Part of
Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency in Learner Corpus Research
Edited by Agnieszka Leńko-Szymańska and Sandra Götz
[Studies in Corpus Linguistics 104] 2022
► pp. 120
Abdi Tabari, Mahmoud
2016The effects of planning time on complexity, accuracy, fluency, and lexical variety in L2 descriptive writing. Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education 20: 1–10. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Bachman, Lyle F.
1990Fundamental Considerations in Language Testing. Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
Bachman, Lyle F. & Palmer, Adrian S.
1996Language Testing in Practice: Designing and Developing Useful Language Tests. Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
Barrot, Jessie & Mari, Karen G.
2019Complexity, accuracy, and fluency in the argumentative writing of ESL and EFL learners. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching 59(2): 209–232. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Barrot, Jessie S. & Agdeppa, Joan Y.
2021Complexity, accuracy, and fluency as indices of college-level L2 writers proficiency. Assessing Writing 47: 100510. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Bialystok, Ellen
1982On the relationship between knowing and using linguistic forms. Applied Linguistics 3(3): 181–206. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
1994Analysis and control in the development of second language proficiency. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 16(2): 157–68. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Biber, Douglas, Johansson, Stig, Leech, Geoffrey, Conrad, Susan & Finegan, Edward
1999Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Harlow: Pearson Education. Also published as Biber, Douglas, Johansson, Stig, Leech, Geoffrey, Conrad, Susan & Finegan, Edward 2021 Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Brezina, Vaclav & Pallotti, Gabriele
2019Morphological complexity in written L2 texts. Second Language Research 35(1): 99–119. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Brumfit, Christopher J.
1984Communicative Methodology in Language Teaching: The Roles of Fluency and Accuracy. Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
Bulté, Bram & Housen, Alex
2012Defining and operationalising L2 complexity. In Dimensions of L2 Performance and Proficiency: Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency in SLA, Language Learning and Language Teaching [Language Learning & Language Teaching 32], Alex Housen, Folkert Kuiken & Ineke Vedder (eds), 21–46. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Bulté, Bram, Housen, Alex, Pierrard Michel & Van Daele, Siska
2008Investigating lexical proficiency development over time – The case of Dutch-speaking learners of French in Brussels. Journal of French Language Studies 18(3): 277–298. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Canale, Michael & Swain, Merrill
1980Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing. Applied Linguistics 1(1): 1–47. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Corder, S. Pit
1967The significance of learners’ errors. IRAL: International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching 5(4): 161–170. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Crossley, Scott A. & McNamara, Danielle S.
2012Predicting second language writing proficiency: The roles of cohesion and linguistic sophistication. Journal of Research in Reading 35(2): 115–35. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Crowhurst, Marion
1980The effect of syntactic complexity on writing quality: A Review of research. [URL] (27 December 2021).
Davies, Mark
2008–The Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA). [URL] (24 January 2022).
De Clercq, Bastien & Housen, Alex
2019The development of morphological complexity: A cross-linguistic study of L2 French and English. Second Language Research 35(1): 71–97. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Durrant, Philip, Brenchley Mark & McCallum, Lee
2021Understanding Development and Proficiency in Writing: Quantitative Corpus Linguistic Approaches. Cambridge: CUP. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Ellis, Rod
2003Task-Based Language Learning and Teaching. Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
Fillmore, Charles J.
1979On fluency. In Individual Differences in Language Ability and Language Behavior, Charles J. Fillmore, Daniel Kempler & William S.-Y. Wang (eds), 85–101. New York NY: Academic Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Foster, Pauline & Skehan, Peter
1996The influence of planning and task type on second language performance. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 18(3): 299–323. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Gamon, Michael, Chodorow, Martin, Leacock, Claudia & Tetreault, Joel
2013Using learner corpora for automatic error detection and correction. In Automatic Treatment and Analysis of Learner Corpus Data: Studies in Corpus Linguistics [Studies in Corpus Linguistics 59], Ana Díaz-Negrillo, Nicolas Ballier & Paul Thompson (eds), 127–150. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Götz, Sandra
2013Fluency in Native and Nonnative English Speech [Studies in Corpus Linguistics 53]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Granger, Sylviane
1996From CA to CIA and back: An integrated contrastive approach to computerized bilingual and learner corpora. In Languages in Contrast, Karin Aijmer, Bengt Altenberg & Mats Johansson (eds), 37–51. Lund: Lund University Press.Google Scholar
2015Contrastive interlanguage analysis: A reappraisal. International Journal of Learner Corpus Research 1(1): 7–24. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Hawkins, John A. & Buttery, Paula
2010Criterial features in learner corpora: Theory and illustrations. English Profile Journal 1, E5. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Hawkins, John A. & Filipović
2012Criterial Features in L2 English: Specifying the Reference Levels of the Common European Framework. Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
Herdan, Gustav
1960Type-Token Mathematics: A Textbook of Mathematical Linguistics. The Hague: Mouton.Google Scholar
1966The Advanced Theory of Language as Choice and Chance. New York NY: Springer. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Holmes, David I.
