Chapter published in:
Lost in Transmission: The role of attrition and input in heritage language development
Edited by Bernhard Brehmer and Jeanine Treffers-Daller
[Studies in Bilingualism 59] 2020
► pp. 100124
References

References

Anderssen, M. & Bentzen, K.
2012Norwegian object shift as IP-internal topicalization. Nordlyd 39.1: The Grammar of Objects, 1–23.Google Scholar
Anderssen, M. & Westergaard, M.
2010Frequency and economy in the acquisition of variable word order. Lingua 120: 2569–2588. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Anderssen, M., Lundquist, B. & Westergaard, M.
2018Cross-linguistic similarities and differences in bilingual acquisition and attrition: Possessives and double definiteness in Norwegian heritage language. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 21(4): 748–764. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Anderssen, M., Bentzen, K. & Rodina, Y.
2012Topicality and complexity in the acquisition of Norwegian object shift. Language Acquisition 19(1): 39–72. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Anderssen, M., Bentzen, K., Rodina, Y. & Westergaard, M.
2010The acquisition of apparent optionality: The word order of subject and object shift constructions in Norwegian. In Variation in the Input: Studies in the Acquisition of Word Order, M. Anderssen, K. Bentzen & M. Westergaard (eds), 241–270. Dordrecht: Springer. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Anderssen, M., Rodina, Y., Mykhaylyk, R. & Fikkert, P.
2014The acquisition of the dative alternation in Norwegian. Language Acquisition 21: 72–102. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Anderssen, M.
2006The Acquisition of Compositional Definiteness in Norwegian. PhD dissertation, University of Tromsø.Google Scholar
Andréasson, M.
2008Not all objects are born alike – accessibility as a key to pronominal object shift in Swedish and Danish. In Proceedings of the LFG08 Conference, M. Butt & T. Halloway King (eds), 26–45. Stanford CA: CSLI.Google Scholar
2010Object shift or object placement in general. In Proceedings of the LFG10 Conference, M. Butt & T. Halloway King (eds), 26–42. Stanford CA: CSLI.Google Scholar
Bentzen, K.
2009Subject positions and their interaction with verb movement. Studia Linguistica 63(3): 1–31. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2014Object shift. Nordic Atlas of Language Structures (NALS) 1: 332–343.Google Scholar
Bentzen, K., Anderssen, M. & Waldmann, Ch.
2013Object shift in Mainland Scandinavian: A corpus study of Danish, Norwegian and Swedish. Nordic Journal of Linguistics 36(2): 115–151. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Cardinaletti, A.
2004Towards a cartography of subject positions. In The Structure of CP and IP: The Cartography of Syntactic Structures, Vol. 2, L. Rizzi (ed.), 115–165. Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
Erteschik-Shir, N.
2005Sound patterns of syntax: Object shift. Theoretical Linguistics 31(1–2): 47–94.Google Scholar
Hartsuiker, R. J., Pickering, M. J. & Veltkamp, E.
2004Is syntax separate or shared between languages? Cross-linguistic syntactic priming in Spanish-English bilinguals. Psychological Science 15(6): 409–414. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Haugen, E.
1953The Norwegian Language in America. A Study in Bilingual Behavior. Bloomington IN: Indiana University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Holmberg, A.
1986Word Order and Syntactic Features in the Scandinavian Languages and English. PhD dissertation, University of Stockholm.Google Scholar
1999Remarks on Holmberg’s generalization. Studia Linguistica 53(1): 1–39. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Jayaseelan, K.
2001IP-internal topic and focus phrases. Studia Linguistica 55(1): 39–75. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Johannessen, J. B.
2015The Corpus of American Norwegian Speech (CANS). In Proceedings of the 20th Nordic Conference of Computational Linguistics, NODALIDA 2015, B. Megyesi (ed.), 297–300. Linköping: University Electronic Press.Google Scholar
Johannessen, J. B. & Laake, S.
2017Norwegian in the American Midwest: A common dialect? Journal of Language Contact 10: 5–21. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Johannessen, J. B. & Lake, S.
2012Østnorsk som fellesdialect i Midtvesten. Norsk Lingvistisk Tidsskrift 30(2): 365–380.Google Scholar
Johannessen, J. B. & Salmons, J.
2015The study of Germanic heritage languages in the Americas. In Germanic Heritage Languages in North America [Studies in Language Variation 18], J. B. Johannessen & J. Salmons (eds), 1–17. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Josefsson, G.
2010Object shift and optionality: An intricate interplay between syntax, prosody and information structure. Working Papers in Scandinavian Syntax 86: 1–24.Google Scholar
van Kemenade, A. & Los, B.
2006Discourse adverbs and clausal syntax in Old and Middle English. In The Handbook of the History of English, A. van Kemenade & B. Los (eds), 224–248. Malden MA: Blackwell. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Köpke, B. & Schmid, M.
2004Language attrition: The next phase. In First Language Attrition: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Methodological Issues [Studies in Bilingualism 28], M. Schmid, B. Köpke, M. Keijzer & L. Weilemar (eds), 1–43. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kupisch, T.
2013A new term for a better distinction? A view from the higher end of the proficiency scale. Theoretical Linguistics 39(3–4): 203–214.Google Scholar
2014Adjective placement in simultaneous bilinguals (German-Italian) and the concept of cross-linguistic overcorrection. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 17(1): 222–233. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kupisch, T. & Rothman, J.
2018Terminology matters! Why difference is not incompleteness and how early child bilinguals are heritage speakers. International Journal of Bilingualism 22(5): 564–582. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lødrup, H.
