Understatements and Hedges in English

ISBN 9789027225313 (Eur) | EUR 75.00
ISBN 9780915027293 (USA) | USD 113.00
ISBN 9789027280336 | EUR 75.00 | USD 113.00
The goal of this monograph is a comprehensive analysis of understatements and other forms of non-direct speech (hedges) in modern English. It is based on a multi-level approach, including philosophical, cultural, and socio-psychological arguments. The main part consists of an investigation of the linguistic restrictions for understatements and hedges to be formed by means of the following grammatical categories: negation of predicates, gradation of predicates, modalization of affirmative sentences by means of parenthetical verbs, modal adverbs, modal verbs, and questions.
[Pragmatics & Beyond, IV:6]  1983.  ix, 192 pp.
Publishing status: Available
Table of Contents
0. Introduction
1. Guidelines to Understatements and Hedges
1.1. The sentence and its negatability
1.2. Liability constraints of the sentence
1.3. Working definition and working perspective
2. Phrastic Indetermination as a Device for Forming Understatements
2.1. Negation of predicates
2.2. Detensification of predicates by grading adverbs
3. Neustic Indetermination as a Device for Forming Hedges
3.1. Factivity and modality
3.2. Questions
3.3. Modalized assertory assertions
3.4. Summary
4. Communicative Conditions for Understatements and Hedges
4.1. Another look at negatability of sentences
4.2. Communication as a possible threat to face
4.3. Understatements and hedges as face saving strategies
4.4. Face threatening acts and face saving strategies exemplified by praise and criticism
4.5. Summary
Cited by

