Semantic Structure in English

HardboundAvailable
ISBN 9789027215833 | EUR 105.00 | USD 158.00
 
e-Book
ISBN 9789027266521 | EUR 105.00 | USD 158.00
 
Syntax puts our meaning (“semantics”) into sentences, and phonology puts the sentences into the sounds that we hear and there must, surely, be a structure in the meaning that is expressed in the syntax and phonology. Some writers use the phrase “semantic structure”, but are referring to conceptual structure; since we can express our conceptual thought in many different linguistic ways, we cannot equate conceptual and semantic structures.

The research reported in this book shows semantic structure to be in part hierarchic, fitting the syntax in which it is expressed, and partly a network, fitting the nature of the mind, from which it springs. It is complex enough to provide for the emotive and imaginative dimensions of language, and for shifts of standard meanings in context, and the “rules” that control them.

Showing the full structure of English semantics requires attention to many currently topical issues, and since the underlying theory is fresh, there are fresh implications for them. The most important of those issues is information structure, which is given full treatment, showing its overall structure, and its relation to semantics and the whole grammar of English.
Publishing status: Available
Table of Contents
Chapter 1. Introduction
1–6
Chapter 2. Semantic structures in the strata of English
7–23
Chapter 3. Basis of semantic structure
25–38
Chapter 4. Elements of semantic structure
39–78
Chapter 5. Network structure
79–123
Chapter 6. System structure
125–145
Chapter 7. Hierarchic structure (1): Figures
147–175
Chapter 8. Hierarchies (2): Groups and senses
177–254
Chapter 9. Hierarchic structure (3): Information structure
255–290
Chapter 10. Other structures
291–308
Chapter 11. Realisation (1): Interpersonal functions
309–340
Chapter 12. Realisation (2): Ideational function
341–384
Chapter 13. Discussion
385–405
Chapter 14. Conclusion
407–426
References
427–442
Index
443–452
References

References

Aarts, Bas
(2007) Syntactic gradience: The nature of grammatical indeterminacy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Aarts, Bas, & Meyer, Charles F.
(Eds) (1995) The verb in contemporary English: Theory and description. Cambridge / New York: Cambridge University Press.
Adamson, Sylvia
(1999) Literary language. In Roger Lass (Ed.), Cambridge history of the English language, Volume III, 1476–1776 (pp. 187–331). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Aitchison, Jean
(2012) Words in the mind: An introduction to the mental lexicon. 4th edition. Chichester, UK / Malden, Ma.: Wiley-Blackwell.
Allan, Keith
(1986) Linguistic meaning. Volume I. London / New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Allan, Keith, & Jaszczolt, Kasia M.
(Eds) (2012) The Cambridge handbook of pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Allen, Cynthia L.
(1995) Case marking and reanalysis: Grammatical relations from Old to Early Modern English. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ameka, Felix
(1992) Interjections: The universal yet neglected part of speech. Journal of Pragmatics, 18(2–3), 101–118. Crossref link
Andreewsky, Evelyne; Rosenthal, Rosen; & Bourcier, Daniele
(1985) Meaning without lexicon: A computational model for the resolution of lexical ambiguities. Psychological relevance. In Hoppenbrouwers et al. (Eds.), Meaning and the lexicon (pp. 380–383).
Armstrong, Sharon Lee; Gleitman, Lila R.; & Gleitman, Henry
(1983) What some concepts might not be. Cognition, 13, 263–308. Crossref link
Asp, Melissa
(2013) The twin paradoxes of unconscious choice and unintentional agents. In Lise Fontaine (Ed.), Systemic functional linguistics: exploring choice (pp. 161–178). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Barsalou, Lawrence W.
(1983) Ad hoc categories. Memory and Cognition, 11(3), 211–227. Crossref link
(1992a) Cognitive psychology: An overview for cognitive scientists. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates.
(1992b) Frames, concepts, and conceptual fields. In Adrienne Lehrer, & Eva Feder Kittay (Eds.), Frames, fields, and contrasts (pp. 21–74). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates.
(1999) Perceptual symbol systems. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 22, 577–660.
(2005) Situated conceptualisations. In Cohen & Lefebvre (Eds.), (pp. Handbook of categorization in cognitive science, 620–636). Crossref link
(2012) The human conceptual system. In Spivey et al. (Eds.), (pp. The Cambridge handbook of psycholinguistics, 239–258). Crossref link
Barsalou, Lawrence, & Wiemer-Hastings, Katja
(2005) Situating abstract concepts. In Pecher & Zwaan (Eds.), (pp. Grounding cognition: The role of perception and action in memory, language, and thinking, 129–163). Crossref link
Bates, E., & MacWhinney, Bryan
(1982) Functionalist approaches to grammar. In E. Wanner & L. Gleitman (Eds.), Language acquisition: The state of the art (pp. 173–218). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bauer, Laurie
(2004) Adjectives, compounds and words. Nordic Journal of English Studies, 3(1) (special issue, World of Words: a Tribute to Arne Zettersten), 7–22.
Bencini, Giulia M.L.
(2013) Psycholinguistics. In Thomas Hoffmann, & Graeme Trousdale (Eds.), Oxford handbook of construction grammar (pp. 379–396). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Biber, Douglas; Johansson, Stig; Leech, Geoffrey; Conrad, Susan & Finegan, Edward
(1999) Longman grammar of spoken and written English. Harlow: Longman.
Bierwisch, Manfred, & Schreuder, Robert
(1992) From concepts to lexical items. Cognition, 42, 23–60. Crossref link
Birner, Betty J., & Gregory, Ward
(1998) Information status and noncanonical word order in English. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Bisang, Walter
(2008) Precategoriality and syntax-based parts of speech: The case of late archaic Chinese. Studies in Language, 32(3), 568–589. Crossref link
Blakemore, Diane
(2002) Relevance and linguistic meaning: The semantics and pragmatics of discourse markers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Bloom, L.
(1933) Language. New York: Holt.
Bohm, Isabel C.; Altmann, Ulrike; Lubrich, Oliver; Menninghaus, Winifried; & Jacobs, Arthur M.
(2013) When we like what we know – A parametric fMRI analysis of beauty and familiarity. Brain and Language, 124(1), 1–8. Crossref link
Bolinger, Dwight
(1967) Adjectives in English: Attribution and predication. Lingua, 18, 1–34. Crossref link
(1986) Intonation and its parts: Melody. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Borer, Hagit
(1998) Morphology and syntax. In Spencer & Zwicky (Eds.), (pp. The handbook of morphology, 151–190).Online: Chapter 8. Crossref link
Boye, Kasper, & Harder, Peter
(2009) Evidentiality: Linguistic categories and grammaticalization. Functions of Language, 16(1), 9–43. Crossref link
Braisby, N.R.
