The use of hyperlinking as evidential practice in Danish online hate speech
Using data from readers’ comments to news articles from a national Danish newspaper, the article addresses the
nature and function of hyperlinks as evidential practice in relation to xenophobic hate speech. Hyperlinks refer to the use of URL
addresses to link to websites; hate speech is understood broadly as stigmatising discourse. Adopting a discursive approach to
evidentiality that accounts for a range of phenomena including source of knowledge, participant roles, epistemic stance and
interactional force, hate speech related hyperlinks and their evidential functions were identified. While not prevalent in number,
hyperlinks serve to legitimise negative stances towards minority groups but also support counter speech targeting prejudicial
views. Links can be used as part of processes of metaphorical shift and sarcasm as well as to provoke hate speech in comment
threads. As URL addresses are frequently textual, they can have evidential functions independent of the material that they link
- 2.The discursive approach to evidentiality
- 3.Data and method
- 4.Hyperlinks related to hate speech
- 5.Evidential functions of hyperlinks
- 5.1From legislation to impalement
- 5.3Same link, different functions
- 5.4Counter speech
- 6.Discussion and concluding remarks
Ackland, Robert, Rachel Gibson, Wainer Lusoli, and Stephen Ward
“Engaging with the public? Assessing the online presence and communication practices of the nanotechnology industry
.” Social Science Computer Review
28 (4): 443–465.
Ackland, Robert, and Rachel Gibson
“Hyperlinks and Networked Communication: A Comparative Study of Political Parties Online
.” International Journal of Social Research Methodology
16 (3): 231–244.
“Love Britain? Vote UKIP! The Pragmatics of Electoral Tweets during the European Elections 2014
.” In Tweets from the Campaign Trail. Researching Candidates’ Use of Twitter During the European Parliamentary Elections
, ed. by Alex Frame
, Arnaud Mercier
, Gilles Brachotte
, and Caja Thimm
, 145–169. Bern: Peter Lang.
Assimakopoulos, Stavros, Fabienne H. Baider, and Sharon Millar
2017 Online Hate Speech in the European Union. A Discourse-Analytic Perspective
. Springer Briefs in Linguistics. Cham: Springer Open.
Ben-David, Anat, and Ariadna Matamoros-Fernández
“Hate Speech and Covert Discrimination on Social Media: Monitoring the Facebook pages of Extreme-right Political Parties in Spain
.” International Journal of Communication
Berger, J. M., and Bill Strathearn
2013 Who Matters Online: Measuring Influence, Evaluating Content and Countering Violent Extremism in Online Social Networks
. London: The International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation and Political Violence.
2013 Speaking Hatefully: Culture, Communication, and Political Action in Hungary
. University Park, Penn.: Penn State University Press.
2012 Epistemic Meaning: A Crosslinguistic and Functional-Cognitive Study
. Berlin: De Gruyter.
2016 The Language of Hate: A Corpus Linguistic Analysis of White Supremacist Language
. New York: Routledge.
“What is Hate Speech? Part 1: The Myth of Hate
.” Law and Philosophy
36 (4): 419–468.
“Sarcasm, Pretense, and the Semantics/ Pragmatics Distinction
46 (2): 587–634.
“ECRI General Policy Recommendation No. 15 On Combating Hate Speech
1981 Forms of Talk
. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
.” Discourse Studies
17 (2): 117–120.
González, Montserrat, Paolo Roseano, Joan Borràs-Comes, and Pilar Prieto
“Epistemic and Evidential Marking in Discourse: Effects of Register and Debatability
“Evidentiality and the Expression of Speaker’s Stance in Romance Languages and German
.” Discourse Studies
17 (2): 182–209.
Henrich, Natalie, and Bev Holmes
“Web News Readers’ Comments: Towards Developing a Methodology for Using Online Comments in Social Inquiry
.” Journal of Media and Communication Studies
Jensen, Eva Skafte
: “Tale er Tale; Skrift er Skrift. Om sproget i de nye medier
.” [Talk is talk; writing is writing] NyS, Nydanske Studier
Josey, Christopher S.
“Hate Speech and Identity: An Analysis of Neo-racism and the Indexing of Identity
.” Discourse & Society
21 (1): 27–39.
“Slipping Racism into the Mainstream: A Theory of Information Laundering
.” Communication Theory
22 (4): 427–448.
“On-line Polylogues: Conversation Structure and Participation Framework in Internet Newsgroups
.” Journal of Pragmatics
36 (1): 115–145.
“Making Knowledge Visible in Discourse: Implications for the Study of Linguistic Evidentiality
”. Discourse Studies
15 (5): 627 –645.
Perry, Barbara, and Ryan Scrivens
“The Maturation of Hate Crime Scholarship
.” In Hate Crime: Critical Concepts in Criminology
, ed. by Philip Bean
, 1–42. London: Routledge.
2016 The Nature of Prejudice: Society, Discrimination and Moral Exclusion
. London: Routledge.
“The Borderline between Irony and Sarcasm
”. In Let Us Have Articles Betwixt Us – Papers in Historical and Comparative Linguistics in Honour of Johanna L. Wood
, ed. by Sten Vikner
, Henrik Jørgensen
, and Elly van Gelderen
, 421–438. Aarhus: Dept. of English, School of Communication and Culture, Aarhus University.
van Dijk, Teun A.
2014 Discourse and Knowledge: A Sociocognitive Approach
. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
van Dijk, Teun A.
“Discourse and Racism: Some Conclusions of 30 Years of Research
.” In Interdisciplinary Studies in Pragmatics, Culture and Society
, ed. by Alessandro Capone
and Jacob Mey
, 285–296. Heidelberg: Springer.
2015 The Politics of Fear
. London: Sage.
Zuleta, Lumi and Rasmus Burkal
2017 Hadefulde Ytringer i den Offentlige Online Debat
. [Hateful Utterances in the Public Online Debate
]. Copenhagen: Institut for Menneskerettigheder.
Cited by 1 other publications
. Entmenschlichende Metaphern in ethnotroper („fremdenfeindlicher“) Hatespeech in sozialen Medien
. In Digitale Pragmatik
, 1], ►
pp. 185 ff.
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 26 march 2023. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers.
Any errors therein should be reported to them.