This chapter investigates the use of discourse markers in L2 Irish English, specifically like by Polish people, assuming that the use of discourse markers is an indicator of integration. Quantitative and qualitative approaches are used to analyse the corpus of speech, focusing in particular on the positional distribution of like and the impact of age and place of residence. Results show that the L2 speakers use discourse like in patterns which correspond to those attested for L1 Irish English. Place of residence was a significant factor, with rural and urban speakers following rural and urban L1 patterns respectively. However, the younger speakers tended to favour urban (and global) clause-medial like over clause-marginal like, the more traditional pattern for Irish English. The young L2 speakers appear to be participating in the global change in like patterns.
1991 “The Acquisition of Community Norms by Asian Immigrants Learning English as a Second Language: A Preliminary Study”. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 13: 1–22.
Amador-Moreno, Carolina P
2010 “How Can Corpora Be Used to Explore Literary Speech Representation?” In The Routledge Handbook of Corpus Linguistics, ed. by Anne O’Keefe and Mike McCarthy, 531–544. London: Routledge.
Amador-Moreno, Carolina P
2010An Introduction to Irish English. London: Equinox.
Amador-Moreno, Carolina P
2012 “A Corpus-based Approach to Contemporary Irish Writing: Ross O’Carroll-Kelly’s Use of Like as a Discourse Marker”. International Journal of English Studies 12 (2): 19–38.
Amador-Moreno, Carolina P., and Anne O’Keefe
2009 “From Arrah to Like: Irish English Discourse Markers in Fictional and Non-fictional Corpora”. Paper presented at
IVACS Annual Symposium
, Edinburgh, January 2009.
1997 “ ‘They Gave Us These Yeah, and They Like Wanna See Like How We Talk and All That’: The Use of Like and Other Pragmatic Markers in London Teenage Speech”. In Ungdomsspråk i Norden, ed. by Ulla-Britt Kotsinas, Anna-Brita Stenström, and Anna-Malin Karlsson, 83–95. Stockholm: Stockholms Universitet, Institutionen för Nordiska Språk.
Myles, Florence, Rosamond Mitchell, and Janet Hooper
1999 “Interrogative Chunks in French L2: A Basis for Creative Construction”. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 21 (1): 49–80.
2013 “The Positional Distribution of Discourse Like – A Case Study of Young Poles in Ireland”. In Linguistic and Cultural Acquisition in a Migrant Community, ed. by David Singleton, Vera Regan, and Ewelina Debaene, 49–72. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
2014 “Young Poles in Ireland: Language and Integration.” Unpublished PhD thesis, University College Dublin, Dublin.
Nestor, Niamh, and Vera Regan
2011 “The New Kid on the Block: A Case Study of Young Poles, Language, and Identity”. In The Changing Faces of Ireland: Exploring the Lives of Immigrant and Ethnic Minority Children, ed. by Merike Darmody, Naomi Tyrrell, and Steve Song, 35–52. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
Ní Chonaill, Bríd
2010“Race Pressure Points No Longer Can Be Ignored”.Irish Times, April4 2010 Last accessed at [URL], 5 April 2010).
1997 “Les apprenants avancés, la lexicalisation et l’acquisition de la compétence sociolinguistique: une approche variationniste”. AILE: Acquisition et Interaction en Langue Etrangère 9: 193–210.
2004 “The Relationship between the Group and the Individual and the Acquisition of Native Speaker Variation Patterns: A Preliminary Study”. IRAL International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching 42: 335–348.
2013 “Variation”. In The Cambridge Handbook of Second Language Acquisition, ed. by Julia Herschenson and Martha Young-Scholten, 272–291. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
In press. “Tales from the Celtic Tiger: Migrants, Language Use and Identity”. In Representations of Identity in Ireland and Quebec ed. by Margaret Kelleher and Michael Keneally McGill-Queen’s University Press
Regan, Vera, Niamh Nestor, and Caitríona Ní Chasaide
1985Common Discourse Markers in English Conversation. New York: Garland Publishing.
2010 “LIKE Revisited: A Quantitative Analysis of the Distribution, Position, and Function of the Discourse Marker LIKE in Hiberno-English and Other Varieties of English”. Paper given at New Perspectives on Irish English, University College Dublin, 11–14 March 2010.
2002 “Like: The Discourse Particle and Semantics”. Journal of Semantics 19: 35–71.
Siemund, Peter, Georg Maier, and Martin Schweinberger
2009 “Towards a More Fine-grained Analysis of the Areal Distributions of Non-standard Features of English”. In Language Contact Meets English Dialects. Festschrift for Markku Filppula, ed. by Esa Penttilä and Heli Paulasto, 19–45. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Tagliamonte, Sali, and Alexandra F. D’Arcy
2004 “He’s Like, She’s Like: The Quotative System in Canadian Youth”. Journal of Sociolinguistics 8: 493–514.
Tagliamonte, Sali, and Rachel Hudson
1999 “Be Like, et al. beyond America: The Quotative System in British and Canadian Youth”. Journal of Sociolinguistics 3 (2): 147–172.
1986 “Introducing Constructed Dialogue in Greek and American Conversational and Literary Dialogue”. In Direct and Indirect Speech, ed. by Florian Coulmas, 311–322. Berlin: Mouton deGruyter.
1988 “Like Is, Like Focus”. American Speech 63 (3): 234–246.
Vaughan, Elaine, and Brian Clancy
2011 “The Pragmatics of Irish English”. English Today 27 (2): 47–52.
2002 “Discourse Quotatives in Australian English: Adolescents Performing Voices”. Australian Journal of Linguistics 22 (1): 5–21.
1991Variation in Interlanguage Morphology. New York: Peter Lang.
Cited by 6 other publications
among migrants in Ireland and Australia
. World Englishes
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 14 september 2023. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers.
Any errors therein should be reported to them.