Duoxu is a terminally endangered and virtually undescribed Tibeto-Burman language, spoken in the historically multi-ethnic and multi-lingual Miǎnníng county of Sìchuān province in the People’s Republic of China. Until recently, Duoxu was known only through a 740-word vocabulary list in the Sino-Tibetan vocabularies Xīfān Yìyǔ [Tibetan-Chinese bilingual glossary], recorded in Chinese and Tibetan transcriptions in the 18th century, and a grammatical sketch (Huáng & Yǐn 2012). Researchers who have worked on the language (Nishida 1973, Sūn 1982, Huáng & Yǐn 2012) have expressed different views about the features and the genetic position of Duoxu, variously viewing it as (1) closely related to Lolo-Burmese languages (Nishida 1973), (2) closely related to Ersu and Lizu, two neighboring languages that are currently classified as members of the Qiangic subgroup of the Tibeto-Burman language family (Sūn 1982), or (3) distantly related to those two languages and to Qiangic languages at large (Huáng & Yǐn 2012).The Duoxu language is critically endangered and urgently requires documentation. It is of great value for our understanding of the linguistic diversity of the region, and of its linguistic history. It is also of great value as a modern reflection of a language that was recorded in the 18th century. This paper makes a significant contribution in all these areas. Based on new fieldwork with all remaining elderly Duoxu speakers, this study provides newly collected data and a new analysis. It compares the newly collected data with the 18th-century attestations of Duoxu as well as with its two putative sister languages Ersu and Lizu. The conclusion of the study is that Duoxu is closely related to Ersu and Lizu, with superficial differences attributed to long-standing and on-going contact influence from Southwestern Mandarin.
1991Predicting the structure of phonological systems. Phonetica 481.83-107.
Beyer, Stephan V..
1992The Classical Tibetan language. Albany: State University of New York Press.
1997Tibeto-Burman languages and classification. In David Bradley (ed.), Tibeto-Burman languages of the Himalayas(
Papers in Southeast Asian Linguistics no.14
), 1–71.Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.
Campbell, Lyle & Martha C. Muntzel.
1989The structural consequences of language death. In Nancy C. Dorian (ed.), Investigating obsolescence: studies in contraction and death (Studies in the Social and Cultural Foundations of Language71), 181–196. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Chao, Yuen Ren.
1930ə sɩstəm əv “toun-lɛtəz”. Le Maître Phonetique 301.24–27.
2007A Mandarin dialect 300 years ago: A phonological profile. Paper presented at the Fifth Conference of the European Association of Chinese Linguistics (EACL-5), MPI Leipzig, Germany, September 4-7.
In press. Phonological profile of Kami, the Tibetan dialect of Muli. In Jackson T.-S. Sun (ed.), Language and Linguistics: Special issue on lesser known dialects of Tibetan.
Chirkova, Katia & Yiya Chen.
2013Lizu: Illustrations of the IPA. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 43(1).75–86.
Forthcoming. Ersu: Illustrations of the IPA. Journal of the International Phonetic Association.
Chirkova, Katia & Zev Handel.
2013aDiachronic developments of voiceless nasals in Ersu, Lizu, and related languages. Paper presented at the 46th International Conference on Sino-Tibetan Languages and Linguistics, Dartmouth College, New Hampshire, August 7–10.
Chirkova, Katia & Zev Handel.
2013bFricativization of high vowels and glides in Ersu, Lizu, and related languages. Paper presented at the 3rd Workshop on Sino-Tibetan Languages of Sichuan, Paris, September 2-4.
Chirkova, Katia & Zev Handel.
ms. Diachronic developments of voiceless nasals: the case of Ersu, Lizu, and related languages.
格桑居冕 1989Phonological analysis of Batang Tibetan. Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hung. 18(2-3).331–358.
黄布凡 & Yǐn Wèibīn 尹蔚彬 2012Duōxùyǔ gàikuàng 多须语概况 [An outline of the Duoxu language]. Hàn-Zàngyǔ Xuébào《汉藏语学报》 (61).49–70.
Ladefoged, Peter & Ian Maddieson.
1996The sounds of the world’s languages. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers.
2003Standard Chinese (Beijing): Illustrations of the IPA. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33(1).109–112.
李藍 2010Sìchuān Mùlǐ xiàn fāngyán jìluè 四川木里縣方言記略 [The Chinese dialect of Mùlǐ, Sìchuān: A survey]. Fāngyán 《方言》 [Dialects] 21.114–133.
龙西江 2007凉山境内“西番”及渊源探讨[An exploration of the Xīfān people of Liángshān Prefecture and their origins]. In Lǐ Shàomíng 李绍明 & Liú Jùnbō 刘俊波 (eds.), Ěrsū zàngzú yánjiū 《尔苏藏族研究》 [Studies on the Ersu Tibetans], 350–380.Beijing 北京: Minzu Chubanshe 民族出版社. First published in 1991 in Xīzàng Yánjiū 《西藏研究》 [Tibet Studies]1(3).
Miǎnníng Xiàn Zhì 《冕宁县志》 [Annals of Miǎnníng County], Xiánfēng qī nián jiāpíng yuè gǎo jiān 咸丰七年嘉平月镌 [Woodblock of the twelfth month of the seventh year of Xianfeng reign period]. Facsimile edition from [URL].
1996The comparative method as heuristic. In Mark Durie & Malcolm Ross (eds.), The comparative method revisited: regularity and irregularity in language change, 39–71. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
西田龍雄 1973多續譯語の硏究 : 新言語トス語の構造と系統 / A study of the Tosu-Chinese vocabulary, Tosu i-yu: the structure and lineage of Tosu, a new language. Kyoto: Shokado松香堂.