(1990) Situating word meaning. In Robin Cooper, Kuniaki Mukai, & John Perry (Eds.), Situation theory and its applications (pp. 315–342). Stanford: CSLI.
Brownell, Hiram H.
(1988) Appreciation of metaphoric and connotative word meaning by brain-damaged patients. In Christine Chiarello (Ed.), Right hemisphere contributions to lexical semantics (pp. 19–31). Heidelberg, NY: Springer-Verlag. Crossref link
Bundegaard, Peer F.; Ostergaard, Svend; & Stjernfelt, Frederik
(2008) Waterproof fire stations? Conceptual schemata and cognitive operations in compound constructions. Semiotica, 161(1), 363–393.
Büring, Daniel
(2007) Semantics, intonation and information structure. In Ramchand & Reiss (Eds.), (pp. Polysemy: Theoretical and computational approaches, 435–473).
Burnley, David
(1992) Lexis and semantics. In Norman Blake (Ed.), Cambridge History of the English Language, Volume II, 1066–1476 (pp. 409–499). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Butt, Miriam
(2006) Theories of case. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Bybee, Joan
(2002) Sequentiality as the basis of constituent structure. In Talmy Givón, & Bertram F. Malle (Eds.), Evolution of Language out of Pre-language (pp. 109–134). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Chafe, Wallace L.
(2001) The analysis of discourse flow. In Deborah Schiffrin, Deborah Tannen, & Heidi Ehernberger Hamilton, (Eds.), The Handbook of Discourse Analysis (pp. 673–684). Oxford / Malden, Ma: Blackwell.
Chen, Melinda
(2004) Affect in language interpretation. In Michael Achard & Suzanne Kemmer (Eds.), Language, culture and mind (pp. 37 ff.). Stanford Ca: CSLI.
Chiarcos, Christian; Berry, Claus; & Grabski, Michael
(2011) Salience in linguistics and beyond. In Christian Chiarcos, Claus Berry, & Michael Grabski (Eds.), Salience: Multidisciplinary perspectives on its function in discourse (pp. 1–28). Berlin / New York: De Gruyter Mouton. Crossref link
Citron, Francesca M.M.
(2012) Neural correlates of written emotion word processing: A review of recent electrophysiological and haemodynamic neuroimaging studies. Brain and Language, 122, 211–226). Crossref link
Citron, Francesca M.M.; Weekes, Brendan S. & Ferstl, Evelyn C.
(2014) Arousal and emotional valence interact in written word recognition. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, 29(10), 1257–1267. Crossref link
Clark, Herbert H.
(1996) Using language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Coates, Richard
(2000) Singular definite expressions with a unique denotatum and the limits of properhood. Linguistics: An interdisciplinary journal of the language sciences, 38, 1161–1171. Crossref link
COBUILD
(2001) Collins COBUILD English dictionary for advanced learners. 3rd ed. Glasgow: Harper Collins.
Cohen, Henri, & Lefebvre, Claire
(2005) Handbook of categorization in cognitive science. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Collins, Peter
(2009) Information-packaging constructions. In Pam Peters, Peter Collins, & Adam Smith (Eds.), Comparative studies in Australian and New Zealand English: Grammar and beyond (pp. 73–88). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Couper-Kuhlen, Elizabeth
(1986) An introduction to English intonation. London: Arnold.
(1993) English speech rhythm: Form and function in everyday verbal interaction. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Croft, William
(2001) Radical construction grammar: Syntactic theory in typological perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Crossref link
(2003) Typology and universals. 2nd ed.; 1st ed. 1990. Cambridge University Press.
(2005) Logical and typological arguments for Radical Construction Grammar. In Östman & Fried (Eds.), (pp. , 273–309).
(2007) Beyond Aristotle and gradience: A reply to Aarts. Studies in Language, 31(2), 409–430. Crossref link
(2012) Verbs: Aspect and causal structure. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Crossref link
Croft, William, & Cruse, D. Alan
(2004) Cognitive linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Cruse, Alan
(2000) Aspects of the microstructure of word meanings. In Ravin & Leacock (Eds.), (pp. Polysemy: Theoretical and computational approaches, 30–31).
(2011) Meaning in language: An introduction to semantics and pragmatics. 3rd ed.; 1st ed. 2004. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Cruttenden, Alan
(1997) Intonation. 2nd edition; 1st edition 1986. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Crystal, David
(1967) English. Lingua, 17, 24–56. Crossref link
(1988) Language play. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Culicover, Peter W., & McNally, Louise
(Eds.) (1988) Syntax and semantics volume 29: The limits of syntax. San Diego / London: Academic Press.
Dahl, Östen
(1976) Grammar and meaning: Papers on syntactic and semantic topics. Lingua, 39(1), 158–164. Crossref link
Davis, Barbara L., & MacNeilage, Peter F.
(2002) The internal structure of the syllable. In Talmy Givón, & Bertram F. Malle (Eds.), The evolution of language out of pre-language (pp. 135–154). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
De Deyne, Simon; Voorspoels, Wouter; Verheyen, Steven; Navarro, Daniel J.; & Storms, Gert
(2014) Accounting for graded structure in adjective categories with valence-based opposition relationships. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, 29( 5), 568–583. Crossref link
de Smet, Hendrik, & Heyvaert, Liesbet
(2011) The meaning of the English present participle. English Language and Linguistics, 15(3), 473–498. Crossref link
DeLancey, Scott
(1981) An interpretation of ergativity and related patterns. Language, 37(3), 626 ff. Crossref link
(1987) Transitivity in grammar and cognition. In Russell S. Tomlin (Ed.), Coherence and grounding in discourse (pp. 57–68). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Diessel, Holger
(2006) Demonstratives, joint attention, and the emergence of grammar. Cognitive Linguistics, 17 (4), 463–489. Crossref link
Dik, Simon C., & Hengeveld, Kees
(1997) Theory of functional grammar, Parts 1 & 2. 2nd ed. Berlin / New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Dimroth, Christine; Gretsch, Petra; Jordens, Peter; Perdue, Clive; & Starren, Marianne
(2003) A stage model for first and second language development. In Christine Dimroth, & Marianne Starren (Eds.), Information structure and the dynamics of language acquisition (pp. 65–94). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Dingemanse, Mark
(2011) The use and meaning of ideophones in Siwu. PhD dissertation. Nijmegen: Radboud University.
Dixon, Robert M.W.
(1994) Ergativity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
(2005) A semantic approach to English grammar. 2nd edition; 1st edition 1981. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Donohue, Mark
(2008) Covert word classes: Making your own syntax in Tukang Besi. Studies in Language, 32, (3), 590–609. Crossref link
Downing, Pamela
(1977) On the creation and use of English compound nouns. Language, 53, 810–842. Crossref link
Dowty, David
(1991) Thematic proto-roles and argument selection. Language, 67(3), 547–619. Crossref link
Du Bois, John W.
(1987) The discourse basis of ergativity. Language, 63(4), 805–855. Crossref link
(2003) Discourse and grammar. In Michael Tomasello (Ed.), (pp. The new psychology of language: Cognitive and functional approaches to language structure, 17–88).
Elman, Jeffrey L.
(2009) On the meaning of words and dinosaur bones: Lexical knowledge without a lexicon. Cognitive Science, 33, 547–582. Crossref link
Engelberg, Stefan
(2011) Lexical decomposition: Foundational issues. In Maienborn et al. (Eds.), (pp. Semantics: An international handbook of natural language meaning, 124–144). Crossref link
Ernst, Thomas
(2012) The syntax of adjuncts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Escandell-Vidal, Victoria; Jungl, Manuel Leonetti; & Ahern, Aoife
(Eds.) (2011) Procedural meaning: problems and perspectives. Bingley: Emerald. Crossref link
Evans, Vyvyan
(2009) How words mean: Lexical concepts, cognitive models, and meaning construction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Crossref link
Fawcett, Robin P.
(2000) The theory of syntax for Systemic Functional Linguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Feist, Jim
(2011) Compound constructions: Waterproof three-storey brick and tile fire stations? Semiotica, 187(1), 337–367.
(2012a) Premodifiers in English: Their structure and significance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
(2012b) What controls the ‘genitive variation’ in Present-Day English? Studies in Language, 36(2), 261–299. Crossref link
(2013) Noun incorporation in English. Functions of Language, 20(2), 159–184. Crossref link
Ferreira, Victor S., & Slevc, L. Robert
(2007) Grammatical encoding. In Gaskell (Ed.), (pp. Oxford handbook of psycholinguistics, 453–170).
Ferris, Connor
(1983) The meaning of syntax: A study in the adjectives of English. London / New York: Longman.
Fetzer, Anita, & Speyer, Augustin
(2012) Discourse relations in English and German discourse: Local and not so local constraints. Intercultural Pragmatics, 9(4), 413 ff. Crossref link
Fillenbaum, Samuel, & Rapoport, Amnon
(1971) Structures in the subjective lexicon. New York: Academic Press.
Fillmore, Charles J., & Atkins, B.T.S.
(2000) Describing polysemy: The case of ‘crawl’. In Ravin & Leacock (Eds.), (pp. Polysemy: Theoretical and computational approaches, 91–110).
Firth, J.R.
(1957) Modes of meaning. In Papers in linguistics 1934–1951 (pp. 190–215). London: Oxford University Press.
Fisher, Olga, & Nänny, Max
(2001) The motivated sign. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Flores d’Arcais, G.B., & Schreuder, R.
(1987) Psychological Research, 49, 153–159.
Fodor, Jerry, & Lepore, Ernest
(2002) The compositionality papers. Oxford: Clarendon.
Fortescue, Michael
(2007) The non-linearity of speech production. In Hannay & Steen (Eds.), (pp. Structural-functional studies in English grammar: In honour of Lachlan Mackenzie, 337–351). Crossref link
(2009) A neural network model of lexical organisation. London: Continuum.
(2010) A neural network approach to compositionality and co-compositionality. The Mental Lexicon, 5(2), 180–204. Crossref link
Fretheim, Thorstein
(2011) Description as indication: The use of conceptual meaning for a procedural purpose. In Escandell-Vidal et al. (Eds.), (pp. Procedural meaning: problems and perspectives, 131 ff.).
Fries, Peter H.
(1983) On the status of theme in English: Arguments from discourse. In János S. Petöfi, & Emel Sözer (Eds.), Micro and Macro Connexity of Texts (pp. 116–146). Hamburg: Helmet Buske.
Gagné, Christina L.; Spalding, Thomas L.; & Gorrie, Melissa C.
(2005) Sentential context and the interpretation of familiar open-compounds and novel modifier-noun phrases. Language and Speech, 48(2), 203–221). Crossref link
Garrod, Simon & Pickering, Martin J.
(2007) Alignment in dialogue. In Gaskell (Ed.), (pp. Oxford handbook of psycholinguistics, 453–452).
Gaskell, M. Gareth
(Ed.) (2007) Oxford handbook of psycholinguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Crossref link
Geeraerts, Dirk
(2010) Theories of lexical semantics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gentner, Dedre, & Boroditsky, Lera
(2001) Individuation, relativity, and early word learning. In Melissa Bowerman & Stephen C. Levinson (Eds.), Language acquisition and conceptual development (pp. 215–250). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Gerdts, Donna B.
(1998) Incorporation. In Spencer & Zwicky (Eds.), (pp. The handbook of morphology, 84–100). Online: Chapter 8. Crossref link
Gibbs, Raymond W.
(2005) Embodiment in metaphorical imagination. In Pecher & Zwaan (Eds.), (pp. Grounding cognition: The role of perception and action in memory, language, and thinking, 65–92). Crossref link
Gibbs, Raymond W. Jnr; Wilson, Nicole L.; & Bryant, Gregory A.
(2012) Figurative language: Normal adult cognitive research. In Spivey & others (Eds.), (pp. The Cambridge handbook of psycholinguistics, 455–484). Crossref link
Giegerich, Heinz J.
(1999) Lexical strata in English: Morphological causes, phonological effects. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Gil, David
(2005) Isolating-monocategorial associational language. In Cohen & Lefebvre (Eds.), (pp. Handbook of categorization in cognitive science, 348–380). Crossref link
Gillon, Brendan S.
(2005) Semantic categorisation. In Cohen & Lefebvre (Eds.), (pp. Handbook of categorization in cognitive science, 167–187). Crossref link
Givón, Talmy
(1970) Notes on the semantic structure of English adjectives. Language, 46(4), 816–837. Crossref link
(1979) On understanding grammar. New York / San Francisco / London: Academic Press.
