Few features of Irish English have been studied diachronically and the area of
pragmatic markers is likewise largely neglected even as regards present-day
Irish English (Corrigan 2010). This study uses data from the Corpus of Irish
English Correspondence (CORIECOR) to survey the history of some of the
pragmatic markers regarded as most typical of Irish English, particularly like
and sure. Besides addressing issues like the historical provenance of these
pragmatic markers in varieties of British English, Scots, in contact with Irish,
or as innovations in Irish English itself, we trace changes in the functions for
which the markers are used throughout the timespans covered by CORIECOR
(1750–1940). Also examined are usage patterns in the light of previous empirical
findings that many of the distinctive features of Irish English tend to emerge
in the written record only at relatively late stages in the process of language
shift, and the hypothesis that this may be related to increasing colloquialisation
2009 “The Pragmatics of Adverbs.” In One Language, Two Grammars? Differences between British and American English, ed. by Günter Rohdenburg and Julia Schlüter, 324–340. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2005 “Discourse Markers in Irish English: An Example from Literature.” In The Pragmatics of Irish English, ed. by Anne Barron and Klaus P. Schneider, 73–100. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Amador-Moreno, Carolina P
2006An Analysis of Hiberno-English in the Early Novels of Patrick MacGill. Bilingualism and language Shift from Irish to English in County Donegal. Lewiston NY: Edwin Mellen Press.
Amador-Moreno, Carolina P
2010An Introduction to Irish English. London: Equinox.
Amador-Moreno, Carolina P., and Anne O’Keeffe
2009 “From Arrah to Like: Irish English Discourse Markers in Fictional and Non-fictional Corpora.” Paper given at IVACS Annual Symposium, University of Edinburgh, January 2009.
Barron, Anne, and Klaus P. Schneider
2005The Pragmatics of Irish English. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Beal, Joan C
2008 “English Dialects in the North of England: Morphology and Syntax.” In Varieties of English 1. The British Isles, ed. by Bernd Kortmann and Clive Upton, 373–403. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
1988Variation Across Speech and Writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1995Dimensions of Register Variation: A Cross-linguistic Comparison. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Blake, Norman F
1981Non-standard Language in English Literature. London: André Deutsch.
Brinton, Laurel J
1996Pragmatic Markers in English. Grammaticalization and Discourse Functions. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
1994 “English Migration into and across the Atlantic during the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries.” In Europeans on the Move. Studies on European Migration, 1500–1800, ed. by Nicholas Canny, 39–75. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2001Making Ireland British 1580–1650. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Carter, Ronald A., and Michael J. McCarthy
2006Cambridge Grammar of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1996A First Glossary of Hiberno-English. Odense: Odense University Press.
2000A Case Study of the Linguistic Features of a Limerick Family. Unpublished MA thesis, Mary Immaculate College, University of Limerick.
2006 [2001, 1995]The Hamely Tongue. A Personal Record of Ulster-Scots in County Antrim. Third edition. Newtownards: Ulster-Scots Academic Press.
2008 “Irish English: Morphology and Syntax”. In Varieties of English 1. The British Isles, ed. by Bernd Kortmann and Clive Upton, 328–359. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
1984 “Estimates for Baronies of Minimum Level of Irish-speaking among Successive Decennial Cohorts: 1771–1781 to 1861–1871.” Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Section C, 84: 117–155.
2003 “Irish-speaking in the Pre-famine Period: A Study Based on the 1911 Census Data for People Born before 1851 and Still Alive in 1911.” Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Section C, 103: 5, 191–283.
Fitzgerald, Patrick, and Brian Lambkin
2008Migration in Irish History, 1607–2007. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
1994Oceans of Consolation. Personal Accounts of Irish Migration to Australia. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
2006 “Irish Emigration and the Art of Letter-writing.” In Letters across Borders. The Epistolary Practices of International Migrants, ed. by Bruce S. Elliott, David A. Gerber, and Suzanne M. Sinke, 97–106. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Hayden, Mary, and Marcus Hartog
1909 “The Irish Dialect of English.” Fortnightly Review NS 85: 775–785, 933–947.
2007Irish English. History and Present-day Forms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1961A Modern English Grammar on Historical Principles, Part VI: Morphology. London: Bradford and Dickens.
Joyce, Patrick Weston
1988 English as We Speak It in Ireland. Ed. and introduction Terence P. Dolan. Dublin: Wolfhound Press.
Kallen, Jeffrey L
2004 “Politeness in Modern Ireland: ‘You Know the Way in Ireland, It’s Done without Being Said’”. In Politeness in Europe, ed. by Leo Hickey and Miranda Stewart, 130–144. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Kallen, Jeffrey L
2006 “Arrah, Like, You Know: The Dynamics of Discourse Marking in ICE-Ireland.” Plenary paper presented at the Sociolinguistics Symposium 16, University of Limerick, July 2006.
Kallen, Jeffrey L
2013. Irish English, Volume 2 – The Republic of Ireland. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Kallen, Jeffrey L., and John M. Kirk
2008SPICE-Ireland: A User’s Guide. Belfast: Cló Ollscoil na Banríona.