1998The evolution of stylometry in humanities scholarship. Literary and Linguistic Computing 13(3): 111–117. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Housen, Alex & Kuiken, Folkert
2009Complexity, accuracy, and fluency in Second Language Acquisition. Applied Linguistics 30(4): 461–473. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Housen, Alex, Folkert Kuiken & Ineke Vedder
2012Complexity, accuracy and fluency: Definitions, measurement and research. In Dimensions of L2 Performance and Proficiency: Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency in SLA [Language Learning & Language Teaching 32], Alex Housen, Folkert Kuiken & Ineke Vedder (eds), 1–20. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Hulstijn, Jan H.
2011Language proficiency in native and nonnative speakers: An agenda for research and suggestions for second-language assessment. Language Assessment Quarterly 8(3): 229–249. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Hunt, Kellogg W.
1965Grammatical Structures Written at Three Grade Levels. Urbana IL: The National Council of Teachers of English.Google Scholar
Jarvis, Scott
2002Short texts, best-fitting curves and new measures of lexical diversity. Language Testing 19(1): 57–84. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Kobayashi, Yuichiro & Abe, Mariko
2016Automated scoring of L2 spoken English with random forests. Journal of Pan-Pacific Association of Applied Linguistics 20(1): 55–73.Google Scholar
Kowal, Iwona
2016The Dynamics of Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency in Second Language Development. Kraków: Jagiellonian University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Kuhi, Davud, Asl Rasuli, Mortaza & Deylami, Zahra
2014The effect of type of writing on accuracy, fluency and complexity across proficiency. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 98: 1036–1045. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Kyle, Kristopher & Crossley, Scott A.
2015Automatically assessing lexical sophistication: Indices, tools, findings & application. TESOL Quarterly 49(4): 757–786. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2018Measuring syntactic complexity in L2 writing using fine-grained clausal and phrasal indices. The Modern Language Journal 102(2): 333–349. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Lambert, Craig & Kormos, Judit
2014Complexity, accuracy, and fluency in task-based L2 research: Toward more developmentally based measures of second language acquisition. Applied Linguistics 35(5): 607–614. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Larsen-Freeman, Diane
2009Adjusting expectations: The study of complexity, accuracy, and fluency in second language acquisition. Applied Linguistics 30(4): 579–589. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Leacock, Claudia, Chodorow, Martin, Gamon, Michael & Tetreault, Joel
2014Automated grammatical error detection for language learners (2nd edn). Synthesis Lectures on Human Language Technologies 7(1): 1–170. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Leńko-Szymańska, Agnieszka
2020Defining and Assessing Lexical Proficiency. New York NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Lennon, Paul
1990Investigating fluency in EFL: A quantitative approach. Language Learning 40(3): 387–417. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Linnarud, Moira
1986Lexis in Composition: A Performance Analysis of Swedish Learners Written English. Malmö: C.W.K. Gleerup.Google Scholar
Lu, Xiaofei
2010Automatic analysis of syntactic complexity in second language writing. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 15(4): 474–496. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
McCarthy, Philip M. & Jarvis, Scott
2010MTLD, Vocd-D, and HD-D: A validation study of sophisticated approaches to lexical diversity assessment. Behavior Research Methods 42(2): 381–392. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Michel, Marije
2017Complexity, accuracy, and fluency in L2 production. In The Routledge Handbook of Instructed Second Language Acquisition, Shawn Loewen & Masatoshi Sato (eds), 50–68. New York NY: Routledge. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Mora, Joan C. & Valls-Ferrer, Margalida
2012Oral fluency, accuracy, and complexity in formal instruction and study abroad learning contexts. TESOL Quarterly 46(4): 610–641. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Nation, Paul
2014Developing fluency. In Exploring EFL fluency in Asia, Theron Muller, John Adamson, Brown, Philip Shigeo & Steven Herder (eds), 11–25. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Norris, John M. & Ortega, Lourdes
