If we assume that language is a complex adaptive system, the learner is a complex adaptive system, and the teaching and learning is a dynamic process – in which all relevant cognitive, physical, and social systems interact over time – then we must attend to all these systems and their relevant sub-systems when we evaluate existing or newly created pedagogical models. Even though details may have changed over the last two decades since Complex Dynamic Systems Theory (CDST) was introduced in SLA, the approach has implicitly or explicitly always viewed language itself as form-meaning-use mappings at all levels, and language learning and language teaching as dynamic processes. In this chapter I reflect on the main insights offered by CDST on L2 teaching and explore explicitly the links to Complexity and Dynamic Systems Theory, ending with a list of practical implications for good practices in language classrooms.
Language from a dynamic usage based view: The what of language teaching
Language teaching from a DUB perspective: The how of teaching
(1979) An elaborative processing explanation of depth of processing. In L. S. Cermak & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), Levels of processing in human memory (pp. 385–403). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
(2006) From usage to grammar: The mind’s response to repetition. Language, 82(4), 711–733.
Clark, H. H.
(1996) Using language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Ellis, N. C.
(2002) Frequency effects in language processing: A review with implications for theories of implicit and explicit language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 24, 143–188.
Ermann, B. & Warren, B.
(2000) The idiom principle and the open choice principle. Text, 20(1), 29–62.
Goldberg, A. E.
(2003) Constructions: A new theoretical approach to language. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7(5), 219–224.
Hong, N. T. P.
(2013) A dynamic usage-based approach to second language teaching. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Groningen.
(2015) Second language development through the lens of a dynamic usage-based approach. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Groningen.
Klein, W., & Perdue, C.
(1997) The basic variety (or: Couldn’t natural languages be much simpler?). Second Language Research, 13(4), 301–347.
Langacker, R. W.
(1987) Foundations of cognitive grammar, Volume 1, Theoretical prerequisites. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Langacker, R. W.
(2000) A dynamic usage-based model. In M. Barlow, & S. Kemmer (Eds.), Usage-based models of language (pp. 1–63). Palo Alto, CA: CSLI.
Langacker, R. W.
(2008) Cognitive grammar as a basis for language instruction. In Peter Robinson & Nick Ellis (Eds.), Handbook of cognitive linguistics and second language acquisition (pp. 66–88). New York, NY: Routledge.
Lantolf, J. P., & Tsai, M. -H.
forthcoming). L2 developmental education and systemic theoretical instruction: The case of English verb-noun collocations. In A. E. Tyler, L. Ortega, M. Uno, & H. I. Park Eds. Usage-inspired L2 instruction: Researched pedagogy Amsterdam John Benjamins
Larsen-Freeman, D. & Cameron, L.
(2008) Complex systems and applied linguistics. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
(1976) An explanation for the morpheme acquisition order of second language learners. Language Learning, 26(1), 125–134.
(2000) Techniques and principles in language teaching (2nd ed). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
(1992) Consensus and divergence on the content, role, and process of teaching grammar. Georgetown University Roundtable on Languages and Linguistics (GURT) 1991: Linguistics and Language Pedagogy: The State of the Art, 158–165.
(1997) Chaos/complexity science and second language acquisition. Applied Linguistics, 18, 141–165.
(2000) Second language acquisition and applied linguistics. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 20, 165–181.
(1995) On the teaching and learning of grammar: Challenging the myths. In F. Eckman, D. Highland, P. Lee, J. Mileham & Rutkowski Weber (Eds.), Second language acquisition theory and pedagogy. (pp. 131–150). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
(2003) Teaching language: From grammar to grammaring. Boston, MA: Heinle/Cengage.
(2012) On the roles of repetition in language teaching and learning. Applied Linguistics Review, 3(2), 195–210.
(1994) A dynamic systems approach to the development of cognition and action. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Thibault, P. J.
(2011) First-order languaging dynamics and second-order language: The distributed language view. Ecological Psychology, 23(3), 210–245.