(1988) Pragmatics of word order: Predictability, importance and attention. In Michael Hammond, Edith Moravcsik, & Jessica Wirth (Eds.), Studies in syntactic typology (pp. 243–284). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
(1993) English grammar: A function-based introduction. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
(2009) The genesis of syntactic complexity: Diachrony, ontogeny, neuro-cognition, evolution. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Goffman, Erving
(1981) Forms of talk. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Goldberg, Adele E.
(1999) The emergence of the semantics of argument constructions. In Bryan MacWhinney (Ed.), The emergence of language (pp. 197–212). Mahwah, NJ / London: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Gundel, Jeannette K.
(2012) Pragmatics and information structure. In Allan & Jaszczolt (Eds.), (pp. The Cambridge handbook of pragmatics, 585–598). Crossref link
Gussenhoven, Carlos
(2004) The phonology of tone and intonation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Haiman, John
(1983) Iconic and economic motivation. Language, 59(4), 781–819. Crossref link
Halliday, M.A.K.
(1977) Text as semantic choice in social contexts. In Teun A. van Dijk & Janos S. Petöfi (Eds.), Grammars and descriptions (studies in text theory and text analysis) (pp. 176–225). Berlin / New York: Walter de Gruyter.
(1989) Grammar and daily life: Concurrence and complementarity. In Jonathon Webster (Ed) (2012) On grammar (volume 1 of Collected works of M. A. K. Halliday) (pp. 369–383).
(2014) An introduction to functional grammar. 3rd ed.; 1st ed. 1985. London: Hodder Arnold.
(2000) Grammar and daily life. In Lockwood et al. (Eds.), (pp. Functional approaches to language, culture and cognition: Papers in honour of Sydney M. Lamb, 221–238). Crossref link
Halliday, M.A.K., & William S. Greaves
(2008) Intonation in the grammar of English. London / Oakville, Ct: Equinox.
Halliday, M.A.K., & Hasan, Ruqaiya
(1976) Cohesion in English. London: Longman.
Halliday, M.A.K., & Matthiessen, M.I.M.
(1999) Construing experience through meaning: A language-based approach to cognition. London / New York: Continuum.
Hanks, Patrick
(2013) Lexical analysis: Norms and exploitations. Cambridge, Ma. /London: MIT Press. Crossref link
Hannay, Mike, & Steen, Gerard J.
(2007) Structural-functional studies in English grammar: In honour of Lachlan Mackenzie. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Hansen, Maj-Britt Mosegaard
(2012) A pragmatic approach to historical semantics with specific reference to markers of clausal negation in mediaeval French. In Kathryn Allan, & Justyna A. Robinson (Eds.), Current methods in historical semantics (pp. 233–257). Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
Hanson, Catherine, & Hanson, Stephen José
(2005) Categorization in neuroscience: Brain response to objects and events. In Cohen & Lefebvre (Eds.), (pp. Handbook of categorization in cognitive science, 119–140). Crossref link
Harder, Peter
(1996) Functional semantics: A theory of meaning, structure and tense in English. Berlin / New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Crossref link
(2007) Grammar flow and procedural knowledge: Structure and function at the interface between grammar and discourse. In Hannay & Steen (Eds.), (pp. Structural-functional studies in English grammar: In honour of Lachlan Mackenzie, 309–335). Crossref link
Hasan, Ruqaiya, & Fries, Peter H.
(1995) Reflections on subject and theme: An introduction. In Ruqaiya Hasan, & Peter H. Fries (Eds.), On subject and theme: A discourse functional perspective (pp. xiii–xlv). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Haspelmath, Martin
(2003) The geometry of grammatical meaning: Semantic maps and cross linguistic comparison. In Michael Tomasello (Ed.), (pp. The new psychology of language: Cognitive and functional approaches to language structure, 211–242).
(2007) Pre-established categories don’t exist. Linguistic Typology, 11, 119–132. Crossref link
(2009) Terminology of case. In A.L Mal’chukov, & Andrew Spencer (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of case (pp. The handbook of morphology, 505–517). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hawkins, John A.
(1994) A performance theory of order and constituency. Cambridge / New York: Cambridge University Press.
(2004) Efficiency and complexity in grammars. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Crossref link
Hengeveld, Kees; Rijkhoff, Jan; & Siewierska, Anna
(2004) Part-of-speech systems and word order. Journal of Linguistics, 40(3), 527–570. Crossref link
Hengeveld, Kees, & Mackenzie, J. Lachlan
(2008) Functional Discourse Grammar: A typologically-based theory of language structure. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Crossref link
Herbst, Thomas, & Götz-Votteler, Katrin
(2007) Valency: Theoretical, descriptive and cognitive issues. Berlin / New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Crossref link
Hinterhölzl, Roland, & van Kemenade, Ans
(2012) The interaction between syntax, information structure, and prosody in word order change. In Terttu Nevalainen, & Elizabeth Closs Traugott (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of the history of English (pp. 803–821). New York / Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hockett, Charles F.
(1960) The origin of speech. Scientific American, 205, 88–96. Crossref link
Hoppenbrouwers, G.A.J.; Seuren, P.A.M.; & Weijters, A.J.M.M.
(Eds.) (1985) Meaning and the lexicon. Dordrecht: Foris.
Hopper, Paul J., & Thompson, Sandra A.
(1984) The discourse basis for lexical categories in universal grammar. Language, 60(4), 703–752. Crossref link
Horgan, Kerry
(2012) Connectionism, dynamical cognition, and nonclassical compositional representation. In Werning et al. (Eds.), (pp. Oxford handbook of compositionality, 557 ff.).
Hsu, Chun-Ting; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Citron, Francesca M.M.; & Conrad, Markus
(2015) The emotion potential of words and passages in reading Harry Potter – an fMRI study. Brain and Language, 142, 96–114. Crossref link
Huddleston, Rodney, & Pullum, Geoffrey K.
(2002) The Cambridge grammar of the English language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Crossref link
Hudson, Richard A.
(1984) Word grammar. Oxford / New York: Blackwell.
Hudson, Richard, & Holmes, Jasper
(2000) Re-cycling in the encyclopedia. In Peeters (Ed.), (pp. The lexicon encyclopedia interface, 259–290).
Inchaurralde, Carlos
(2000)Lexicopedia. In Peeters (Ed.), (pp. The lexicon encyclopedia interface, 97–114).
Jackendoff, Ray
(2002) Foundations of language: Brain, meaning, grammar, evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Crossref link
(1972) Semantic interpretation in generative grammar. Cambridge, Ma.: MIT Press.
