Chapter published in:
Cross-theoretical Explorations of Interlocutors and their Individual Differences
Edited by Laura Gurzynski-Weiss
[Language Learning & Language Teaching 53] 2020
► pp. 2050


Adams, R.
(2007) Do second language learners benefit from interacting with each other? In A. Mackey (Ed.), Conversational interaction in second language acquisition (pp. 29–52). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Back, M.
(this volume). Sociocultural empirical: Interlocutor differences and the role of social others. In L. Gurzynski-Weiss Ed. Cross-theoretical explorations of interlocutors and their individual differences. (p. 99–123). Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins.
Baddeley, A.
(2000) The episodic buffer: A new component of working memory? Trends in cognitive sciences, 4, 417–423. Crossref link
Baralt, M.
(2013) The impact of cognitive complexity on feedback efficacy during online versus face-to-face interactive tasks. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 35, 689–725. Crossref link
Baralt, M., & Gurzynski-Weiss, L.
(2011) Comparing learners’ state anxiety during task-based interaction in computer-mediated and face-to-face communication. Language Teaching Research, 15, 201–229. Crossref link
Baralt, M., Gurzynski-Weiss, L., & Kim, Y.
(2016) Engagement with the language: How examining learners’ affective and social engagement explains successful learner generated attention to form. In M. Sato & S. Ballinger (Eds.), Peer interaction and L2 learning (pp. 209–239). Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Baralt, M.
(2014) Task sequencing and task complexity in traditional versus online classes. In M. Baralt, R. Gilabert, & P. Robinson (Eds.), Task sequencing and instructed second language learning (pp. 95–122). London, UK: Bloomsbury.
Basturkmen, H., Loewen, S., & Ellis, R.
(2004) Teachers’ stated beliefs about incidental focus on form and their classroom practices. Applied Linguistics, 25, 243–272. Crossref link
Batstone, R., & Philp, J.
(2013) Classroom interaction and learning opportunities across time and space. In K. McDonough & A. Mackey (Eds.), Second language interaction in diverse educational contexts (pp. 109–125). Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Bowles, M. A.
(2011) Exploring the role of modality: L2-heritage learner interactions in the Spanish language classroom. Heritage Language Journal, 8, 30–65.
Bowles, M. A., Adams, R. J., & Toth, P. D.
(2014) A comparison of L2–L2 and L2-Heritage learner interactions in Spanish language classrooms. Modern Language Journal, 98, 497–517. Crossref link
Cao, Y.
(2009) Understanding the notion of interdependence, and the dynamics of willingness to communicate (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Auckland.
(2014) A sociocognitive perspective on second language classroom willingness to communicate. TESOL Quarterly, 48, 789–814. Crossref link
Cao, Y., & Philp, J.
(2006) Interactional context and willingness to communicate: A comparison of behavior in whole class, group and dyadic interaction. System, 34, 480–493. Crossref link
Chaudron, C.
(1982) Vocabulary elaboration in L2 teachers’ speech to L2 learners. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 4, 170–180. Crossref link
Csizér, K.
(2017) Motivation in the L2 classroom. In S. Loewen & M. Sato (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of instructed second language acquisition (pp. 418–432). New York, NY: Routledge. Crossref link
Damon, W., & Phelps, E.
(1989) Critical distinctions among three approaches to peer education. International Journal of Educational Research, 13, 9–19. Crossref link
De Lisi, R., & Golbeck, S. L.
(1999) Implications of Piagetian theory for peer learning. In A. M. O’Donnell & A. King (Eds.), The Rutgers Invitational Symposium on Education Series: Cognitive perspectives on peer learning (pp. 3–37). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Dewaele, J. M.
(2004) The emotional force of swearwords and taboo words in the speech of multilinguals. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 25, 204–222. Crossref link
Dewaele, J. M., & Furnham, A.
(2000) Personality and speech production: A pilot study of second language learners. Personality and Individual Differences, 28, 355–365. Crossref link
Dörnyei, Z.
(2002) The motivational basis of language learning tasks. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Individual differences and instructed language learning (pp. 137–158). Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins. Reprinted in K. Van den Branden, M. Bygate, & J. M. Norris (Eds.), Task-based language teaching: A reader (pp. 357–377). Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Dörnyei, Z., & Kormos, J.
(2000) The role of individual and social variables in oral task performance. Language Teaching Research, 4, 275–300. Crossref link
Dörnyei, Z., & Ryan, S.
(2015) The psychology of the language learner revisited. New York, NY: Routledge. Crossref link
Doughty, C.
