Looking back on three decades of research on focus markers, I will make a cautious attempt to give an overview over this rich set of relevant publications, trying to identify and distinguish general trends, important results, open questions, obvious gaps and errors. I will provide further evidence for the view that focus markers interact with the information structure of a sentence or text, i.e. with a structured proposition or text segment analyzed in terms of focus and scope by extending this analysis also to the relevant “discourse markers”. A comparative analysis of data from various languages reveals the most frequent parameters of variation in the identification of the focus and scope of a focus marker. Finally, I will show that cross-linguistic generalizations in the relevant domain are only possible if the comparison is restricted to a certain core group of markers.
1976“L’argumentation dans la langue”. Langages 10/42: 5–27.
1987Semantic Constraints on Relevance. Oxford: Blackwell.
Bühring, Daniel, and Katharina Hartmann
2001“The syntax and semantics of focus-sensitive particles in German”.Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 19: 229–281.
Coppock, Elizabeth, and David I. Beaver
2014 “Principles of exclusive muddle”. Journal of Semantics 31: 371–432.
2015“Polysemy patterns involving non-scalar additive particles in Subsaharan languages: the coordinative connection”. Paper given at the annual conference of the SLE, Leiden. [URL] [accessed January 2017]
2002“À propos de même”. Langue Française 133/1: 16–27.
2015 “On the status of exhaustiveness in cleft sentences: An empirical and cross-linguistic study of English also-/only-clefts and Italian anche-/solo-clefts”. Folia Linguistica 49/1: 1–56.
Fiedler, Ines, and Henok Wondimu Tadesse
2015“On the relationship between additive and topic markers with special reference to African languages”. Paper given at the annual conference of the SLE, Leiden.
2015 “Towards a typology for additive markers”. Lingua 180: 69–100.
2016“Oui, monsieur Junqueras, solo que en Francia ustedes no se comerían un rosco. Exclusividad e interacción en la expresión de la contraargumentación”. Paper given at a conference on concessivity in Freiburg, June 23–24, 2016.
Gast, Volker, and Christoph Rzymski
2015 “Towards a corpus-based analysis of evaluative scales associated with even.” Linguistik Online 71/2: 153–173.
Gast, Volker, and Johan van der Auwera
2011 “Scalar additive operators in the languages of Europe”. Language 87: 2–54.
2007 “The landscape of even”. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 25: 39–81.
Hartmann, Katarina, and Malte Zimmermann
2007 “Focus strategies in Chadic: The case of tangale revisited”. Studia Linguistica 61/2: 95–129.
2010 “Comparative concepts and descriptive categories in cross-linguistic studies”. Language 86/3: 663–687.
2016 “Are there two different ways of approaching grammaticalization?”. Unpublished Ms. Cologne.
2000What Counts: Focus and Quantification. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
2004Focus and Background Marking in Mandarin Chinese. London: Routledge.
2013 “Focus particles and related entities in Vietnamese”. In Linguistics of Vietnamese. An International Survey, ed. by Hole, Daniel, and Elizabeth Löbel, 265–303. Berlin-Boston: Mouton de Gruyter.
2015 “A distributed syntax for evaluative ‘only’ sentences”. Zeitschrift für Sprachwissenschaft 34/1: 43–77.
1983Fokus und Skalen: Zur Syntax und Semantik der Gradpartikeln im Deutschen. Tübingen: Niemeyer.
1983Finnish Grammar. Helsinki: Söderström.
Karttunen, Frances, and Lauri Karttunen
1977 “Even questions”. In Proceedings of the 7th Meeting of the North Eastern Linguistic Society, ed. by Judy A. Keglet al., 115–34. Cambridge (MA), MIT Press.
1990 “Even”. Linguistics and Philosophy 13: 59–111.
1977 “Temporal and non-temporal uses of noch and schon in German”. Linguistics and Philosophy 1: 173–198.
1981 “The meaning of scalar particles in German”. In Words, Worlds, and Contexts, ed. by Hans-Jürgen Eickmeyer, and Hannes Rieser, 107–132. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
1982 “Scalar particles in German and their English equivalents”. In The Contrastive Grammar of English and German, ed. by Walter F. W. Lohnes, and Edwin A. Hopkins, 76–101. Ann Arbor: Karoma Publishers.
1991The Meaning of Focus Particle. A Comparative Perspective. London: Routledge.
2005 “On the syntax of so-called focus particles in German – A reply to Bühring and Hartmann 2001”. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 23: 459–483.
1985 “Association with Focus”. Doctoral Dissertation. University of Massachusetts.
1997 “Even, polarity, and scope”. In Papers in Experimental and Theoretical Linguistics, ed. by Martha Gibson, Grace Wiebe, and Gary Libben, 40–64. Department of Linguistics: University of Alberta.
Schwenter, Scott, and Richard Waltereit
2010 “Presupposition accommodation and language change”, in Subjectification, Intersubjectification and Grammaticalization, ed. by Kristin Davidse, Lieven Vandelanotte, and Hubert Cuyckens, 75–102. Berlin: de Gruyter Mouton.
1984Message and Emphasis. On Focus and Scope in English. London: Longman.
2014 “Conventional vs. free association with focus: Insights from West African and South East Asian Languages”, Ms. University of Potsdam.
Cited by 52 other publications
Amaral, Patrícia, Zuoyu Tian, Dylan Jarrett & Juan Escalona Torres
2020. Quantitative Studies of the Use of Negative (Dependent) Expressions. In The Oxford Handbook of Negation, ► pp. 499 ff.
2020. Negative Fragment Answers. In The Oxford Handbook of Negation, ► pp. 441 ff.
Wolde, Elnora ten & Thomas Schwaiger
2022. Modification as a linguistic ‘relationship’: A just so problem in Functional Discourse Grammar. Open Linguistics 8:1 ► pp. 699 ff.
2020. Negative Quantifiers. In The Oxford Handbook of Negation, ► pp. 426 ff.
2022. Focus particles as utterances – the case of German ausgerechnet!. Acta Linguistica Hafniensia 54:2 ► pp. 133 ff.
[no author supplied]
2020. Abbreviations. In The Oxford Handbook of Negation, ► pp. xi ff.
[no author supplied]
2020. Copyright Page. In The Oxford Handbook of Negation, ► pp. iv ff.
[no author supplied]
2020. Introduction. In The Oxford Handbook of Negation, ► pp. 1 ff.
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 9 november 2023. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers.
Any errors therein should be reported to them.