(2011) Conceptual semantics. In Maienborn et al. (Eds.), (pp. Semantics: An international handbook of natural language meaning, 688–709). Crossref link
Jacobson, Roman
(1936/1990) Contribution to the general theory of case. (Combining the 1936 paper with parts of the 1958 revised paper; translated from German). In Linda R. Waugh, & Monique Monville-Burston (Eds.) (1990) On Language (pp. 332–385). Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard University Press.
Jakobson, Roman
(1960) Closing statement: Linguistics and poetics. In Thomas A. Sebeok (Ed.), Style in language (pp. 350–377). Cambridge, Ma.: MIT Press.
Janssen, Theo A.J.M.
(2007) A speaker/hearer-based grammar: The case of possessives and compounds. In Mike Hannay & Gerard J. Steen (Eds.), Structural-functional studies in English grammar: In honour of Lachlan Mackenzie (pp. 353–388). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Janssen, Theo M.V.
(2012) Compositionality: Its historical context. In Werning et al., (pp. Oxford handbook of compositionality, 19–46).
Jespersen, Otto
(1924)Philosophy of grammar. London: Allen and Unwin.
Jung, Kiju; Shavitt, Sharon; Viswanathan, Madhu; & Hilbe, Joseph M.
(2014) Female hurricanes are deadlier than male hurricanes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(24), 8782–8787. Crossref link
Kamp, Hans, & Partee, Barbara
(1995) Prototype theory and compositionality. Cognition, 57, 129–191. Crossref link
Kamp, Hans, & Reyle, U.
(2011) Discourse Representation Theory. In Maienborn et al. (Eds.), (pp. Semantics: An international handbook of natural language meaning, 872–922).
Karmiloff-Smith, Annette
(1979) Micro- and macro- developmental changes in language acquisition and other representational systems. Cognitive Science, 3, 91–118. Crossref link
Karmiloff, Kyra, & Karmiloff-Smith, Annette
(2001) Pathways to language: From fetus to adolescent. Cambridge, Ma. / London: Harvard University Press.
Katz, Graham
(2008) Modification of state verbs. In Louise McNally & Christopher Kennedy (Eds.), Adjectives and adverbs: Syntax, semantics, and discourse (pp. 220–248). Oxford / New York: Oxford University Press.
Kemmer, Suzanne
(1993) The middle voice. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
(1994) Middle voice: Transitivity and the elaboration of events. In Barbara A. Fox & Paul J. Hopper (Eds.), Voice: Form and function (pp. 179–230). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Kiparsky, Paul
(1998) Partitive case and aspect. In Miriam Butt & Wilhelm Geuder (Eds.), The projection of arguments: Lexical and compositional factors (pp. 265–307). Stanford: CSLI.
Kirsner, Robert S.
(2011) Instructional meanings, iconicity and l’arbitraire du signe in the analysis of the Afrikaans demonstratives. In Bob de Jonge & Yishai Tobin (Eds.), Linguistic theory and empirical evidence (pp. 97–138). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Crossref link
Klein, Wolfgang
(2004) How time is encoded. In Wolfgang Klein & Ping Li (Eds.), The expression of time (pp. 39–82). Berlin / New York: Mouton De Gruyter.
Koptjevskaya-Tamm, Maria
(2012) New directions in lexical typology. Linguistics, 50(3), 373–394.
Kravchenko, Alexander V.
(2007) Essential properties of language, or, why language is not a code. Language Sciences, 29, 650–671. Crossref link
Kuczaj, Stan A., & Hendry, Jennifer L.
(2003) Does language help animals think? In Dedre Gentner & Susan Goldin-Meadow (Eds.), Language in mind: Advances in the study of language and thought (pp. 237–276). Cambridge, Ma.: MIT Press.
Labov, W.
(1973) Boundaries of words and their meanings. In C.J. Bailey & R. Shuy (Eds.), New ways of analysing variation in English (pp. 340–373). Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
Lakoff, George, & Johnson, Mark
(2003) Metaphors we live by. 2nd ed.; 1st ed. 1980. Chicago /London: University of Chicago Press. Crossref link
Lamb, Sydney M.
(1966) Outline of Stratificational Grammar. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.
(1999) Pathways of the brain: The neurocognitive basis of the brain. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
(2004) Language and reality. London / New York: Continuum.
Lambrecht, Knud
(1994) Information structure and sentence form. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Langacker, Ronald W.
(1987a) Foundations of cognitive grammar, volume 1: Theoretical prerequisites. Stanford, Ca.: Stanford University Press.
(1987b) Nouns and verbs. Language, 63, 33–94. Crossref link
(1999) Grammar and conceptualization. Berlin / New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Crossref link
(2005) Dynamicity, fictivity, and scanning: The imaginative basis of logic and linguistic meaning. In Pecher & Zwaan (Eds.), (pp. Grounding cognition: The role of perception and action in memory, language, and thinking, 164–197). Crossref link
(2008) Cognitive grammar: A basic introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Crossref link
Lascaratou, Chryssoula
(2007) The Language of pain: Expression or description? Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Leech, Geoffrey
(1974) Semantics. London: Pelican.
Leech, Geoffrey N., & Li, Lu
(1995) Indeterminacy between noun phrases and adjective phrases as complements of the English verb. In Aarts & Meyer (Eds.), (pp. The verb in contemporary English: Theory and description, 183–202).
Leffel, Timothy; Lauter, Miriam; Westerlund, Masha; & Pylkkänen, Liina
(2014) Restrictive vs. non-restrictive composition: A magnetoencephalography study. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, 29(10), 1191–1204. Crossref link
Lehmann, Christian
(2008) Roots, stems and word classes. Studies in Language, 32(3), 546–567. Crossref link
Lemmens, Maarten
(1998) Lexical perspectives on transitivity and ergativity: Causative constructions in English. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Levelt, Willem J.M.
(1989) Speaking: From intention to articulation. Cambridge, Ma.: MIT Press.
(1993) Accessing words in speech and production: Stages, Processes and representations. In Levelt (Ed.), (pp. Lexical access in speech production, 1–22).
(Ed.) (1993) Lexical access in speech production. 2nd ed.; 1st ed. 1991. Cambridge Ma. / London: Blackwell. Crossref link
Levin, Beth
(1993) English verb classes and alternations. Chicago / London: University of Chicago Press.
Lockwood, David G.; Fries, Peter H.; & Copeland, James E.
(Eds.) (2000) Functional approaches to language, culture and cognition: Papers in honour of Sydney M. Lamb. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Lohndahl, Terje
(2012). Toward the end of argument structure. In Maria Cristina Cuervo & Yves Roberge (Eds.), Syntax and Semantics 38: The end of argument structure? (pp. 155–184). Bingley: Emerald.