2011Norwegian possessive pronouns: Phrases, words or suffixes? In Proceedings of the LFG11 Conference, M. Butt & T. Holloway King (eds), 383–403. Stanford CA: CSLI.Google Scholar
Lohndal, T. & Westergaard, M.
2016Grammatical gender in American Norwegian heritage language: Stability or attrition? Frontiers in Psychology 7.344. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lovoll, O. S.
1999The Promise of America: A History of the Norwegian-American People, revised edn. Minneapolis MN: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
Martin, C. D., Dering, B., Thomas, E. M. & Thierry, G.
2009Brain potentials reveal semantic priming in both the ‘active’ and the ‘non-attended’ language of early bilinguals. NeuroImage 47(1): 326–333. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mikkelsen, L.
2011On prosody and focus in object shift. Syntax 14(3): 230–264. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mohr, S.
2005Clausal Architecture and Subject Positions: Impersonal Constructions in the Germanic Languages [Linguistik Aktuell/Linguistics Today 88]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Montrul, S.
2002Incomplete acquisition and attrition of Spanish tense/aspect distinctions in adult bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 5: 39–68. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2008Incomplete Acquisition in Bilingualism: Re-examining the Age Factor [Studies in Bilingualism 39]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2014Incomplete L1 acquisition. In The Cambridge Handbook of Second Language Acquisition, J. Herschensohn & M. Young-Scholten (eds), 353–371. Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
Müller, N. & Hulk, A.
2001Cross-linguistic influence in bilingual language acquisition: Italian and French as recipient languages. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 4: 1–21. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Nilsen, Ø.
1997Adverbs and A-shift. Working Papers in Scandinavian Syntax 59: 1–31.Google Scholar
NoTa – Norsk Talespråkskorpus, Oslodelen
Corpus of Spoken Norwegian, the Oslo part], Tekstlaboratoriet, ILN, University of Oslo.
Polinsky, M.
2006Incomplete acquisition: American Russian. Journal of Slavic Linguistics 14: 191–262.Google Scholar
Putnam, M. & Sánchez, L.
2013What’s so incomplete about incomplete acquisition? A prolegomenon to modeling heritage grammars. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism 5(2): 478–508. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Radford, A.
1992The acquisition of the morphosyntax of finite verbs in English. In The Acquisition of Verb Placement: Functional Categories and V2 Phenomena in Language Acquisition, J. Meisel (ed.), 23–62. Dordrecht: Kluwer. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Roeper, T.
1999Universal bilingualism. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 2(3): 169–186. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2007What frequency can do and what it can’t. In Frequency Effects in Language Acquisition: Defining the Limits of Frequency as an Explanatory Concept, I. Gülzow & N. Gagarina (eds), 23–48. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Scontras, G., Fuchs, Z. & Polinsky, M.
2015Heritage language and linguistic theory. Frontiers in Psychology 6. 1545. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Simonsen, H. G.
1990Barns fonologi: system og variasjon hos tre norske og et samoisk barn. PhD dissertation, University of Oslo.Google Scholar
Snyder, W.
2007Child Language: The Parametric Approach. Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
Sorace, A.
2011Pinning down the concept of “interface” in bilinguals. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism 1(1): 1–33. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Svenonius, P.
2002Subject positions and the placement of adverbials. In Subjects, Expletives and the EPP, P. Svenonius (ed.), 201–242. Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
Venås, K.
1971Om posisjonen til neksusadverbialet ikkje . Maal og Minne 3–4: 124–173.Google Scholar
Vikner, S.
2006Object shift. In The Blackwell Companion to Syntax, Vol 3, M. Everaert & H. van Riemsdijk (eds), 392–436. Oxford: Blackwell. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Vogel, R.
2006Weak function word shift. Linguistics 44(5): 1059–1097. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Westergaard, M.
2008Verb movement and subject placement in the acquisition of word order: pragmatics or structural economy? In First Language Acquisition of Morphology and Syntax: Perspectives across Languages and Learners [Language Acquisition and Language Disorders, 45] P. Guijarro-Fuentes, P. Larranaga & J. Clibbens (eds), 61–86. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2009aMicrovariation as diachrony: A view from acquisition. Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics 12: 49–79. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2009bThe Acquisition of Word Order: Micro-cues, Information Structure and Economy [Linguistik Aktuell/Linguistics Today 145]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2011Subject positions and information structure: The effect of frequency on acquisition and change. Studia Linguistica 3: 299–332. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2014Linguistic variation and micro-cues in first language acquisition. Linguistic Variation 14(1): 26–45. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Westergaard, M. & Anderssen, M.
2015Word order variation in Norwegian possessive constructions: bilingual acquisition and attrition. In Germanic Heritage Languages in North America: Acquisition, Attrition and Change [Studies in Language Variation 18], J. B. Johannessen & J. Salmons (eds), 21–45. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Westergaard, M. & Bentzen, K.
2007The (non-) effect of input frequency on the acquisition of word order in Norwegian embedded clauses. In Frequency Effects in Language Acquisition: Defining the Limits of Frequency as an Explanatory Concept, I. Gülzow & N. Gagarina (eds), 271–306. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Westergaard, M. & Lohndal, T.
2019Verb second word order in Norwegian heritage language: Syntax and pragmatics. In Variable Properties in Language: Their Nature and Acquisition, D. Lightfoot & J. Havenhill (eds). 91–102 Washington DC: Georgetown University Press. muse​.jhu​.edu​/book​/65221. Crossref
Westergaard, M., Vangsnes, Ø.A. & Lohndal, T.
2017Variation and change in Norwegian wh-questions: The role of the complementizer som. Linguistic Variation 17(1): 8–43. CrossrefGoogle Scholar