Classical and Modern Hebrew are gender-marked in all morphological forms,
and the rules of Hebrew syntax require gender agreement. Consequently, it is
next to impossible to find a sentence without gender determination. Masculine
content words are unmarked, while feminine words are derived from them.
Masculine forms are also used generically, making them more visible than the
feminine. Feminine function words, mainly pronouns, were used in classical
periods for the masculine as well, leaving less specific features for the feminine.
We could expect that feminist speakers would try to change this practice in
Modern Hebrew despite the rigid linguistic structure. However, there have been
only a few gender changes, mostly in one direction: using masculine, but not
feminine forms, for both sexes. This article provides examples of this sociolinguistic
change and explains why it has taken this direction.
1999 “First Person in Second Person: Discursive Analysis of a Pseudo Second Person Pronoun.” In Hebrew – A Living Language vol. 2, ed. by Rina Ben-Shahar, and Gideon Toury, 75–90. Tel Aviv: The Porter Institute. [Hebrew]
1981 “The Zionist Women’s Movement in Palestine, 1911–1927 – A Sociological Analysis.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 7: 87–114.
Jacobs, Andrea M.
2004Language Reform as Language Ideology: An Examination of Israeli Feminist Language Practice. PhD dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin.
Kantor, Hadassah, and Malka Muchnik
1999 “Marked and Unmarked Directives in Modern Hebrew.” In Contemporary Journalistic Language: Memorial Book to Mina Efron, ed. by Miri Horvits, 134–147. Tel-Aviv: Mofet. [Hebrew]
2002Le Féminin à la Française: Académisme et Langue Française. Paris: L’Harmattan.
2010 “Humorless Lesbians”. In Femininity, Feminism and Gendered Discourse, ed. by Janet Holmes, and Meredith Marra, 59–83. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Press.
2006 “Gender Online in Hebrew: New Technology, Old Language.” In Corpus Linguistics and Gender: A Multilingual Analysis of an Electronic Corpus, ed. by Eva-Maria Thüne, Simona Leonardi, and Carla Bazzanella, 169–181. London: Continuum.
Livnat, Zohar, and Illil Yatziv
2012 “Functional Changes of Person, Tense and Mood in Spoken Discourse.” In Studies in Modern Hebrew and Jewish Languages – In Honor of Ora Schwarzwald, ed. by Malka Muchnik, and Tsvi Sadan, 461–472. Jerusalem: Carmel. [Hebrew]
Malchiel, Zehava, and Nira Fradkin
1987Equal Treatment for Boys and Girls in Textbooks. Jerusalem: The Ministry of Education. [Hebrew]
2008 “The Role of Prosody in Morphological Change: The Case of Hebrew Bound Numerals.” Language Variation and Change 20: 41–65.
Miller, Megan, and Lori James
2009 “Is the Generic Pronoun He Still Comprehended as Excluding Women?” American Journal of Psychology 122(4): 483–496.
Forthcoming. Ambiguous Gender Identity and the Use of Language Variations. PhD dissertation, Bar-Ilan University.
2012 “Is It Possible to Avoid Sexism in Hebrew?” In Studies in Modern Hebrew and Jewish Languages – In Honor of Ora Schwarzwald, ed. by Malka Muchnik, and Tsvi Sadan, 487–505. Jerusalem: Carmel. [Hebrew]
2013a “Language and Gender.” In Encyclopedia of Hebrew Language and Linguistics vol. 2, ed. by Geoffrey Khan, 17–20. Leiden: Brill.
2013b “Gender Variations in Hebrew.” In Gender-Linked Variation across Languages, ed. by Yousif Elhindi, and Theresa McGarry, 36–49. Champaign, IL: Common Ground.
2015The Gender Challenge of Hebrew. Leiden: Brill.
Ordan, Noam, and Shuly Wintner
2005 “Representing Natural Gender in Multilingual Databases.” International Journal of Lexicography 18(3): 357–370.
1998Women Changing Language. London; New York: Longman.
2003 “Linguistic Sexism and Feminist Linguistic Activism.” In The Handbook of Language and Gender, ed. by Janet Holmes, and Miriam Meyerhoff, 550–570. Oxford: Blackwell.
2003 “Women, Gender and Modern Greek.” In Gender across Languages: The Linguistic Representation of Women and Men vol. 3, ed. by Marlis Hellinger, and Hadumod Bussmann, 175–199. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
1995 “Neutralization of Gender Distinction in Modern Hebrew Numerals.” Language Variation and Change 7: 79–100.
2007 “Masculine Talk: On the Subconscious Use of Masculine Linguistic Forms among Hebrew- and Arabic-Speaking Women in Israel.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 32(2): 405–429.
2002Studies in Hebrew Morphology. Tel Aviv: The Open University of Israel. [Hebrew]
2005Princess or Prisoner? Jewish Women in Jerusalem 1840–1914. Waltham: Brandeis University Press.
1985Man Made Language. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 2nd edition.
2004Gendered Discourses. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Tobin, Yishai, and Alison Stern-Perez
2009 “Linguistic Sign Systems Indicating Proximity and Remoteness in the ‘Troubled Talk’ of Israeli Bus Drivers who Experienced Terror Attacks.” Israel Studies in Language and Society 2(2): 144–168.
2001 “Gender Switch in Modern Hebrew.” In Gender across Languages: The Linguistic Representation of Women and Men vol. 1, ed. by Marlis Hellinger, and Hadumod Bussmann, 177–198. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 17 november 2023. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers.
Any errors therein should be reported to them.