Lüdtke, Jana; Meyer-Sickendieck, Burkhard; & Jacobs, Arthur M.
(2014) Immersing in the stillness of an early morning: Testing the mood empathy hypothesis of poetry reception. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 8, 363–377. Crossref link
Lyons, John
(1966) Towards a ‘notional’ theory of the ‘parts of speech’. Journal of Linguistics, 2, 209–236. Crossref link
(1968) Introduction to theoretical linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
(1977) Semantics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
McClelland, James L.; Rumelhart, David E.; & Hinton, G.E.
(1986) The appeal of parallel distributed processing. In David E. Rumelhart & James L. McClelland (Eds.), Parallel distributed processing: Explorations in the microstructure of cognition, volume 1: Foundations (pp. 3–44). Cambridge, Ma.: MIT Press.
McGregor, William
(1997) Semiotic Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon Press / New York: Oxford University Press.
McNally, Louise
(1988) On the linguistic encoding of information packaging instructions. In Culicover & McNally (Eds.), (pp. Syntax and semantics volume 29: The limits of syntax, 161–183).
Mcnamara, Timothy P.
(2003) Semantic priming: The state of the art. New York: Psychology Press.
MacWhinney, Bryan
(1999) The emergence of language from embodiment. In Bryan MacWhinney (Ed.), The emergence of language (pp. 213–256). Mahwah, NJ / London: Erlbaum.
(2005) The emergence of grammar from perspective. In Pecher & Zwaan (Eds.), (pp. Grounding cognition: The role of perception and action in memory, language, and thinking, 198–223). Crossref link
Maienborn, Claudia; von Heusinger, Klaus; & Portner, Paul
(Eds.) (2011) Semantics: An international handbook of natural language meaning. Berlin / New York: De Gruyter Mouton. Crossref link
Malinowski, Bronislaw
(1929) The sexual life of savages in north-western Melanesia: An ethnographic account of courtship, marriage and family life among the natives of Trobriand Islands, British New Guinea. London: Routledge & Paul (1948).
(1930) The problem of meaning in primitive languages. In C.K. Ogden & I.A. Richards, The meaning of meaning: A study of the influence of language upon thought and the science of symbolism (pp. 296–366). 2nd ed.; 1st ed. 1923. New York: Harcourt Brace / London: Routledge & Paul.
Marantz, Alec
(2013) No escape from morphemes in morphological processing. Language and Cognitive Processes, 28(7), 905–916. Crossref link
Marchand, Hans
(1969) The categories and types of present-day English word formation: A synchronic-diachronic approach. 2nd ed.; 1st ed. 1960. Munich: Beck.
Matthews, Gerald; Deary, Ian J.; & Whiteman, Martha C.
(2003) Personality traits. 2nd ed. Cambridge / New York: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Matthews, P.H.
(1981) Syntax. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mel’cuk, Igor A.
(2001) Communicative organisation in natural language: The semantic communicative structure of sentences. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
(2012) Semantics: From meaning to text. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Meyer, Charles F.
(1995) Grammatical relations in English. In Aarts & Meyer (Eds.), (pp. The verb in contemporary English: Theory and description, 27–39).
Miller, D. Gary
(2014) English lexicogenesis. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Crossref link
Miller, George A., & Fellbaum, Christiane
(1991) The semantic networks of English. Cognition, 41(1–3), 197–229. Crossref link
Mitchell, Bruce
(1985) Old English syntax. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Crossref link
Mithun, Marianne
(1984) The evolution of noun incorporation. Language, 60, 847–892. Crossref link
(2012) Tags: Cross-linguistic diversity and commonality. Journal of Pragmatics, 44(15), 2165–2182. Crossref link
Mosel, Ulrike, & Hovdhaugen, Even
(1992) Samoan reference grammar. Oslo: Scandinavian University Press / Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Murphy, Gregory L.
(1988) Comprehending complex concepts. Cognitive Science, 12, 529–562. Crossref link
Murphy, M. Lynne
(2003) Semantic relations and the lexicon: Antonymy, synonymy, and other paradigms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Muysken, Pieter
(2008) A modular approach to grammatical categories: Evidence from language diversity and contact. In Cohen & Lefebvre (Eds.), (pp. Handbook of categorization in cognitive science, 46–69).
Newmeyer, Frederick J.
(2000) The discrete nature of syntactic categories: Against a prototype-based account. In Robert D. Borsley (Ed.), Syntax and semantics, volume 32: The nature and function of syntactic categories (pp. 221–250). New York: Academic Press. Crossref link
Nuckolls, Janis B.
(1999). The case for sound symbolism. Annual Review of Anthropology, 28, 225–252. Crossref link
Ochs, E.
(1992) Indexing gender. In A. Duranti & C. Goodwin (Eds.), Rethinking context (pp. 335–358). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Őstman, Jan-Ola, & Fried, Mirjam
(Eds.) (2005) Cognitive grammars: Cognitive grounding and theoretical extensions. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Partee
(2010) Privative adjectives: Subsective plus coercion. In Rainer Bäuerle, U. Reyle & Thomas Ede Zimmermann (Eds.), Presuppositions and discourse: Essays offered to Hans Kamp (pp. 273–285). Bingley: Emerald. Crossref link
Pecher, Diane, & Zwaan, Rolf A.
(Eds.) (2005) Grounding cognition: The role of perception and action in memory, language, and thinking. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Peeters, Bert
(Ed.) (2000) The lexicon encyclopedia interface. Oxford: Elsevier.
Pennebaker, James
(2011) The secret life of pronouns: What our words say about us. New York: Bloomsbury Press.
Peirce, Charles Sanders
(1931–1958) Collected papers of Charles Sanders Peirce. Volume 2: Elements of logic. Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard University Press.
Petrova, Svetlana
(2012) The impact of focusing and defocusing on word order: Changes at the periphery in Old English and Old High German. In Terttu Nevalainen & Elizabeth Closs Traugott (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of the history of English (pp. 846–858). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Pickering, Martin J., & Branigan, Holly P.
(1998) The representation of verbs: Evidence from syntactic priming in language production. Journal of Memory and Language, 39, 633–651. Crossref link
Pietroski, Paul M.
(2012) Semantic monadicity with conceptual polyadicity. In Werning et al. (Eds.), (pp. Oxford handbook of compositionality, 129–148).