2008 “Synopsis: Morphological and Syntactic Variation in the British Isles.” In Varieties of English 1. The British Isles, ed. by Bernd Kortmann and Clive Upton, 478–495. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
1991Variation and Diachrony, with Early American English in Focus. Studies on CAN/MAY and SHALL/WILL. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
2006 “The Sociolinguistic Distribution of Discourse Marker Like in Preadolescent Speech.” Multilingua 25: 413–44.
(ed.)1996Concise Ulster Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2011 “English Grammar, Celtic Revenge? The Progressive and Future Will in Irish English.” In Researching the Languages of Ireland. A Festschrift for Hildegard L.C. Tristram, ed. by Raymond Hickey, 223–242. Uppsala: Uppsala University Press.
2001 “You’re Like ‘Why Not?’ The Quotative Expressions of Glasgow Adolescents.” Journal of Sociolinguistics 5: 3–21.
1991 “It’s Like, ‘What’s Happening in the Evolution of Like’?” Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics 16: 37–51.
2002 “The Progressive in Early Scots.” In English Historical Syntax and Morphology. Selected Papers from 11ICEHL, ed. by Teresa Fanego, Javier Pérez-Guerra, and María José López-Couzo, 203–229. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
2008 “Scottish English: Morphology and Syntax.” In Varieties of English 1. The British Isles, ed. by Bernd Kortmann and Clive Upton, 299–327. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Miller, Kerby A
1985Emigrants and Exiles. Ireland and the Irish Exodus to North America. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Miller, Kerby A
2008Ireland and Irish America. Culture, Class, and Transatlantic Migration. Dublin: Field Day.
Montgomery, Michael B
1995 “The Linguistic Value of Ulster Emigrant Letters.” Ulster Folklife 41: 26–41.
2003Historical Sociolinguistics. Language Change in Tudor and Stuart England. London: Longman.
2005 “ ‘You’ve a Daughter Yourself?’ A Corpus-based Look at Question Forms in an Irish Radio Phone-in.” In The Pragmatics of Irish English, ed. by Anne Barron and Klaus P. Schneider, 339–366. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
2010 “Correspondence.” In Historical Pragmatics, ed. by Andreas H. Jucker and Irma Taavitsainen, 651–677. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
2007 Ulster-Scots. A Grammar of the Traditional Written and Spoken Language. Second edition. Belfast: The Ullans Press.
Romaine, Suzanne, and Deborah Lange
1991 “The Use of Like as a Marker of Reported Speech and Thought: A Case of Grammaticalization in Progress.” American Speech 66: 227–279.
Schneider, Edgar W
2002 “Investigating Variation and Change in Written Documents.” In The Handbook of Language Variation and Change, ed. by J.K. Chambers, Peter Trudgill, and Natalie Schilling-Estes, 67–96. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
2005The Progressive in 19th-Century English. A Process of Integration. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
Smout, T.C., N.C. Landsman, and T.M. Devine
1994 “Scottish Emigration in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries.” In Europeans on the Move. Studies on European Migration, 1500–1800, ed. by Nicholas Canny, 76–112. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
. [Pseud. Colonel O’Critical] 1885Don’t Pat. A Manual of Irishisms. Dublin: McGee William.
Tagliamonte, Sali A
2012Roots of English. Exploring the History of Dialects. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1972 A Grammatical Analysis of Artistic Representation of Irish English, with a Brief Discussion of Sounds and Spelling. Tokyo: Shinozaki Shorin.
Tieken-Boon van Ostade, Ingrid
2009An Introduction to Late Modern English. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
1989The Language of Irish Literature. London: Macmillan Education.
Traugott, Elizabeth C
1995 “The Role of the Development of Discourse Markers in a Theory of Grammaticalization.” Paper presented at the 12th International Conference on Historical Linguistics, University of Manchester, UK, version of 11/97.
Traugott, Elizabeth C
1996 “Constructions in Grammaticalization.” In The Handbook of Historical Linguistics, ed. by Brian Joseph and Richard Janda, 624–647. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
1953The English Dialect of Donegal. A Glossary. Incorporating the Collections of Henry Chichester Hart, MRIA (1847–1908). Dublin: The Royal Irish Academy.
1988 “Like is Like Focus.” American Speech 63: 234–246.
2009Irish English as Represented in Film. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
(ed.)1902The English Dialect Dictionary. London: Frowde.
Cited by 10 other publications
Amador-Moreno, Carolina P.
2016. The Language of Irish Writing in English. In Sociolinguistics in Ireland, ► pp. 299 ff.
Amador-Moreno, Carolina P., Karen P. Corrigan, Kevin McCafferty & Emma Moreton
2016. Migration Databases as Impact Tools in the Education and Heritage Sectors. In Creating and Digitizing Language Corpora, ► pp. 25 ff.
2019. “Believe My Word Dear Father that You Can’t Pick Up Money Here as Quick as the People at Home Thinks It”: Exploring Migration Experiences in Irish Emigrants’ Letters. Corpus Pragmatics 3:2 ► pp. 101 ff.
Avila-Ledesma, Nancy E. & Carolina P. Amador-Moreno
2016. “The More Please [Places] I See the More I Think of Home”: On Gendered Discourse of Irishness and Migration Experiences. In Yearbook of Corpus Linguistics and Pragmatics 2016 [Yearbook of Corpus Linguistics and Pragmatics, ], ► pp. 85 ff.
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 14 september 2023. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers.
Any errors therein should be reported to them.