(2014) The dynamics of foreign versus second language development in Finnish writing. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Groningen/University of Jÿvaskyla.
(2006) Acquiring linguistic constructions. In R. Siegler & D. Kuhn (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology (pp. 73–174). Malden, MA: Wiley.
(2012) Cognitive linguistics and second language learning: Theoretical basics and experimental evidence. New York, NY: Routledge.
van Dijk, M., Verspoor, M., & Lowie, W.
(2011) Variability and DST. In M. Verspoor, K. de Bot, & W. Lowie (Eds.), A dynamic approach to second language development (pp. 55–84). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
van Geert, P.
(1994) Dynamic systems of development: Change between complexity and chaos. New York, NY: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
van Lier, L.
(2000) From input to affordance: Social-interactive learning from an ecological perspective. In J. Lantolf (Ed.), Sociocultural theory and second language learning (pp. 245–259). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Verspoor, M. & Boers, F.
(2013) Cognitive linguistics of second language acquisition. In C. A. Chapelle (Ed.), The encyclopaedia of applied linguistics (pp. 698–705). Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
2021. Cognitive and Socioaffective Predictors of L2 Microdevelopment in Late Adulthood: A Longitudinal Intervention Study. The Modern Language Journal 105:1 ► pp. 237 ff.
Korvesi, Evgenia & Marije Michel
2022. Chatting with Your Peers across Modalities: Effects of Performing Increasingly Complex Written Computer-Mediated Tasks on Oral L2 Development. Languages 7:4 ► pp. 276 ff.
Kyle, Kristopher, Scott Crossley & Marjolijn Verspoor
2021. MEASURING LONGITUDINAL WRITING DEVELOPMENT USING INDICES OF SYNTACTIC COMPLEXITY AND SOPHISTICATION. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 43:4 ► pp. 781 ff.
Levine, Glenn S.
2020. References. The Modern Language Journal 104:S1 ► pp. 103 ff.
2022. Language learner autonomy: Rethinking language teaching. Language Teaching 55:1 ► pp. 64 ff.
Liu, Di, Hyangeun Ji & Dominique Kliger
2023. Stealth Assessment in Game-Based and Task-Based Language Teaching. In Games as Stealth Assessments [Advances in Educational Technologies and Instructional Design, ], ► pp. 289 ff.
Najimdeen, Hakeem Alade & Ismail Hussein Amzat
2023. Establishing DST and Push-Pull Theory for Internationalization Best Practices in Higher Education. In Global Perspectives on the Internationalization of Higher Education [Advances in Higher Education and Professional Development, ], ► pp. 16 ff.
Nicholas, Howard, Manfred Pienemann & Anke Lenzing
2022. Teacher decision-making, dynamical systems and processability theory. Instructed Second Language Acquisition 6:2
Rousse-Malpat, Audrey, Lise Koote, Rasmus Steinkrauss & Marjolijn Verspoor
2021. Parlez-vous francais?Effects of structure-based versus dynamic-usage-based approaches on oral proficiency. Language Teaching Research► pp. 136216882110402 ff.
2023. Usage‐Based Approaches to Second Language Acquisition Vis‐à‐Vis Data‐Driven Learning. TESOL Quarterly
Sántha-Malomsoki, Ágnes & Kálmán Sántha
2019. Students’ Beliefs on Classroom Didactics of Second Language Teaching in the 21st Century. Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Philologica 11:2 ► pp. 85 ff.
2019. Language Acquisition: A Systemic View from Cognitive Linguistics. In A Systems Approach to Language Pedagogy [Translational Systems Sciences, 17], ► pp. 11 ff.
Wang, Xiaochen, Fei Sun, Qikai Wang & Xinyu Li
2022. Motivation and affordance: A study of graduate students majoring in translation in China. Frontiers in Education 7
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 17 november 2023. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers.
Any errors therein should be reported to them.