Prince, Ellen
(1981) Towards a taxonomy of given-new information. In Peter Cole (Ed.), Radical pragmatics (pp. 223–255). New York: Academic Press.
Prinz, Jesse
(2002) Furnishing the mind: Concepts and their perceptual basis. Cambridge, Ma. / London: MIT Press.
Pulvermüller, Friedemann
(1999) Words in the brain’s language. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 22(2), 253–279. Crossref link
(2002) The neuroscience of language: On brain circuits of words and serial order. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pulvermüller, F., & Knoblauch, A.
(2009) Discrete combinatorial circuits emerging in neural networks: A mechanism for rules of grammar in the human brain? Neural Networks, 22(2), 161–172. Crossref link
Pustejovsky, James
(1995) The generative lexicon. Cambridge, Ma.: MIT Press.
(2012) Co-compositionality in grammar. In Werning et al. (Eds.), (pp. Oxford handbook of compositionality, 371–384).
Quirk, Randolph; Greenbaum, Sidney; Leech, Geoffrey; & Svartvik, Jan
(1972) A grammar of contemporary English. London: Longman.
(1985) A comprehensive grammar of contemporary English. London: Longman.
Radford, Andrew R.
(1988) Transformational grammar: A first course. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Ramchand, Gillian
(1997) Aspect and predication. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ramchand, Gillian, & Reiss, Charles
(Eds.) (2007) Oxford handbook of linguistic interfaces. Oxford / New York: Oxford University Press. Crossref link
Ravin, Yael, & Leacock, Claudia
(Eds.) (2002) Polysemy: Theoretical and computational approaches. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Redeker, Gisela
(2006) Discourse markers as attentional cues at discourse transitions. In Kerstin Fischer (Ed.), Approaches to discourse particles (pp. 339–358). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Reid, Wallis Hoch
(1991) Verb and noun number in English: A functional explanation. London / New York: Longman.
Reid, Wallis; Otheguy, Ricardo; & Stern, Nancy
(Eds.) (2002) Signal, meaning & message: Perspectives on sign-based linguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Reverberi, Carlo; Kuhlen, Anna; Abutalebi, Jubin; Greulich, R. Stefan; Costa, Albert; Seyed-Allaei, Shimas; & Haynes, John-Dylan
(2015) Language control in bilinguals: Intention to speak vs. execution of speech. Brain and Language, 144, 1–9. Crossref link
Rickheit, Gert, & Sichelschmidt, Lorenz
(2007) Valency and cognition – A notion in transition. In Herbst & Götz-Votteler (Eds.), (pp. Valency: Theoretical, descriptive and cognitive issues, 163–182).
Riehl, Claudia Maria, & Kilian-Hatz, Christa
(2005) Structure and function of incorporation processes in compounding. In F.K. Erhard Voeltz (Ed.), Studies in African linguistic typology (pp. 36 ff.). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Rijkhoff, Jan
(2002) The noun phrase. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Crossref link
(2008) Descriptive and discourse referential modifiers in a layered model of the noun phrase. Linguistics, 46(4), 789–829. Crossref link
Roelofs, Ardi
(1993) A spreading activation theory of lemma retrieval in speaking. In Levelt (Ed.), (pp. Lexical access in speech production, 107–142).
Ruhl, Charles
(2002) Data, comprehensiveness, monosemy. In Reid et al. (Eds.), (pp. Signal, meaning & message: Perspectives on sign-based linguistics, 171–190). Crossref link
Sandra, Dominiek, & Sally Rice
(1995) Network analyses of prepositional meaning: Mirroring whose mind – the linguist’s or the language user’s? Cognitive Linguistics, 6, 89–100. Crossref link
Sanford, Anthony J.
(2008) Context, attention and depth of processing during interpretation. Mind and Language, 17(1–2), 188–206. Crossref link
Saussure, Ferdinand de
(1915) Charles Bally & Albert Sechehaye (Eds.), Course in general linguistics. Trans. Ray Harris 1983 London: Duckworth.
Schreuder, Robert, & Flores d’Arcais, Giovanni B.
(1989) Psycholinguistic issues in the lexical representation of meaning. In William Marslen-Wilson (Ed.), Lexical representation and process (pp. 409–436). Cambridge, Ma.: MIT Press.
Schreuder, Robert; Flores d’Arcais, Giovanni B.; & Glazenborg, Ge
(1985) Semantic decomposition and word recognition. In Hoppenbrouwers et al. (Eds.), (pp. Meaning and the lexicon, 108–114).
Schlesinger, I.M.
(1995) On the semantics of the object. In Aarts & Meyer (Eds.), (pp. The verb in contemporary English: Theory and description, 54–74).
Schwanenflugel, Paula J.
(1991) Why are abstract concepts hard to understand? In Paula J. Schwanenflugel (Ed.), The psychology of word meanings (pp. 223–250). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Shorter Oxford English Dictionary
(2002) Shorter Oxford English dictionary on historical principles. 5th edition; 1st edition 1933. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sinclair, John
(1998) The lexical item. In Edda Weigand (Ed.), Contrastive lexical semantics (pp. 1–25). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Simon-Vandenbergen, Anne-Marie, & Taverniers, Miriam
(Eds.) (2003) Grammatical metaphor: Views from systemic functional linguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Slobin, D.
(1970) Universals of grammatical development in children. In G.B. Flores d’Arcais, & W.J.M. Levelt (Eds.), Advances in psycholinguistics (pp. 174–184). Amsterdam: North-Holland.
Smith, Mark
(2010) Pragmatic functions and lexical categories. Linguistics, 48(3), 717–777. Crossref link
Spencer, Andrew, & Zwicky, Arnold M.
(Eds.) (1998) The handbook of morphology. Oxford / Malden, Ma.: Blackwell.
Spivey, Michael J.; Richardson, Daniel C.; & Gonzalez-Marquez, Monica
(2005) Perceptual-motor and image schematic infrastructure. In Pecher & Zwaan (Eds.), (pp. Grounding cognition: The role of perception and action in memory, language, and thinking, 246–281). Crossref link
Spivey, Michael J.; McRae, Ken; & Joanisse, Marc F.
(Eds.) (2012) The Cambridge handbook of psycholinguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Štalnaker, R.C.
(1978) Assertion In P. Cole (Ed.), Syntax and semantics: Volume 9: Pragmatics (pp. 315–332). New York: Academic Press.
