Part of
Corpora and the Changing Society: Studies in the evolution of English
Edited by Paula Rautionaho, Arja Nurmi and Juhani Klemola
[Studies in Corpus Linguistics 96] 2020
► pp. 223250

Corpora and software

COHA = Davies, Mark
2010The Corpus of Historical American English: 400 million words, 1810–2009. [URL]> (30 November 2018).
= [URL]> (3 June 2019).
Hornik, Kurt
2016Package “OpenNLP” – Apache OpenNLP Tools Interface. [URL]> (30 November 2018).
R Development Core Team
2008R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. ISBN 3-900051-07-0, [URL] (30 November 2018).

Other references

Aijmer, Karin
2011Are you totally spy? A new intensifier in present-day American English. In Marqueurs discursifs et subjectivité, Sylvie Hancil (ed.), 155–172. Rouen: Universités de Rouen et du Havre.Google Scholar
2018aThat’s well bad. Some new intensifiers in spoken in British English. In Corpus Approaches to Contemporary British English, Vaclav Brezina, Robbie Love & Karin Aijmer (eds), 60–95. London: Routledge. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2018bIntensification with ‘very’, ‘really’ and ‘so’ in selected varieties of English. In Corpora and Lexis, Sebastian Hoffmann, Andrea Sand, Sabine Arndt-Lappe & Lisa Marie Dillmann (eds.), 106–139. Leiden: Brill. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Barnfield, Katie & Buchstaller, Isabelle
2010Intensifiers on Tyneside: Longitudinal developments and new trends. English World-Wide 31(3): 252–287. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Bauer, Laurie & Bauer, Winifred
2002Adjective boosters in the English of young New Zealanders. Journal of English Linguistics 30(3): 244–257. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Biber, Douglas, Johansson, Stig, Leech, Geoffrey, Conrad, Susan & Finegan, Edward
2007Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English, 6th edn. Harlow: Pearson.Google Scholar
Bolinger, Dwight
1972Degree Words. The Hague: Mouton. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Borst, Eugene
1902Die Gradadverbien im Englischen [Anglistische Forschungen 10]. Heidelberg: Winter.Google Scholar
Breban, Tine & Davidse, Kristin
2016The history of very: the directionality of functional shift and (inter)subjectification. English Language and Linguistics 20(2): 221–249. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Brinton, Laurel J. & Arnovik, Leslie K.
2006The English Language. A Linguistic History. Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
Bybee, Joan L., Perkins, Revere D. & Pagliuca, William
1994The Evolution of Grammar: Tense, Aspect and Modality in the Languages of the World. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Calle-Martín, Javier
2014On the history of the intensifier wonder in English. Australian Journal of Linguistics 34(3): 399–419. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
D’Arcy, Alexandra F.
Fettig, Adolf
1934Die Gradadverbien im Mittelenglischen [Anglistische Forschungen 79]. Heidelberg: Winter.Google Scholar
Fuchs, Robert
2016Register variation in intensifier usage across Asian Englishes. In Discourse-Pragmatic Variation and Change: Insights from English, Heike Pichler (ed.), 185–213. Cambridge: CUP. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Gries, Stefan T. & Stefanowitsch, Anatol
2004Extending collostructional analysis: A corpus-based perspectives on ‘alternations’. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 9(1): 97–129. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Hilpert, Martin
2006Distinctive collexeme analysis and diachrony. Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory 2(2): 243–256. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Ito, Rika & Tagliamonte, Sali
2003 Well weird, right dodgy, very strange, really cool: Layering and recycling in English intensifiers. Language in Society 32, 257–279. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
de Klerk, Vivian
2005Expressing levels of intensity in Xhosa English. English World-Wide 26(1): 77–95. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
König, Ekkehard
2017The comparative basis of intensification. In Exploring Intensification. Synchronic, Diachronic and Cross-linguistic Perspectives [Studies in Language Companion Series 189], Maria Napoli & Miriam Ravetto (eds), 15–32. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Labov, William
1966The Social Stratification of English in New York City. Washington DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.Google Scholar
1985Intensity. In Meaning, Form and Use in Context: Linguistic Applications, Deborah Schiffrin (ed.), 43–70. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
Levshina, Natalia
Lorenz, Gunter R.
2002Really worthwhile or not really significant: A corpus-based approach to the delexicalisation and grammaticalisation of adverbial intensifiers in Modern English. In New Reflections on Grammaticalization [Typological Studies in Language 49], Ilse Wischer & Gabriele Diewald (eds), 143–161. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Macaulay, Ronald
2002Extremely interesting, very interesting, or only quite interesting: Adverbs and social class. Journal of Sociolinguistics 6(3): 398–417. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2006Pure grammaticalization: The development of a teenage intensifier. Language Variation and Change 18(3): 267–283. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Mair, Christian
2004Corpus linguistics and grammaticalisation theory. Statistics, frequencies and beyond. In Corpus Approaches to Grammaticalization in English [Studies in Corpus Linguistics 13], Hans Lindquist & Christian Mair (eds), 121–150. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Méndez-Naya, Belén
2003On intensifiers and grammaticalization: The case of swiþe . English Studies 84(4): 372–391. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2008Introduction. Special issue on English intensifiers. English Language and Linguistics 12(2): 213–219. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Méndez-Naya, Belén & Pahta, Päivi