(2018) Cognitive language aptitude. Language Learning, 69, 101–126. Crossref link
Ellis, R.
(2008) The study of second language acquisition. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
(2016) Focus on form: A critical review. Language Teaching Research, 20, 405–428. Crossref link
Ellis, R., Loewen, S., & Erlam, R.
(2006) Implicit and explicit corrective feedback and the acquisition of L2 grammar. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 28, 339–368. Crossref link
Eysenck, H. J., & Eysenck, S. B. G.
(1964) Manual of the Eysenck Personality Inventory: By HJ Eysenck and Sybil BG Eysenck. London, UK: University of London Press.
Ferguson, C.
(1971) Absence of copula and the notion of simplicity: A study of normal speech, baby talk, foreigner talk, and pidgins. In D. Hymes (Ed.), Pidginization and creolization of languages (pp. 141–150). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
(1975) Towards a characterization of English foreigner talk. Anthropological Linguistics, 17, 1–14.
Freiermuth, M., & Jarrell, D.
(2006) Willingness to communicate: Can online chat help? International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 16, 189–212. Crossref link
García-Mayo, M., & Lázaro Ibarrola, A.
(2015) Do children negotiate for meaning in task-based interaction? Evidence from CLIL and EFL settings. System, 54, 40–54. Crossref link
Gardner, R. C., Masgoret, A. M., Tennant, J., & Mihic, L.
(2004) Integrative motivation: Changes during a year-long intermediate-level language course. Language Learning, 54, 1–34. Crossref link
Gass, S. M.
(1997) Input, interaction, and the second language learner. New York, NY: Routledge.
Spinner, P., Behney, J. & Gass, S. M.
(2017) Afterword. The role of salience in second language acquisition. In S. M. Gass, P. Spinner, & J. Behney (Eds.), Salience in second language acquisition (pp. 291–297). New York, NY: Routledge. Crossref link
Gass, S. M., & Varonis, E.
(1986) Sex differences in NNS/NNS Interactions. In R. Day (Ed.), Talking to learn: Conversation in second language acquisition (pp. 327–351). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Gass, S. M., & Varonis, E. M.
(1994) Input, interaction, and second language production. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 16, 282–302. Crossref link
Goo, J.
(2012) Corrective feedback and working memory capacity in interaction-driven L2 learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 34, 445–474. Crossref link
Gurzynski-Weiss, L.
(2016) Factors influencing Spanish instructors’ in-class feedback decisions. Modern Language Journal, 100, 255–275. Crossref link
Ed. (forthcoming). Investigating the dynamic nature of learner individual differences in second language learning. Invited special issue of Studies in Second Language Learning and Language Teaching.
(Ed.) (2017) Expanding individual differences research in the interaction approach: Investigation learners, instructors, and other interlocutors. Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Gurzynski-Weiss, L., & Plonsky, L.
(2017) Look who’s interacting: A scoping review of research involving non-teacher/non-peer interlocutors. In L. Gurzynski-Weiss (Ed.), Expanding individual difference research in the interaction approach: Investigating learners, instructors, and other interlocutors (pp. 305–324). Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Henry, A., Davydenko, S., & Dörnyei, Z.
(2015) The anatomy of directed motivational currents: Exploring intense and enduring periods of L2 motivation. Modern Language Journal, 99, 329–345. Crossref link
Hernández, T.
(2006) Integrative motivation as a predictor of success in the intermediate foreign language classroom. Foreign Language Annals, 39, 605–617. Crossref link
Hernández, T. A.
(2010) Promoting speaking proficiency through motivation and interaction: The study abroad and classroom learning contexts. Foreign Language Annals, 43, 650–670. Crossref link
Hiver, P., Mercer, S. & Al-Hoorie, A.
Eds. (forthcoming). Engagement in the second language classroom. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Iwashita, N.
(2004) The role of conversation in SLA: Review of studies on negative feedback and directions of future research. Acquisition of Japanese as a Second Language, 7, 163–185.
Izumi, S.
(2002) Output, input enhancement, and the noticing hypothesis: An experimental study on ESL relativization. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 24, 541–577. Crossref link
Juffs, A., & Harrington, M.
(2011) Aspects of working memory in L2 learning. Language Teaching, 44, 137–166. Crossref link
Kang, D.-M.
(2014) The effects of study-abroad experiences on EFL learners’ willingness to communicate, speaking abilities, and participation in classroom interaction. System, 42, 319–332. Crossref link
Kang, S.-J.
(2005) Dynamic emergence of situational willingness to communicate in a second language. System, 33, 277–292. Crossref link
Kern, R.
