokyo Metropolitan University (Producer)
(2014, Nov 19) Linguistic Landscape, Tokyo – with English Subtitles [Video file]. Retrieved from [URL]
Troyer, R. A.
(2012) English in the Thai linguistic netscape. World Englishes, 31(1), 93–112.
Troyer, R. A.
(2016) [Review of the book Negotiating and Contesting Identities in Linguistic Landscapes, by R. Blackwood, E. Lanza, & H. Woldeemariam (Eds.)]. Manusya: Journal of the Humanities, 2016 (Special Issue 22): 88–93. Retrieved from [URL]
Troyer, R. A., Cáceda, C., & Giménez-Eguibar, P.
(2015) Unseen Spanish in Small-Town America: A Minority Language in the Linguistic Landscape. In R. Rudby & S. Ben Said (Eds.), Conflict, Exclusion and Dissent in the Linguistic Landscape (pp. 52–76). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
[University of Birmingham]
(2015, March4). Voices of the Bullring Markets. [Video file]. Retrieved from [URL]
Sorescu-Marinković, Annemarie & Aleksandra Salamurović
2022. The rural linguistic landscape of Banat. Eastern European Countryside 28:1 ► pp. 51 ff.
Szabó, Tamás Péter & Hannele Dufva
2020. University Exchange Students’ Practices of Learning Finnish: A Language Ecological Approach to Affordances in Linguistic Landscapes. In Language Teaching in the Linguistic Landscape [Educational Linguistics, 49], ► pp. 93 ff.
2023. Agency and Policy: Who Controls the Linguistic Landscape of a School?. In Spatializing Language Studies [Educational Linguistics, 62], ► pp. 89 ff.
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 30 november 2023. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers.
Any errors therein should be reported to them.