2009Towards an organic approach to investigating CAF in instructed SLA: The case of complexity. Applied Linguistics 30(4): 555–578. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Paquot, Magali
2019The phraseological dimension in interlanguage complexity research. Second Language Research 35(1): 121–145. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Plakans, Lia, Gebril, Atta & Bilki, Zeynep
2019Shaping a score: Complexity, accuracy, and fluency in integrated writing performances. Language Testing 36(2): 161–179. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Ramineni, Chaitanya, Trapani, Catherine S., Williamson, David M., Davey, Tim & Bridgeman, Brent
2012Evaluation of the E-Rater® scoring engine for the TOEFL® Independent and Integrated prompts [ETS Research Report Series]. Princeton NJ: Education Testing Service.Google Scholar
Read, John
2000Assessing Vocabulary. Cambridge: CUP. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Révész, Andrea, Ekiert, Monika & Torgersen, Eivind Nessa
2016The effects of complexity, accuracy, and fluency on communicative adequacy in oral task performance. Applied Linguistics 37(6): 828–848. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Salimi, Asghar & Dadashpour, Soghra
2012Task complexity and language production dilemmas (Robinson’s Cognition Hypothesis vs. Skehan’s Trade-off Model). Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 46: 643–652. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Sample, Evelyn & Michel, Marije
2015An exploratory study into trade-off effects of complexity, accuracy, and fluency on young learners’ oral task repetition. TESL Canada Journal 31: 23. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Skehan, P.
2009Modelling second language performance: Integrating complexity, accuracy, fluency, and lexis. Applied Linguistics 30(4): 510–532. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Skehan, Peter
1989Individual Differences in Second Language Learning. London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
1996A framework for the implementation of task-based instruction. Applied Linguistics 17(1): 38–62. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
1998A Cognitive Approach to Language Learning. Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
2003Task-based instruction. Language Teaching 36(1): 1–14. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
van der Slik, Frans, van Hout, Roeland & Schepens, Job
2019The role of morphological complexity in predicting the learnability of an additional language: The case of LA (Additional Language) Dutch. Second Language Research 35(1): 47–70. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Sun, Bo & Révész, Andrea
2021The effects of task repetition on child EFL learners’ oral performance. Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics 24(2): 30–47. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Thewissen, Jennifer
2013Capturing L2 accuracy developmental patterns: Insights from an error-tagged EFL learner corpus. The Modern Language Journal 97(S1): 77–101. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Vercellotti, Mary L.
2017The development of complexity, accuracy, and fluency in second language performance: A longitudinal study. Applied Linguistics 38(1): 90–111. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Wolfe-Quintero, Kate, Inagaki, Shunji & Kim, Hae-Young
1998Second Language Development in Writing: Measures of Fluency, Accuracy, & Complexity. Honolulu HI: Second Language Teaching & Curriculum Center, University of Hawai’i at Manoa.Google Scholar
Yan, Xun, Kim, Ha Ram & Kim, Ji Young
2018Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency (CAF) Features of Speaking Performances on APTIS Across Different Levels on the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) [ARAGs Research Reports Online]. London: The British Council.Google Scholar
Yang, Weiwei, Lu, Xiaofei & Weigle, Sara Cushing
2015Different topics, different discourse: Relationships among writing topic, measures of syntactic complexity, and judgments of writing quality. Journal of Second Language Writing 28: 53–67. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Yu, Hanjing & Lowie, Wander
2020Dynamic paths of complexity and accuracy in second language speech: A longitudinal case study of Chinese learners. Applied Linguistics 41(6): 855–877. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Zipf, George
1935The Psychobiology of Language: An Introduction to Dynamic Philology. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar