Chapter published in:Lexical Priming: Applications and advances
Edited by Michael Pace-Sigge and Katie J. Patterson
[Studies in Corpus Linguistics 79] 2017
► pp. 42–66
A corpus-based investigation into English representations of Turks and Ottomans in the early modern period
Lexical priming theory (Hoey 2005) works not just at any single moment in time. For Hoey (2005: 8) words are “primed for collocational use. A word is acquired through encounters with it in speech and writing, it becomes cumulatively loaded with the contexts and c-texts in which it is encountered, and our knowledge of it includes the fact that it co-occurs with certain other words in certain kinds of context”. So time is clearly one important context within which primings may be acquired; through exposure to word primings over time, words are imbued with meaning and a key feature of this process is collocation. Some suitable data sources are now becoming available, notably the Corpus of Historical American English (Davies 2012) and the EEBO corpus (for details see McEnery & Baker 2016). The existence of a corpus such as the EBBO corpus, which provides a billion words of English data for the seventeenth century alone, allows for the exploration of priming drift for many content words across the century. Yet the explanation for any drift in priming observed may relate to society as much as language per se. Accordingly, in this chapter, we will look with both a linguistic and historical lens at a group, the Ottomans, who, in the seventeenth century, we might assume to be subject to a change of representation in discourse.
Published online: 14 August 2017
(anon) 1699 A New Dictionary of the Terms Ancient and Modern Of The Canting Crew, In its several Tribes of Gypsies, Beggars, Thieves, Cheats, &c. With an Addition of Some Proverbs, Phrases, Figurative Speeches, &c. Useful for All Sorts of People, (Especially Foreigners) to Secure Their Money and Preserve Their Lives; Besides Very Diverting and Entertaining, Being Wholly New. London: Printed for W. Hawes, P. Gilbourne, W. Davis.
1646 (no title) London: Printed for John Sweeting at the Angel in Popes-head-alley.
1608 The triumph of a Christian Contayning Three Excellent and Heauenly Treatises. 1 Iacobs Wrestling with God. 2 The Conduit of Comfort. 3 A Preparatiue for the Lords Supper. Full of Sweet Consolations for all that Desire the Comfortable Sweetnesse of Iesus Christ, and Necessary for Those who are Troubled in Conscience. Written by that Worthy Man Master William Couper, Minister of Gods Word. London: Printed (by T. East) for Iohn Budge, and are to be sould at the great South doore of Paules Church.
England and Wales. Parliament
1641 (no title) London: Printed by Robert Barker, Printer to the Kings most excellent Majestie: and by the assignes of John Bill.
1599 The Principal Nauigations, Voyages, Traffiques and Discoueries of the English Nation: Made by Sea or Ouer-land, to the Remote and Farthest Distant Quarters of the Earth, at any Time within the Compasse of these 1600. Yeres: Deuided into Three Seuerall Volumes, According to the Positions of the Regions, Whereunto They Were Directed … (Volume 1). London: By George Bishop, Ralph Newberie, and Robert Barker.
1653 Apokalypsis Anastaseåos The Resurrection Revealed, or, The Dawnings of the Day-star about to Rise and Radiate a Visible Incomparable Glory far beyond any Since the Creation upon the Universal Church on Earth for a Thousand Yeers yet to Come, before the Ultimate dDy of the General Judgement to the Raising of the Jewes, and Ruine of all Antichristian and Secular Powers, that do not Love the Members of Christ, Submit to his Laws and Advance his Interest in this Design: Digested into Seven Bookes with a Synopsis of the Whole Treatise and two Tables, 1 of Scriptures, 2 of Things, Opened in This Treatise. London: Printed by Robert Ibbitson and are to be sold by Thomas Pierrepont.
. (anon) 1683 The History of the Turks Describing the Rise and Ruin of Their First Empire in Persia, the Original of Their Second: Containing the Lives and Reigns of Their Several Kings and Emperors from Ottoman its First Founder to this Present Year, 1683, Being a Succinct Series of History, of all Their Wars (Forreign and Domestick) Policies, Customs, Religion and Manners, With What Else is Worthy of Note in That Great Empire. London: Printed by Ralph Holt for Thomas Passinger, William Thackery and Thomas Sawbridge.
1603 The Generall Historie of the Turkes from the First Beginning of That Nation to the Rising of the Othoman Familie: With all the Notable Expeditions of the Christian Princes against Them. Together with the Liues and Conquests of the Othoman Kings and Emperours Faithfullie Collected out of the Best Histories, both Auntient and Moderne, and Digested into one Continuat Historie untill This Present Yeare 1603. London: Printed by Adam Islip.