Cited by 63 other publications

Adamczyk, Magdalena
2015. Do hedges always hedge?. Pragmatics. Quarterly Publication of the International Pragmatics Association (IPrA) 25:3  pp. 321 ff. Crossref logo
Adamczyk, Magdalena
2017.  In Pragmatic Markers, Discourse Markers and Modal Particles [Studies in Language Companion Series, 186],  pp. 369 ff. Crossref logo
Avkhacheva, Irina, Irina Barinova & Natalia Nesterova
2020.  In Integrating Engineering Education and Humanities for Global Intercultural Perspectives [Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems, 131],  pp. 494 ff. Crossref logo
Barchas‐Lichtenstein, Jena & Alexandra D'Arcy
2020.  In The International Encyclopedia of Linguistic Anthropology,  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo
Birzer, Sandra
2015. Generally speaking, connectivity and conversation management combined: the functions of Russian voobšče govorja and Polish ogólnie mówiąc. Russian Linguistics 39:1  pp. 81 ff. Crossref logo
Bordet, Lucile & Denis Jamet
2015. Degré et intensification : essai de typologie. Anglophonia :20 Crossref logo
Cheatham, Gregory A. & Sylvia Nyegenye
2017. Linguistic Differences with Bilingual Parents Who are Immigrants: Words for Dialoguing About Young Children. Early Childhood Education Journal 45:5  pp. 685 ff. Crossref logo
Claridge, Claudia, Ewa Jonsson & Merja Kytö
2021. A Little Something Goes a Long Way: Little in the Old Bailey Corpus. Journal of English Linguistics 49:1  pp. 61 ff. Crossref logo
Clark, Colin, Priscilla Rogers, Ulrike M Murfett & Soon Ang
2008. Is Courtesy Enough? 'Solidarity' in Call Center Interactions. SSRN Electronic Journal Crossref logo
Cotterill, Janet
2007.  In Vague Language Explored,  pp. 97 ff. Crossref logo
de Pablos-Ortega, Carlos
2021.  In Police Interviews [Benjamins Current Topics, 118],  pp. 51 ff. Crossref logo
Dolgova Jacobsen, Natalia
2018.  In Language Learning, Discourse and Cognition [Human Cognitive Processing, 64],  pp. 275 ff. Crossref logo
Dynel, Marta & Karol Marek Klimczak
2014. Evaluation and Certainty in Analyst Reports: A Linguistic Analysis in the Polish Language. SSRN Electronic Journal Crossref logo
Farese, Gian Marco
2020.  In Studies in Ethnopragmatics, Cultural Semantics, and Intercultural Communication,  pp. 59 ff. Crossref logo
Feltovich, Nick J., Rick Harbaugh & Ted To
2001. Too Cool for School? Signaling and Countersignaling. SSRN Electronic Journal Crossref logo
Garcia, Angela Cora
2019.  In How Mediation Works, Crossref logo
Gribanova, T. I.
2019. HEDGING IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF DISCOURSE. Issues of Applied Linguistics  pp. 7 ff. Crossref logo
1989. Linguistic Politeness in Professional Prose. Written Communication 6:3  pp. 312 ff. Crossref logo
Haimowitz, Ira J.
1991. Modeling all dialogue system participants to generate empathetic responses. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine 35:4  pp. 321 ff. Crossref logo
Hassan, Ali Sabah & Nadya Khairy Muhamed Said
2020. A PRAGMATIC STUDY OF HEDGES IN AMERICAN POLITICAL EDITORIALS. International Journal of Research in Social Sciences and Humanities 10:3  pp. 60 ff. Crossref logo
Hinkel, Eli
1994. Appropriateness of Advice as L2 Solidarity Strategy. RELC Journal 25:2  pp. 71 ff. Crossref logo
Holmes, Janet
1988. Of course:A pragmatic particle in New Zealand women's and men's speech∗. Australian Journal of Linguistics 8:1  pp. 49 ff. Crossref logo
Holmes, Janet
1988. SORT OFIN NEW ZEALAND WOMEN'S AND MEN'S SPEECH. Studia Linguistica 42:2  pp. 85 ff. Crossref logo
Holmes, Janet
1989. Bent Preisler, Linguistic sex roles in conversation: Social variation in the expression of tentativeness in English. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1986. Pp. xviii + 347.. Language in Society 18:2  pp. 293 ff. Crossref logo
Holmes, Janet
2021. Review of Ken (1998): Hedging in Scientific Research Articles. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics  pp. 144 ff. Crossref logo
Hyland, Ken
1994. Hedging in academic writing and EAF textbooks. English for Specific Purposes 13:3  pp. 239 ff. Crossref logo
Israel, M.
1996. Polarity sensitivity as lexical semantics. Linguistics and Philosophy 19:6  pp. 619 ff. Crossref logo
Ivanova, V. G.
2013. LINGUISTIC ASPECTS OF UNDERSTATEMENT IN MODERN ENGLISH. MGIMO Review of International Relations :5(32)  pp. 252 ff. Crossref logo
Johansen, Stine Hulleberg
2021. “I guess anyone would do that wouldn’t they?”. Languages in Contrast 21:2  pp. 163 ff. Crossref logo
Kerre, Etienne E. & Martine De Cock
1999.  In Fuzzy Logic and Soft Computing [The International Series on Asian Studies in Computer and Information Science, 6],  pp. 69 ff. Crossref logo
Klimczak, Karol Marek & Marta Dynel
2018. Evaluation Markers and Mitigators in Analyst Reports in Light of Market Response to Stock Recommendations. International Journal of Business Communication 55:3  pp. 310 ff. Crossref logo
Knight, Dawn, Svenja Adolphs & Ronald Carter
2013.  In Yearbook of Corpus Linguistics and Pragmatics 2013 [Yearbook of Corpus Linguistics and Pragmatics, 1],  pp. 131 ff. Crossref logo
Lampert, Gunther
2020.  In Re-Assessing Modalising Expressions [Studies in Language Companion Series, 216],  pp. 109 ff. Crossref logo