2010Intensifiers in competition: The picture from early English medical writing. In Early Modern English Medical Texts: Corpus Description and Studies, Irma Taavitsainen & Päivi Pahta (eds), 191–214. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
Mustanoja, Tauno F.
1960A Middle English Syntax, Part 1: Parts of Speech. Helsinki: Société Néophilologique.Google Scholar
Nevalainen, Terttu
2008Social variation in intensifier use: Constraint on -ly adverbialization in the past? English Language and Linguistics 12(2): 289–315. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Nevalainen, Terttu & Rissanen, Matti
2002Fairly pretty or pretty fair? On the development and grammaticalization of English downtoners. Language Sciences 24: 359–380. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Núñez-Pertejo, Paloma & Palacios Martínez, Ignacio
Palacios Martínez, Ignacio & Núñez-Pertejo, Paloma
2012He’s absolutely massive. It’s a super day. Madonna, she is a wicked singer. Youth language and intensification: A corpus-based study. Text and Talk 32(6): 773–796. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Paradis, Carita
1997Degree Modifiers of Adjectives in Spoken British English. Lund: Lund University Press.Google Scholar
2008Configurations, construals and change: Expressions of DEGREE. English Language and Linguistics 12(2): 317–343. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Partington, Alan
1993Corpus evidence of language change: The case of intensifiers. In Text and Technology: In Honour of John Sinclair, Mona Baker, Gill Francis & Elena Tognini-Bonelli (eds), 177–192. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Peters, Hans
1992English boosters: Some synchronic and diachronic aspects. In Diachrony within Synchrony: Language History and Cognition, Günter Kellermann & Michael D. Morrissey (eds), 529–545. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
1993Die englischen Gradadverbien der Kategorie booster. Tübingen: Narr.Google Scholar
1994Degree adverbs in Early Modern English. In Studies in Early Modern English, Dieter Kastovsky (ed.), 269–288. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Quirk, Randolph, Greenbaum, Sydney, Leech, Geoffrey & Svartvik, Jan
1985A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London: Longman.Google Scholar
Rickford, John, Wasow, Thomas, Zwicky, Arnold & Buchstaller, Isabelle
2007Intensive and quotative all: Something old, something new. American Speech 82(1): 3–31. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Rissanen, Matti
2008From ‘quickly’ to ‘fairly’: On the history of rather . English Language and Linguistics 12(2): 345–359. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Schweinberger, Martin
2017aUsing intensifier-adjective collocations to determine mechanisms of change. Paper presented at ICAME 38 (International Computer Archive of Modern and Medieval English). Prague, Czech Republic, 24–28.05.2017. [URL]> (30 November 2018).
2017bModelling intensification in New Zealand English data. Paper presented at Methods in Dialectology XVI. Tokyo, Japan, 7–11.08.2017. [URL] (November 30 2018).
Stange, Ulrike
2017 “You’re so not going to believe this”: The use of Genx so in constructions with future going to in American English. American Speech 92(4): 487–524. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Stefanowitsch, Anatol
2010Empirical cognitive semantics: Some thoughts. In Quantitative Cognitive Semantics: Corpus-driven Approaches, Dylan Glynn & Kerstin Fischer (eds), 355–380. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Stefanowitsch, Anatol & Gries, Stefan T.
2003Collostructions: Investigating the interaction between words and constructions. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 8(2): 209–243. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2005Covarying collexemes. Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory 1(1): 1–43. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Stenström, Anna-Brita
1999He was really gormless – she’s bloody crap: Girls, boys and intensifiers. In Out of Corpora: Studies in Honour of Stig Johansson, Hilde Hasselgård & Signe Oksefjell (eds), 69–78. Amsterdam: Rodopi.Google Scholar
Stoffel, Cornelis
1901Intensives and Downtoners [Anglistische Forschungen 1]. Heidelberg: Winter.Google Scholar
Tagliamonte, Sali A.
2008So different and pretty cool! Recycling intensifiers in Toronto, Canada. English Language & Linguistics 12(2): 361–394. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2011Variationist Sociolinguistics. Change, Observation, Interpretation. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
Tagliamonte, Sali A. & D’Arcy, Alexandra
2009Peaks beyond phonology: Adolescence, incrementation, and language change. Language 85(1): 58–108. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Tagliamonte, Sali A. & Denis, Derek
2014Expanding the transmission/diffusion dichotomy: Evidence from Canada. Language 90(1): 90–136. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Tagliamonte, Sali & Roberts, Chris
2005So weird; so cool; so innovative: The use of intensifiers in the television series Friends. American Speech 80(3): 280–300. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Tao, Hongyin
2007A corpus-based investigation of absolutely and related phenomena in spoken American English. Journal of English Linguistics 35(1): 5–29. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Wagner, Susanne
2017Totally new and pretty awesome: Amplifier-adjective bigrams in GloWbE. Lingua 200: 63–83. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Xiao, Richard & Tao, Hongyin
2007A corpus-based sociolinguistic study of amplifiers in British English. Sociolinguistic Studies 1(2): 241–273. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Cited by

Cited by 2 other publications

Hiltunen, Turo
2021. Intensification in Eighteenth Century Medical Writing. Journal of English Linguistics 49:1  pp. 90 ff. DOI logo
Stratton, James M.
2022. Old English intensifiers. Journal of Historical Linguistics 12:1  pp. 31 ff. DOI logo

This list is based on CrossRef data as of 9 march 2023. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.