西田龍雄 1976Hsihsia, Tosu, and Lolo-Burmese Languages. Studia Phonologica X1.1–15.
西田龍雄 & Sūn Hóngkāi 孙宏开 1990Hakuba yakugo no kenkyū: hakuba no kōzō to keitō 《白馬譯語の研究: 白馬語の构造と系统》 [A study of the Báimǎ-Chinese vocabulary ‘Báimǎ yìyǔ’: the structure and affiliation of the Báimǎ language]. Kyoto 京都:Shokado 松香堂.
Niè Hóngyīn 聂鸿音 & Sūn Bójūn 孙伯君.
2010Xīfān Yìyǔ jiàolù jí huìbiān 《西番译语》校录及汇编 [Collated and collected vocabularies of Xifan Yiyu
]. Běijīng 北京: Shèhuì Kēxué Wénxiàn Chūbǎnshè 社会科学文献出版社.
Ohala, John J..
1979The contribution of acoustic phonetics to phonology. In B. Lindblom & S. Ohman (eds.), Frontiers of speech communication research, 355–363. London: Academic Press.
Ohala, John J..
1983The origin of sound patterns in vocal tract constraints. In Peter F. MacNeilage (ed.), The production of speech, 189–216. New York: Springer.
Ohala, John J. & James Lorentz.
1977The story of [w]: an exercise in the phonetic explanation for sound patterns.
Proceedings of the 3rd annual meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society
, 577–599. Berkeley, California: Berkeley Linguistics Society.
Schmid, Monika S..
2011Language attrition (Key Topics in Sociolinguistics). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2001Lùn Zàng-Miǎn yǔzú zhōng de Qiāng yǔzhī yǔyán 论藏缅语族中的羌语支语言 [On the Qiangic branch of the Tibeto-Burman language family]. Language and Linguistics 2(1).157–181.
Wáng Déhé 王德和.
2010Ěrsū zàngzú wénhuà yánjiū 《尔苏藏族文化研究》[Study of Ersu Tibetan culture]. Chéngdū 成都: Sìchuān University Press 四川大学出版社.
Wū Dá 巫达.
2010Zúqúnxìng yǔ zúqún rèntóng jiàngòu—Sìchuān Ěrsūrén de mínzúzhì yánjiū 《族群性与族群认同建构——四川尔苏人的民族志研究》[The construction of ethnic identities among the Ersu of Sichuan]. Běijīng 北京: Mínzú Chūbǎnshè 民族出版社.
Yu, Alan C.L..
2008The phonetics of quantity alternations in Washo. Journal of Phonetics 361.508–520.
2012Proto-Ersuic. Ph.D. Dissertation: University of California, Berkeley.
袁家骅 et al.2001Hànyǔ fāngyán gàiyào 《汉语方言概要》. [Outline of Chinese dialects]. Běijīng 北京: Yǔwén Chūbǎnshè 语文出版社. First published in 1960, Běijīng 北京: Wénzì Gǎigé Chūbǎnshè 文字改革出版社.
(Ye shes dbang phyug) 袁晓文(益希汪秋天） 2010Duōxù Zàngzú: Zàng-Yí zǒuláng zhōng de lìshǐ jìyì yǔ zúqún rèntóng 多续藏族：藏彝走廊中的历史记忆与族群认同 [Duoxu Tibetans: Historical Memory and Ethnic Identification in the Tibetan-Yi Ethnic Corridor]. In Zàng-Yí zǒuláng: wénhuà duōyàngxìng, zújì hùdòng yǔ fāzhǎn 《藏彝走廊：文化多样性，族际互动与发展》[Collected papers on the Tibetan-Yi ethnic corridor: cultural diversity, interethnic interaction and development]. Běijīng 北京: Mínzú Chūbǎnshè 民族出版社.
(Ye shes dbang phyug) 袁晓文(益希汪秋天） 2011Ěrsū, Duōxù Zàngzú yánjiū jí qí guānxi biànxī 尔苏多续藏族研究及其关系辨析 [Research and analysis of the relationship between the Ersu and the Duoxu Tibetan ethnic groups], Zhōngguó Zàngxué《中国藏学》 [Chinese Tibetology] 31.129–133.
(Ye shes dbang phyug) 袁晓文(益希汪秋天） 2012Hé ér bù tóng: Zàngzú zǒuláng Duōxù zúqún yǔ qítā Zàngzú zhīxì guānxi yánjiū 和而不同：藏彝走廊多续族群与其他藏族支系关系研究 [Harmony but not conformity: On the relationship between Duoxu Tibetans and other Tibetan branches in the Tibetan-Yi corridor]. Guǎngxī Mínzú Dàxué Xuébào (Zhéxué Shèhuì Kēxué bǎn)《广西民族大学学报(哲学社会科学版）》[Journal of Guangxi University for Nationalities (Philosophy and Social Science Edition)], 35(2).7–15.
2015. Ersu. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 45:2 ► pp. 187 ff.
2017. Introduction: the transformation of Tibet’s language ecology in the twenty-first century. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 2017:245 ► pp. 1 ff.
Roche, Gerald & Yudru Tsomu
2018. Tibet's Invisible Languages and China's Language Endangerment Crisis: Lessons from the Gochang Language of Western Sichuan. The China Quarterly 233 ► pp. 186 ff.
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 1 december 2023. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers.
Any errors therein should be reported to them.