2008. The poetics of stance: Text-metricality, epistemicity, interaction. Language in Society 37:4  pp. 569 ff. Crossref logo
Link, Kristen E. & Roger J. Kreuz
2005. The Comprehension of Ostensible Speech Acts. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 24:3  pp. 227 ff. Crossref logo
Malmström, Hans
2015. Preaching in uncertain terms. Functions of Language 22:3  pp. 332 ff. Crossref logo
Malášková, Martina
2012. Hedges as writer protective devices in applied linguistics and literary criticism research articles. Discourse and Interaction 5:1  pp. 31 ff. Crossref logo
Mihatsch, Wiltrud
2012.  In The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics, Crossref logo
Mondorf, Britta
2002. Gender Differences in English Syntax. Journal of English Linguistics 30:2  pp. 158 ff. Crossref logo
Ehsan Namaziandost & Sajad Shafiee
2018. Gender Differences in the Use of Lexical Hedges in Academic Spoken Language among Iranian EFL Learners: A Comparative Study. International Journal of Research in English Education 3:4  pp. 63 ff. Crossref logo
Neuhaus, Laura
2016. On the relation of irony, understatement, and litotes. Pragmatics & Cognition 23:1  pp. 117 ff. Crossref logo
2010. Cameroonian and foreign scholars’ discourse: the rhetoric of conference abstracts. World Englishes 29:2  pp. 173 ff. Crossref logo
Nobarany, Syavash & Kellogg S. Booth
2015. Use of politeness strategies in signed open peer review. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology 66:5  pp. 1048 ff. Crossref logo
Pablos-Ortega, Carlos de
2019. “Would it be fair to say that you actively sought out material?”. Pragmatics and Society 10:1  pp. 49 ff. Crossref logo
Parvaresh, Vahid & Sayyed Amir Sheikhan
2019. Pragmatic functions of ‘sort of’ in Persian. Journal of Asian Pacific Communication 29:1  pp. 86 ff. Crossref logo
Plastina, Anna Franca & Fabrizia Del Vecchio
2014.  In Communicating Certainty and Uncertainty in Medical, Supportive and Scientific Contexts [Dialogue Studies, 25],  pp. 183 ff. Crossref logo
Ponterotto, Diane
2014. The risks of uncertainty. Language and Dialogue 4:1  pp. 93 ff. Crossref logo
Ponterotto, Diane
2018. Hedging in political interviewing. Pragmatics and Society 9:2  pp. 175 ff. Crossref logo
2003. Stance moods in spoken English: Evidentiality and affect in British and American conversation. Text - Interdisciplinary Journal for the Study of Discourse 23:2 Crossref logo
Pupier, Paul
2009. Une première systématique des évaluatifs en français. Revue québécoise de linguistique 26:1  pp. 51 ff. Crossref logo
Ruzaitė, Jūratė
2007. Vague References to Quantities as a Face-Saving Strategy in Teacher-Student Interaction. Lodz Papers in Pragmatics 3:-1 Crossref logo
Rymar, Ye. F.
2013. Style of Mass Communication, Media Text in the Internet and the Implementation of Concept “Savaş” in it. The Oriental Studies 2013:61  pp. 139 ff. Crossref logo
Sabet, Peyman G. P.
2019. On the functions of sort of in New Zealand TV programs. Journal of Asian Pacific Communication 29:1  pp. 33 ff. Crossref logo
Salager‐Meyer, Françoise
2000. Debate‐creating vs. accounting references in French medical journals. Technical Communication Quarterly 9:3  pp. 291 ff. Crossref logo
Spinolo, Nicoletta
2018.  In Making Way in Corpus-based Interpreting Studies [New Frontiers in Translation Studies, ],  pp. 133 ff. Crossref logo
Varttala, Teppo
1999. Remarks on the Communicative Functions of Hedging in Popular Scientific and Specialist Research Articles on Medicine. English for Specific Purposes 18:2  pp. 177 ff. Crossref logo
Vlasova, Ekaterina Viktorovna
2018. SOCIO-CULTURAL ASPECT OF THE ADVERB IN THE NOVEL “SHATTERED” BY DICK FRANCIS. Philological Sciences. Issues of Theory and Practice :9-1  pp. 65 ff. Crossref logo
Waters, Sophia
2017.  In Cultural Keywords in Discourse [Pragmatics & Beyond New Series, 277],  pp. 25 ff. Crossref logo
Webb, Joseph C., Alison Pilnick & Jennifer Clegg
2018. Imagined Constructed Thought: How Staff Interpret the Behavior of Patients with Intellectual Disabilities. Research on Language and Social Interaction 51:4  pp. 347 ff. Crossref logo
Xie, Chaoqun & Bingyun Li
2017. McCready, Eric. 2015. Reliability in Pragmatics . Studies in Language 41:3  pp. 800 ff. Crossref logo
Yeomans, Michael, Brandon M. Stewart, Kimia Mavon, Alex Kindel, Dustin Tingley & Justin Reich
2018. The Civic Mission of MOOCs: Engagement across Political Differences in Online Forums. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education 28:4  pp. 553 ff. Crossref logo
Łyda, Andrzej & Krystyna Warchał
2011.  In Aspects of Culture in Second Language Acquisition and Foreign Language Learning,  pp. 193 ff. Crossref logo
刘, 昂
2019. Empirical Study on Hedges in the Abstracts of Articles in Computer Science between China and America. Modern Linguistics 07:06  pp. 983 ff. Crossref logo

This list is based on CrossRef data as of 16 november 2021. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.

Subjects & Metadata


BIC Subject: CF – Linguistics
BISAC Subject: LAN009000 – LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / General
ONIX Metadata
ONIX 2.1
ONIX 3.0
U.S. Library of Congress Control Number:  84010981 | Marc record