Agurtzane Azkarai | Universidad del País Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea (UPV/EHU)
Previous research carried out from a socio-cultural perspective has explored the way adult learners interact when
undertaking tasks. Following the type of analysis initiated by Storch (2002) we
examined the patterns of interaction of young ESL learners (ages 9–12) of different English proficiency levels, high-intermediate
(H) and low-intermediate (L) as they worked with native speakers (NS) (i.e., H/NS and L/NS pairs) to carry out a one-way and a
two-way task. Once the patterns of interaction were determined, we then explored the relationship between these patterns, the
learners’ proficiency levels and the task type. Our findings reveal that, regardless of proficiency, these child ESL learners
engaged with the tasks and with each other, most often collaboratively, but also using other patterns interaction. However, the
findings also suggest that task type and learner proficiency influenced the pattern of interactions that occurred.
(2006) L2 tasks and orientation to form: A role for modality?ITL: International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 1521, 7–34.
Adams, R., & Ross-Feldman, L.
(2008) Does writing influence learner attention to form? In D. Belcher & A. Hirvela (Eds.), The oral-literate connection. Perspectives on L2 speaking, writing, and other media interactions (pp. 243–265). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press.
Ahmadian, M., & Tajabadi, A.
(2017) Patterns of interaction in young EFL learners’ pair work: the relationship between pair dynamics and vocabulary acquisition. 3L: The Southeast Asian Journal of English Language Studies, 22(3), 98–114.
Azkarai, A., & Imaz Agirre, A.
(2016) Negotiation of meaning strategies in child EFL mainstream and CLIL settings. TESOL Quarterly, 50(4), 844–870.
Azkarai, A., & Oliver, R.
(2016) Negative feedback on task repetition: ESL vs. EFL child settings. Language Learning Journal.
Butler, Y. G., & Zeng, W.
(2014) Young foreign language learners’ interactions during task-based paired assessments. Language Assessment Quarterly, 111, 45–75.
Butler, Y. G., & Zeng, W.
(2015) Young foreign language learners’ interactional development in task-based paired assessment in their first and foreign languages: a case of English learners in China. Education 3–13, 431, 292–321.
(2017) The effect of conversation engagement on L2 learning opportunities. ELT Journal, 711, 329–340.
(2018) Patterns of pair interaction in communicative tasks: the transition process and effect on L2 teaching and learning. ELT Journal.
(2016) Focus on form: A critical review. Language Teaching Research, 20(3), 405–428.
(2004) Learner proficiency and focus on form during collaborative dialogue. Language Teaching Research, 81, 55–81.
Mackey, M., & Gass, S.
(2005) Second language research: Methodology and design. Mahwah, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
(2005) How does group discussion in reconstruction tasks affect written language output. Language Awareness, 14(2, 3), 128–141.
(2009) Effect of task-inherent production modes on EFL learners’ focus on form. Language Awareness, 18(3–4), 384–402.
(1995) Negative feedback in child NS-NNS conversation. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 171, 459–481.
(1998) Negotiation of meaning in child interactions. The Modern Language Journal, 82(3), 372–386.
(2002) The patterns of negotiation for meaning in child interactions. The Modern Language Journal, 86(1), 97–111.
(2009) How young is too young? Investigating negotiation of meaning and corrective feedback in children aged five to seven years. In A. Mackey & C. Polio (Eds.), Multiple perspectives on interaction: Second language interaction research in honour of Sue M. Gass (pp. 135–156). London: Routledge.
Oliver, R., & Azkarai, A.
(2017) Review of child second language acquisition (SLA): Examining theories and research. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 371, 62–76.
2021. Questioning in TOEFL iBT speaking test: a case of washback and construct underrepresentation. Language Testing in Asia 11:1
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