1640 The totall discourse, of the rare adventures, and painefull peregrinations of long nineteene yeares travailes from Scotland, to the most famous kingdomes in Europe, Asia, and Affrica. Perfited by three deare bought voyages, in surveying of forty eight kingdomes ancient and modern; twenty one rei-publicks, ten absolute principalities, with two hundred islands. London: By I. Oke.
de Lucinge, R.
McEnery, T. & Baker, H.
1692 The Fourth Volume of Letters Writ by a Turkish Spy Who Lived Five and Forty Years Undiscover'd at Paris: Giving an Impartial Account to the Divan at Constantinople of the Most Remarkable Transactions of Europe, and Discovering Several Intrigues and Secrets of the Christian Courts (Especially of that of France) Continued from the Year 1642 to the Year 1682. London: Printed by J. Leake for Henry Rhodes.
1646 (no title) London: Printed by Matthew Simmons, and are to be sold by George VVhittinton at the blew Anchor neere the Royall-Exchange.
1624 The Iudge of Heresies one God, one Faith, one Church, out of Which There is no Saluation. Excluding all Infidells, Mahumetans, Iewes, Obstinate Papists, and Other Heretikes of all Sorts, and Consequently all Newters, Who Conforme Themselues Onely Externally to any Religion, from Hope of Participation of the Kingdome of Heauen. If They Finally Persist Therein, and Returne not to the Knowledge and Zealous Profession of the True Faith. London: Printed by A[ugustine] M[athewes] for Iohn Grismand, and are to bee sold at his shop in Pauls Alley, at the signe of the Gunn.
Oxford University Press. Consulted July 2016. 〈www.oed.com/〉
1627 Vindiciæ Gratiæ. A Plea for Grace. More Especially the Grace of Faith. Or, Certain Lectures as Touching the Nature and Properties of Grace and Faith: Wherein, amongst Other Matters of Great Use, the Maine Sinews of Arminius Doctrine are cut Asunder. Delivered by That Late Learned and Godly Man William Pemble, in Magdalen Hall in Oxford. London: Printed by R. Young for I. Bartlet, at the golden Cup in Cheape-side.
Person of quality
1688 (no title). London: Printed and sold by Randal Taylor.
1625 Purchas his Pilgrimes In Fiue Bookes. The First, Contayning the Voyages and Peregrinations Made by Ancient Kings, Patriarkes, Apostles, Philosophers, and Others, to and Thorow the Remoter Parts of the Knowne World: Enquiries also of Languages and Religions, Especially of the Moderne Diuersified Professions of Christianitie. The Second, a Description of all the Circum-nauigations of the Globe. The Third, Nauigations and Voyages of English-men, alongst the Coasts of Africa… The Fourth, English Voyages beyond the East Indies, to the Ilands of Iapan, China, Cauchinchina, the Philippinæ with Others... The Fifth, Nauigations, Voyages, Traffiques, Discoueries, of the English Nation in the Easterne Parts of the World… The First Part. London: Printed by William Stansby for Henrie Fetherstone, and are to be sold at his shop in Pauls Church-yard at the signe of the Rose.
Rissanen, M., Kytö, M. & Palander-Collin, M.
1652 The History of the World the Second Part in six Books, Being a Continuation of Famous History of Sir Walter Raleigh, Knight: Beginning Where he Left viz at the End of the Macedonian Kingdom, and Deduced to These Later-times: That is from the Year of the World 3806, or 160 Years before Christ till the End of the Year 1640 after Christ. London: Printed for John Saywell.
1648 (no title). London: (no publisher).
1649 (no title). London: Printed for Timothy Garthwait, at the George in Little-Brittain.
1645 A Body of Divinitie, or, The Summe and Substance of Christian Religion Catechistically Propounded, and Explained, by Way of Question and Answer: Methodically and Familiarly Handled / Composed Long Since by James Vsher B. of Armagh, and at the Earnest Desires of Divers Godly Christians Now Printed and Published; Whereunto is Adjoyned a Tract, Intituled Immanvel, or, The Mystery of the Incarnation of the Son of God Heretofore Writen and Published by the Same Authour. London: Printed by M.F. for Tho. Downes and Geo. Badger.
Cited by 1 other publications
McEnery, Tony, Vaclav Brezina & Helen Baker
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 06 may 2021. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.