This study explores the retrieval of proper names and the sensitivity of this lexical category to the modulatory
effect of cognitive reserve in an aging population. Thirty-two elderly patients, undergoing their first neuropsychological
evaluation were matched for age and education to thirty-two healthy controls. All participants were administered the Montreal
Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) to measure their global cognitive performance, the Famous Face Naming test to assess proper name
retrieval, and the Cognitive Reserve Index (CRI) questionnaire to obtain an index of cognitive reserve. The two groups had
comparable CRI total scores, but patients’ performance was worse in both MoCA and Famous Face naming test, compared to healthy
controls. Results showed that cognitive reserve predicted global cognitive performance (i.e., MoCA score) in the patients, but not
in the healthy participants. Naming proper names was independent from cognitive reserve. This might be due to their lexical
nature, which lies in a poor semantic connection between proper names and their bearers.
(2013) Coping with task demand in aging using neural compensation and neural reserve triggers primarily intra-hemispheric-based neurofunctional reorganization. Neuroscience research, 75(4), 295–304.
Arcara, G., Mondini, S., Bisso, A., Palmer, K., Meneghello, F., Semenza, C.
(2017) The Relationship between Cognitive Reserve and Math Abilities. Frontiers in aging neuroscience, 9, 429.
Barulli, D., & Stern, Y.
(2013) Efficiency, capacity, compensation, maintenance, plasticity: emerging concepts in cognitive reserve. Trends in cognitive sciences, 17(10), 502–509.
Biundo, R., Weis, L., Facchini, S., Formento-Dojot, P., Vallelunga, A., Pilleri, M., & Antonini, A.
(2014) Cognitive profiling of Parkinson disease patients with mild cognitive impairment and dementia. Parkinsonism & related disorders, 20(4), 394–399.
(2017) The cognitive psychology and neuroscience of naming people. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 831, 145–154.
Burke, D. M., MacKay, D. G., Worthley, J. S., & Wade, E.
(1991) On the tip of the tongue: What causes word finding failures in young and older adults?Journal of memory and language, 30(5), 542–579.
Cohen, G., & Burke, D. M.
(1993) Memory for proper names: A review. Memory, 1(4), 249–263.
Conti, S., Bonazzi, S., Laiacona, M., Masina, M., & Coralli, M. V.
(2015) Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)-Italian version: regression based norms and equivalent scores. Neurological Sciences, 36(2), 209–214.
Darby, R. R., Brickhouse, M., Wolk, D. A., & Dickerson, B. C.
(2017) Effects of cognitive reserve depend on executive and semantic demands of the task. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 88(9), 794–802.
(1982) Uber Sinn und Bedeutung. In Patzig, G. (Ed), Funktion, Begriff, Bedeutung. Gottingen: Vandenhoek und Ruprecht.
Gold, B. T., Johnson, N. F., & Powell, D. K.
(2013) Lifelong bilingualism contributes to cognitive reserve against white matter integrity declines in aging. Neuropsychologia, 51(13), 2841–2846.
Hoops, S., Nazem, S., Siderowf, A. D., Duda, J. E., Xie, S. X., Stern, M. B., & Weintraub, D.
(2009) Validity of the MoCA and MMSE in the detection of MCI and dementia in Parkinson disease. Neurology, 73(21), 1738–1745.
Karrasch, M., & Laine, M.
(2003) Age, education and test performance on the Finnish CERAD. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 108(2), 97–101.
Kripke, S. Naming
and Necessity. Oxford: Blackwell 1980.
Le Carret, N., Lafont, S., Letenneur, L., Dartigues, J. F., Mayo, W., & Fabrigoule, C.
(2003) The effect of education on cognitive performances and its implication for the constitution of the cognitive reserve. Developmental neuropsychology, 23(3), 317–337.
Leon, I., García-García, J., & Roldan-Tapia, L.
(2014) Estimating cognitive reserve in healthy adults using the Cognitive Reserve Scale. PloS one, 9(7), e102632.
Meng, X., & D’Arcy, C.
(2012) Education and dementia in the context of the cognitive reserve hypothesis: a systematic review with meta-analyses and qualitative analyses. PloS one, 7(6), e38268.
Mitzner, T. L., & Kemper, S.
(2003) Oral and written language in late adulthood: Findings from the Nun Study. Experimental aging research, 29(4), 457–474.
Mortimer, J. A., Borenstein, A. R., Gosche, K. M., & Snowdon, D. A.
(2005) Very early detection of Alzheimer neuropathology and the role of brain reserve in modifying its clinical expression. Journal of geriatric psychiatry and neurology, 18(4), 218–223.
Nasreddine, Z. S., Phillips, N. A., Bédirian, V., Charbonneau, S., Whitehead, V., Collin, I., … & Chertkow, H.
(2005) The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA: a brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 53(4), 695–699.
Nucci, M., Mapelli, D., & Mondini, S.
(2012) Cognitive Reserve Index questionnaire (CRIq): a new instrument for measuring cognitive reserve. Aging clinical and experimental research, 24(3), 218–226.
Perquin, M., Vaillant, M., Schuller, A. M., Pastore, J., Dartigues, J. F., Lair, M. L., … & MemoVie Group
(2013) Lifelong exposure to multilingualism: new evidence to support cognitive reserve hypothesis. PloS one, 8(4), e62030.
R Core Team
(2017) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. URL [URL]
Reed, B. R., Dowling, M., Farias, S. T., Sonnen, J., Strauss, M., Schneider, J. A., … & Mungas, D.
(2011) Cognitive activities during adulthood are more important than education in building reserve. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 17(4), 615–624.
Scarmeas, N., & Stern, Y.
(2003) Cognitive reserve and lifestyle. Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology, 25(5), 625–633.
(2006) Retrieval pathways for common and proper names. Cortex, 42(6), 884–891.
(2009) The neuropsychology of proper names. Mind & Language, 24(4), 347–369.
Semenza, C., Mondini, S., Borgo, F., Pasini, M., & Sgaramella, M. T.
(2003) Proper names in patients with early Alzheimer’s disease. Neurocase, 9(1), 63–69.
Semenza, C., Nichelli, F., & Gamboz, N.
(1996, October). The primacy effect in free recall of lists of common and proper names: A study on young, elderly, and Alzheimer’s disease subjects. In Brain and Language (Vol. 55, No. 1, pp. 45–47). 525 B ST, STE 1900, SAN DIEGO, CA 92101–4495: ACADEMIC PRESS INC JNL-COMP SUBSCRIPTIONS.
Semenza, C., & Zettin, M.
(1988) Generating proper names: A case of selective inability. Cognitive neuropsychology, 5(6), 711–721.
Semenza, C., & Zettin, M.
(1989) Evidence from aphasia for proper names as pure referring expressions, Nature 3421, 678–79.
Snowdon, D. A., Kemper, S. J., Mortimer, J. A., Greiner, L. H., Wekstein, D. R., & Markesbery, W. R.
(1996) Linguistic ability in early life and cognitive function and Alzheimer’s disease in late life: Findings from the Nun Study. Jama, 275(7), 528–532.
Spitznagel, M. B., & Tremont, G.
(2005) Cognitive reserve and anosognosia in questionable and mild dementia. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 20(4), 505–515.
(2002) What is cognitive reserve? Theory and research application of the reserve concept. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 8(3), 448–460.
(2012) Cognitive reserve in ageing and Alzheimer’s disease. The Lancet Neurology, 11(11), 1006–1012.
Tucker-Drob, E. M., Johnson, K. E., & Jones, R. N.
(2009) The cognitive reserve hypothesis: a longitudinal examination of age-associated declines in reasoning and processing speed. Developmental psychology, 45(2), 431.
Valenzuela, M. J.
(2008) Brain reserve and the prevention of dementia. Current opinion in psychiatry, 21(3), 296–302.
Valenzuela, M. J., & Sachdev, P.
(2007) Assessment of complex mental activity across the lifespan: development of the Lifetime of Experiences Questionnaire (LEQ). Psychological medicine, 37(7), 1015–1025.
Wang, C. S. M., Pai, M. C., Chen, P. L., Hou, N. T., Chien, P. F., & Huang, Y. C.
(2013) Montreal Cognitive Assessment and Mini-Mental State Examination performance in patients with mild-to-moderate dementia with Lewy bodies, Alzheimer’s disease, and normal participants in Taiwan. International psychogeriatrics, 25(11), 1839–1848.
Cited by 6 other publications
Montemurro, Sonia, Gonia Jarema & Sara Mondini
2021. Cognitive Reserve and language processing demand in healthy older adults. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience 36:6 ► pp. 758 ff.
Montemurro, Sonia, Sara Mondini, Chiara Crovace & Gonia Jarema
2019. Cognitive Reserve and Its Effect in Older Adults on Retrieval of Proper Names, Logo Names and Common Nouns. Frontiers in Communication 4
Montemurro, Sonia, Sara Mondini, Matteo Signorini, Anna Marchetto, Valentina Bambini & Giorgio Arcara
2019. Pragmatic Language Disorder in Parkinson’s Disease and the Potential Effect of Cognitive Reserve. Frontiers in Psychology 10
Mueller, Kimberly D., Rebecca L. Koscik, Lianlian Du, Davide Bruno, Erin M. Jonaitis, Audra Z. Koscik, Bradley T. Christian, Tobey J. Betthauser, Nathaniel A. Chin, Bruce P. Hermann & Sterling C. Johnson
2020. Proper names from story recall are associated with beta-amyloid in cognitively unimpaired adults at risk for Alzheimer's disease. Cortex 131 ► pp. 137 ff.
2021. Differential Impact of Education on Cognitive Performance in Neurological Patients with Progressive Cognitive Decline. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 80:4 ► pp. 1491 ff.
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 10 april 2022. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers.
Any errors therein should be reported to them.