Chapter published in:Pragmatics of Japanese: Perspectives on grammar, interaction and culture
Edited by Mutsuko Endo Hudson, Yoshiko Matsumoto and Junko Mori
[Pragmatics & Beyond New Series 285] 2018
► pp. 49–74
Amari/anmari/anma and totemo/tottemo in history and discourse
Interaction of negative polarity and positive polarity
This chapter first presents the distributional patterns of totemo and amari as positive polarity items (PPIs) and negative polarity items (NPIs) in a present-day spoken corpus, by paying due attention to their morphophonological variants, tottemo and anmari/anma. It also analyzes ‘prefabs’ (Bybee 2006) they form as PPI and NPI. Second, it delineates the diachronic development of totemo from NPI to PPI and that of amari from PPI to NPI, and offers an explanatory account incorporating three concepts: counter-expectation (Traugott 1999), structural reanalysis and bifurcation/divergence (Bolinger 1968). In a theoretical context of polarity studies, the paper supports Hoeksema’s (2012) stance that comprehensive accounts need both a syntagmatic relationship (licenser-licensee) as well as a paradigmatic relationship with other similar items in competition.
Keywords: totemo , amari , positive polarity item (PPI), negative polarity item (NPI), corpus-analysis, diachronic change, counter-expectation, bifurcation, Hoeksema, Japanese, pragmatics
Published online: 16 April 2018
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