Calculating a pattern’s competitive strength
Competition between /æ/ and /ʌ/ in irregular simple pasts and past participles in English
This article proposes a measure of the competitive strength of two rival patterns in the domain of a subgroup of irregular verbs in English. There is competition between simple pasts built on the vowels /æ/ and /ʌ/, and the same competition is found in the domain of past participles. As a result of such competition, the past tense stang (from sting) was replaced with stung. The /ʌ/ forms are more competitive than the /æ/ forms (Bybee & Slobin 2007, Bybee & Moder 2007). To understand this, we counted the number of types for /æ/ (such as sang, rang) and /ʌ/ (such as stung, stuck) in the irregular simple past and did the same in the irregular participle (such as sat, had and sung, done). We calculated a measure of competitiveness for these two patterns incorporating type frequency and token frequency. This measure was used to explain why /ʌ/ forms are more competitive than /æ/ forms.
- 1.Competition and change
- 2.Empirical evidence showing that the /ʌ/ pattern is more competitive than the /æ/ pattern
- 2.1Historical evidence
- 2.2Evidence from dialects
- 2.3Evidence from errors
- 3.The calculation of competitive strength
- 3.1Type frequency and token frequency
- 3.2A formalisation of the relation between type frequency and token frequency
- 3.3Calculating the competitive strength of the /æ/ pattern and the /ʌ/ pattern
- 4.Concluding remarks
Cited by 2 other publications
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