Stefanowitsch, Anatol
(2003) Constructional semantics as a limit to grammatical alternation: The two genitives of English. In Gunter Rohdenburg & Britta Mondorf (Eds.), Determinants of grammatical variation in English (pp. 413–444). Berlin / New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Crossref link
Štekauer, Pavol; Valera, Salvador; & Körtvélyessy, Lívia
(2012) Word formation in the world’s languages: A typological survey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Stewart, Terrence, & Eliasmith, Chris
(2012) Compositionality and biologically plausible models. In Werning & others (Eds.), (pp. Oxford handbook of compositionality, 596–615).
Swee, Genevieve, & Shirmer, Annett
(2015) On the importance of being vocal: Saying ‘ow’ improves pain tolerance. Journal of Pain. Online: Crossref link.
Taylor, Ann, & Pintzuk, Susan
(2012) The effect of information structure on object position in Old English: A pilot study. In Anneli Meurman-Solin, María José López-Couso & Bettelou Los (Eds.), Information structure and syntactic change in the history of English (pp. 47–65). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Crossref link
Taylor, John R.
(2002) Cognitive grammar. Oxford / New York: Oxford University Press.
(2003) Cognitive grammar (2nd edition). Oxford / New York: Oxford University Press.
Tench, Paul
(1996) The intonation systems of English. London: Cassell.
Thompson, Sandra
(1978) Modern English from a typological point of view: Some implications of the function of word order. Linguistische Berichte, 54, 19–35.
Thompson, Sandra A., & Hopper, Paul J.
(2001) Transitivity, clause structure, and argument structure: Evidence from conversation. In Joan Bybee & Paul Hopper (Eds.), Frequency and the emergence of linguistic structure (pp. 27–69). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Timberlake, Alan
(1975) Hierarchies in the genitive of negation. Slavic and East European Journal, 19(2), 123–138. Crossref link
Tobin, Yishai
(1990) Semiotics and linguistics. London / New York: Longman.
Toman, Jindrich
(2001) Word syntax. In Spencer & Zwicky (Eds.), (pp. The handbook of morphology, 306–321). Online: Chapter 15. Crossref link
Tomasello, Michael
(Ed.) (2003) The new psychology of language: Cognitive and functional approaches to language structure. Volume 2. Mahwah, NJ / London: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Traugott, Elizabeth Closs
(2008) Syntax. In Richard M. Hogg (Ed.), The Cambridge history of the English language: Vol. 1 The Beginnings to 1066 (pp. 168–289). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Trousdale, Nikolas
(2010) The event structure of perception verbs. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Tucker, Don M.
(2002) Embodied meaning: An evolutionary developmental analysis of adaptive semantics. In Givón & Malle (Eds.), (pp. 51–82).
Ullman, Stephen
(1959) Principles of semantics. 2nd edition; 1st edition 1951. Glasgow: Jackson. / Oxford: Blackwell.
Vallduví, Enric, & Vikunen, Maria
(1998) On rheme and Kontrast. In Culicover & McNally (Eds.), (pp. 79–108).
Van de Velde, Freek
(2007) Interpersonal modification in the English noun phrase. Functions of Language, 14(2), 203–230. Crossref link
Van Linden, An
(2012) Modal adjectives: English deontic and evaluative constructions in synchrony and diachrony. Berlin / Boston: De Gruyter Mouton. Crossref link
Van Valin, Robert D.
(2013) Lexical representation, co-composition, and linking syntax and semantics. In James Pustejovsky (Ed.), Advances in generative lexicon theory (pp. 67 ff.). Dordrecht / New York: Springer Science + Business Media. Crossref link
Vandelanotte, Lieven
(2002) Prenominal adjectives in English: Structures and ordering. Folia Linguistica, 36, 219–259. Crossref link
Vendler, Zeno
(1968) Adjectives and nominalizations. The Hague / Paris: Mouton.
Ward, Gregory, & Birner, Betty J.
(2011) Discourse effects of word order variation. In Maienborn et al. (Eds.), Ch. 73.Semantics: An international handbook of natural language meaning, Crossref link
Warren, Beatrice
(1978) Semantic patterns of noun-noun compounds. Göteborg: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis.
(1984) Classifying adjectives. Göteborg: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis.
Weinreich, Uriel
(1966) Explorations in semantic theory. Reprinted in William Labov & Beatrice Weinreich (Eds.) (1980) On semantics (pp. 99–207). Philadephia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Wennerstrom, Ann
(2001) The music of English speech: Prosody as discourse analysis. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Werning, Markus; Hinzen, Wolfram; & Machery, Edouard
(Eds.) (2012) Oxford handbook of compositionality. Oxford / New York: Oxford University Press. Crossref link
Wharton, Tim
(2012) Pragmatics and prosody. In Allan & Jaszczolt (Eds.), (pp. The Cambridge handbook of pragmatics, 567–584). Crossref link
Wichmann, Anne
(2000) Intonation in text and discourse: Beginnings, middles, and ends. Harlow / New York: Longman.
Wierzbicka, Anna
(1981) Case marking and human nature. Australian Journal of Linguistics, 1(1), 43–80. Crossref link
(1990) ‘Prototypes save’: On the uses and abuses of the notion of ‘prototype’ in linguistics and related fields. In S.L. Tsohadzidis (Ed.), Meanings and prototypes: Studies in linguistic categorisation (pp. 347–367). London / New York: Routledge.
(1992) The semantics of interjection. Journal of Pragmatics, 18, 159–192. Crossref link
(1996) Semantics: Primes and universals. Oxford / New York: Oxford University Press.
Wray, Alison
(2002) Formulaic language and the lexicon. Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Wunderlich, Dieter
(2012) Lexical decomposition in grammar. In Werning et al. (Eds.), (pp. Oxford handbook of compositionality, 307–327).
Wymer, Adam Zachary
(2008) Towards flexible types with constraints for manner and factive adverbs. In Louise McNally & Christopher Kennedy (Eds.), Adjectives and adverbs: Syntax, semantics, and discourse (pp. 249–273). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Zaidel, Eran; White, Hedy; Sakurai, Eriko; & Banks, William
(1988) Representation, control and interaction: Separate roles for the right and left hemispheres? In Christine Chiarello (Ed.), Right hemisphere contributions to lexical semantics (pp. 71–88). Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Crossref link
Zwaan, Rolf A., & Madden, Carol J.
(2005) Embodied sentence comprehension. In Pecher & Zwaan (Eds.), (pp. Grounding cognition: The role of perception and action in memory, language, and thinking, 224–245). Crossref link
Subjects
BIC Subject: CFK – Grammar, syntax
BISAC Subject: LAN016000 – LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / Semantics
U.S. Library of Congress Control Number:  2016027521