(1995) Restructuring classroom interaction with networked computers: Effects on quantity and characteristics of language production. Modern Language Journal, 79, 457–476. Crossref link
Kim, Y., & McDonough, K.
(2008) The effect of interlocutor proficiency on the collaborative dialogue between Korean as a second language learners. Language Teaching Research, 12, 211–234. Crossref link
Klink, M., & Klink, W.
(1990) The influence of father caretaker speech on early language development: A case study. Early Child Development and Care, 62, 7–22. Crossref link
Kormos, J., & Trebits, A.
(2012) The role of task complexity, modality, and aptitude in narrative task performance. Language Learning, 62, 439–472. Crossref link
Krashen, S.
(1977) Some issues relating to the monitor model. In H. Brown, C. Yorio & R. Crymes (Eds.), On Tesol ’77 (pp. 144–158). Washington, DC: TESOL.
(1980) The theoretical and practical relevance of simple codes in second language acquisition. In R. Scarcella & S. Krashen (Eds.), Research in second language acquisition: Selected papers of the Los Angeles Second Language Acquisition Research Forum (pp. 7–18). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
(1985) The Input Hypothesis: Issues and implications. London, UK: Longman.
Lambert, C., Philp, J., & Nakamura, S.
(2017) Learner generated content and engagement in second language task performance. Language Teaching Research, 21, 665–680. Crossref link
Laursen, B.
(2010) Capturing the peer context: The paradox of progress. Journal of Adolescence, 33, 897–902. Crossref link
Laursen, B., & Hartup, W. W.
(2002) The origins of reciprocity and social exchange in friendships. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 95, 27–40. Crossref link
Leeser, M. J.
(2004) Learner proficiency and focus on form during collaborative dialogue. Language Teaching Research, 8, 55–81. Crossref link
Lightbown, P. M., Halter, R. H., White, J., & Horst, M.
(2002) Comprehension-based learning: The limits of “do it yourself.” Canadian Modern Language Review, 58, 427–464. Crossref link
Loewen, S.
(2005) Incidental focus on form and second language learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27, 361–386. Crossref link
Long, M. H.
(1981) Input, interaction, and second language acquisition. In H. Winitz (Ed.), Native language and foreign language acquisition (pp. 259–278), New York, NY: The New York Academy of Sciences.
(1983) Native speaker and non/native speaker conversation and the negotiation of comprehensible input. Applied Linguistics, 4, 125–141. Crossref link
(1996) The role of the linguistic environment in second language acquisition. In W. C. Ritchie & T. K. Bhatia (Eds.), Handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 413–468). New York, NY: Academic Press.
Long, M. H., & Porter, P. A.
(1985) Group work, interlanguage talk, and second language acquisition. TESOL Quarterly, 19, 207–228. Crossref link
Lyster, R.
(2002) Negotiation in immersion teacher–student interaction. International Journal of Educational Research, 37, 237–253. Crossref link
Lyster, R., & Ranta, L.
(1997) Corrective feedback and learner uptake. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19, 37–66. Crossref link
Lyster, R., & Mori, H.
(2006) Interactional feedback and instructional counterbalance. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 28, 269–300. Crossref link
Lyster, R., & Ranta, L.
(1997) Corrective feedback and learner uptake: Negotiation of form in communicative classrooms. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19, 37–66. Crossref link
MacIntyre, P. D., & Gardner, R. C.
(1994) The subtle effects of language anxiety on cognitive processing in the second language. Language Learning, 44, 283–305. Crossref link
MacIntyre, P. D., & Serroul, A.
(2015) Motivation on a per-second timescale: Examining approach-avoidance motivation during L2 task performance. In Z. Dörnyei, P. D. MacIntyre, & A. Henrys (Eds.), Motivational dynamics in language learning (pp. 109–138). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Mackey, A.
(Ed.) (2007) Conversational interaction in second language acquisition: A series of empirical studies. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Mackey, A., Philp, J., Egi, T., Fujii, A., & Tatsumi, T.
(2002) Individual differences in working memory, noticing of interactional feedback and L2 development. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Individual differences in instructed language learning (pp. 181–209). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Mackey, A., & Sachs, R.
(2012) Older learners in SLA research: A first look at working memory, feedback, and L2 development. Language Learning, 62, 704–740. Crossref link
Mackey, A., Abbuhl, R., & Gass, S. M.
(2012) Interactionist approach. In S. Gass & A. Mackey (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 7–23). New York, NY: Routledge.
Mackey, A., Adams, R., Stafford, C., & Winke, P.
