This philosophical-pragmatic paper discusses several forms of irony which rest on other figures of speech contingent on overt untruthfulness, namely the figures arising as a result of flouting the first maxim of Quality. It is argued that an ironic implicature may be piggybacked on another implicature, called “as if implicature”, originating from flouting the first maxim of Quality occasioned by metaphor. Metaphorical irony, which is subject to the irony-after-metaphor order of interpretation, exhibits a number of manifestations depending on the nature and scope of irony, and the scope of the subordinate metaphor. On the other hand, rather than giving rise to an as if implicature distinct from the irony-based one, hyperbole and meiosis, which are inherently evaluative, most typically overlap with ironically evaluative expressions, promoting meiotic and hyperbolic irony, frequently (wrongly, as will be claimed here) considered by researchers to rely on flouting Quantity maxims. However, cases of independent use of hyperbole or meiosis in ironic environment are also possible. Such invite two levels of untruthfulness and two implicatures.
2017 “The irony of irony: Irony based on truthfulness”. Corpus Pragmatics 11: 1–34.
1990 “Between emphasis and exaggeration: Verbal emphasis in the English of Cape Breton Island”. In J. Black (ed), Papers from the Fourteenth Annual Meeting of the Atlantic Provinces Linguistic Association. St John’s Memorial: University of Newfoundland, 39–49.
1988Figuratively Speaking. New Haven: Yale University Press.
2011 “She’s (not) a fine friend: ‘Saying’ and criticism in irony”. Intercultural Pragmatics 81: 41–65.
2014 “The clash: Humor and critical attitude in verbal irony”. Humor 271: 641–659.
1994The Poetics of Mind: Figurative Thought, Language and Understanding. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1999The Poetics of Mind: Figurative Thought, Language, and Understanding. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.
2000 “Irony in talk among friends”. Metaphor and Symbol 151: 5–27.
Gibbs, R. and O’Brien, J.
1991 “Psychological aspects of irony understanding”. Journal of Pragmatics 161: 523–530.
1989a “Logic and conversation”. In Studies in the Way of Words. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 22–40. [Grice, H.P. 1975. “Logic and conversation”. In P. Cole and J. Morgan (eds), Syntax and Semantics, Vol.3: Speech Acts. New York: Academic Press, 41–58; Grice, H.P. 1975. “Logic and conversation”. In D. Davison and G. Harman (eds), The Logic of Grammar. Dickenson: Encino, 64–75.]
1989b “Further notes on logic and conversation”. In Studies in the Way of Words. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 41–57. [Grice, Herbert Paul. 1978. “Further notes on logic and conversation”. In P. Cole (ed), Syntax and Semantics, Vol. 9: Pragmatics. New York: Academic Press, 113–127.]
1990 “A speech-act analysis of irony”. Journal of Pragmatics 141: 77–109.
1989The Natural History of Negation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
2006 “Saying less and meaning less”. In B. Birner and G. Ward (eds), Drawing the Boundaries of Meaning: Neo-Gricean Studies in Pragmatics and Semantics in Honor of Laurence R. Horn. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 143–162.
1917Negation in English and Other Languages. Copenhagen: Høst.
2011 “Irony via ‘surrealism’”. In M. Dynel (ed), The Pragmatics of Humour across Discourse Domains. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 51–68.
2013Irony and the Literal Versus Nonliteral Distinction: A Typological Approach with Focus on Ironic Implicature Strength. University of Cambridge PhD thesis.
2014 “Differences in use and function of verbal irony between real and fictional discourse: (mis)interpretation and irony blindness”. Humor 271: 597–618.
Kreuz, R. and Glucksberg, S.
1989 “How to be sarcastic: The echoic reminder theory of verbal irony”. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 118(4): 374–386.
Kreuz, R. and Roberts, R.
1995 “Two cues for verbal irony: Hyperbole and the ironic tone of voice”. Metaphor and Symbolic Activity 101: 21–31.
Kumon-Nakamura, S., Glucksberg, S. and Brown, M.
1995 “How about another piece of pie: The allusional pretense theory of discourse irony”. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 1241: 3–21.
Lausberg, H., Orton, D and Anderson, D.
1998Handbook of Literary Rhetoric. A Foundation for Literary Study. Leiden: Brill.
2000Presumptive Meanings: The Theory of Generalized Conversational Implicature. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
2011 “Quantity, truthfulness and ironic effect”. Language Sciences 33(2): 305–315.
McCarthy, M. and Carter, R.
2004 “ ‘There’s millions of them’: Hyperbole in everyday conversation”. Journal of Pragmatics 361: 149–184.
2010 “Data-gathering methods in research on hyperbole production and interpretation”. In E.T. Nemeth and K. Bibok (eds), The Role of Data at the Semantic-Pragmatic Interface. Berlin, New York: De Gruyter Mouton, 381–417.
1995 “Is there a maxim of truthfulness?” UCL Working Papers in Linguistics 71: 197–212.
2006 “The pragmatics of verbal irony: Echo or pretence?” Lingua 1161: 1722–1743.
Wilson, D. and Sperber, D.
1992 “On verbal irony”. Lingua 871: 53–76.
Wilson, D. and Sperber, D.
2000 [2002, 2012] “Truthfulness and relevance”. UCL Working Papers in Linguistics, 215–254. [Reprinted as Wilson, D. and Sperber, D. 2002. “Truthfulness and relevance”. Mind 111: 583–632; “Truthfulness and relevance”. In D. Wilson and D. Sperber. Meaning and Relevance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 47–83]
Wilson, D. and Sperber, D.
2012 “Explaining irony”. In D. Wilson and D. Sperber (eds), Meaning and Relevance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 123–145.
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 9 november 2023. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers.
Any errors therein should be reported to them.