(2010) Exploring the relationship between modified output and working memory capacity. Language Learning, 60, 501–533. Crossref link
Martin, S., & Valdivia, I. M. A.
(2017) Students’ feedback beliefs and anxiety in online foreign language oral tasks. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 14. > Crossref link>
McDonough, K.
(2005) Identifying the impact of negative feedback and learners’ responses on ESL question development. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27, 79–103. Crossref link
Nicholas, H., Lightbown, P. M., & Spada, N.
(2001) Recasts as feedback to language learners. Language Learning, 51, 719–758. Crossref link
O’Brien, I., Segalowitz, N., Freed, B., & Collentine, J.
(2007) Phonological memory predicts second language oral fluency gains in adults. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 29, 557–582. Crossref link
Oliver, R.
(2000) Age differences in negotiation and feedback in classroom and pairwork. Language Learning, 50, 119–151. Crossref link
(2002) The patterns of negotiation for meaning in child interactions. Modern Language Journal, 86, 97–111. Crossref link
Oliver, R., & Grote, E.
(2010) The provision and uptake of different types of recasts in child and adult ESL learners. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, 33, 26–41. Crossref link
Oliver, R., Philp, J., & Duchesne, S.
(2017) Children working it out together: A comparison of younger and older learners collaborating in task-based interaction. System, 69, 1–14. Crossref link
Oya, T., Manalo, E., & Greenwood, J.
(2004) The influence of personality and anxiety on the oral performance of Japanese speakers of English. Applied Cognitive Psychology: The Official Journal of the Society for Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 18, 841–855. Crossref link
Payne, J. S., & Whitney, P. J.
(2002) Developing L2 oral proficiency through synchronous CMC: Output, working memory, and interlanguage development. CALICO Journal, 20, 7–32. Crossref link
Phillips, E. M.
(1992) The effects of language anxiety on students’ oral test performance and attitudes. Modern Language Journal, 76, 14–26. Crossref link
Philp, J. & Mackey, A.
(2010) Interaction research: What can socially informed approaches offer to cognitivists (and vice versa)? In Batstone, R. (Ed.), Sociocognitive perspectives on language use and language learning (pp. 210–228). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Philp, J., & Duchesne, S.
(2008) When the gate opens: The interaction between social and linguistic goals. In J. Philp, R. Oliver, & A. Mackey (Eds.), Second language acquisition and the younger learner: Child’s play? (pp. 83–104) Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Philp, J., Adams, R., & Iwashita, N.
(2014) Peer interaction and second language learning. New York, NY: Routledge. Crossref link
Philp, J., Walter, S., & Basturkmen, H.
(2010) Peer interaction in the foreign language classroom: What factors foster a focus on form? Language Awareness, 19, 261–79. Crossref link
Pica, T.
(1992) The textual outcomes of native speaker-non-native speaker negotiation: What do they reveal about second language learning? Proceedings from Text and Context: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives on Language Study, 198–237.
(1998) Interlanguage adjustments as an outcome of NS-NNS Negotiated Interaction. Language Learning, 38, 45–73. Crossref link
Pica, T., Holliday, L., Lewis, N., Berducci, D., & Newman, J.
(1991) Language learning through interaction: What role does gender play? Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 13, 343–376. Crossref link
Poupore, G.
(2018) A complex systems investigation of group work dynamics in L2 interactive tasks. Modern Language Journal, 102, 350–370. Crossref link
Rassaei, E.
(2015) Recasts, field dependence-independence cognitive style, and L2 development. Language Teaching Research, 19, 499–518. Crossref link
Révész, A.
(2012) Working memory and the observed effectiveness of recasts on different L2 outcome measures. Language Learning, 62, 93–132. Crossref link
Ross-Feldman, L.
(2007) Interaction in the L2 classroom: Does gender influence learning opportunities? In A. Mackey, Conversational interaction in second language acquisition: A collection of empirical studies (pp. 53–77). New York, NY: Routledge.
Sagarra, N.
(2007) From CALL to face-to-face interaction: The effect of computer-delivered recasts and working memory on L2 development. In A. Mackey (Ed.) Conversational interaction in second language acquisition, (pp. 229–248). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Satar, H. M., & Özdener, N.
(2008) The effects of synchronous CMC on speaking proficiency and anxiety: Text versus voice chat. Modern Language Journal, 92, 595–613. Crossref link
Sato, M.
(2013) Beliefs about peer interaction and peer corrective feedback: Efficacy of classroom intervention. Modern Language Journal, 97, 611–633. Crossref link
Sato, M., & Ballinger, S.
(2012) Raising language awareness in peer interaction: a cross-context, cross-methodology examination. Language Awareness, 21, 157–179. Crossref link
Schmidt, R.
(1990) The role of consciousness in second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 11, 129–158. Crossref link
(1993) Consciousness, learning and interlanguage pragmatics. In G. Kasper & S. Blum-Kulka (Eds.), Interlanguage pragmatics (pp. 2–31). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
(2001) Attention. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Cognition and second language instruction (pp. 3–32). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Serafini, E. J.
(this volume). Exploring the dynamics of interlocutor IDs and language learner selves during a short-term experience abroad. In L. Gurzynski-Weiss Ed Cross-theoretical explorations of interlocutors and their individual differences (pp. 209–243). Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins.
(2017) Exploring the dynamic long-term interaction between cognitive and psychosocial resources in adult second language development at varying proficiency. Modern Language Journal, 101, 369–390. Crossref link
Sheen, Y.
(2006) Exploring the relationship between characteristics of recasts and learner uptake. Language Teaching Research, 10, 361–392. Crossref link
(2008) Recasts, language anxiety, modified output, and L2 learning. Language Learning, 58, 835–874. Crossref link
Storch, N.
(2002) Patterns of interaction in ESL pair work. Language Learning, 52, 119–158. Crossref link
(2008) Metatalk in a pair work activity: Level of engagement and implications for language development. Language Awareness, 17, 95–114. Crossref link
Sulis, G., Michel, M., & Davidson, J.
(in press). Dynamic changes in motivation and willingness to communicate in the second language classroom: A multiple case study. In W. Lowie, M. Michel, A. Rousse-Malpat, A. Keijzer, & S. Rasmus Eds. Usage-based dynamics in second language development. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Svalberg, A. M.-L.
(2009) Engagement with language: Interrogating a construct. Language Awareness, 18, 242–258. Crossref link
Swain, M.
(1985) Communicative competence: Some roles of comprehensive input and comprehensible output in its development, In S. Gass & C. Madden (Eds.), Input in second language acquisition (pp. 235–256). Cambridge, MA: Newbury House.
(1988) Manipulating and complementing content teaching to maximize second language learning. TESL Canada Journal/Revue TESL du Canada, 6, 68–83. Crossref link
(1995) Three functions of output in second language learning. In G. Cook & B. Seidlhofer (Eds.), Principles and practice in applied linguistics: Studies in honour of H.G. Widdowson (pp. 125–144). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
(1997) Immersion programs in Canada. In J. Cumins & D. Corson (Eds.) Encyclopedia of language and education (Vol 5, pp. 261–269). Dordrecht: Kluwer.
(2005) The output hypothesis: Theory and research. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook on research in second language teaching and learning (pp. 471–484). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Tavakoli, M., & Zarrindabi, N.
(2016) Differential effects of explicit and implicit corrective feedback on EFL learners’ willingness to communicate. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 3, 247–259.
Trofimovich, P., Ammar, A., & Gatbonton, E.
(2007) How effective are recasts? The role of attention, memory, and analytical ability. In A. Mackey (Ed.) Conversational interaction in second language acquisition, (pp. 171–195). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Vallerand, R. J.
(1997) Toward a hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 29, 271–360. Crossref link
VanPatten, B.
(1996) Input processing and grammar instruction: Theory and research. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
(2004) Input processing in SLA. In B. VanPatten (Eds.), Processing instruction: Theory, research, and commentary (pp. 5–32). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Crossref link
Wakamoto, N.
(2009) Extroversion/Introversion in foreign language learning: Interactions with learner strategy use. Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang.
Williams, J.
(1999) Learner-generated attention to form. Language Learning, 49, 583–625. Crossref link
(2001) The effectiveness of spontaneous attention to form. System, 29, 325–340. Crossref link
Yanguas, I., & Navarro, G.
(2014) Learners’ anxiety in L2 interaction: Video, chat, or face-to-face? European Journal of Applied Linguistics and TEFL, 3, 5–23.
Yilmaz, Y.
(2012) Relative effects of explicit and implicit feedback: The role of working memory capacity and language analytic ability. Applied Linguistics, 34, 344–368. Crossref link
(2013) The relative effectiveness of mixed, explicit and implicit feedback in the acquisition of English articles. System, 41, 691–705. Crossref link
Ziegler, N., & Smith, G.
(2017) Teachers’ provision of feedback in L2 text-chat: Cognitive, contextual and affective factors. In L. Gurzynski-Weiss (Ed.), Expanding individual difference research in the interaction approach (pp. 255–280). Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins. Crossref link