This study investigates language attitudes towards English, Spanish and code-switching in two Texas border cities (Laredo and Edinburg) by means of a matched guise test with three attribute dimensions (solidarity, status, and personal appeal). It was found that there were no significant overall differences between attitudes in the two cities. As anticipated, code-switching received the lowest ratings in all dimensions; English and Spanish were matched for status, and Spanish received the highest scores for solidarity. When the variable of gender was considered (both for raters and speakers), differences in ratings emerged, evidence that in both cities the three varieties play different roles in mediating gender relations.
2008Conflict & Commerce on the Rio Grande: Laredo, 1755-1955. College Station: Texas A&M University Press.
Alonzo, Armando C
1998Tejano Legacy: Rancheros and Settlers in South Texas 1734-1900. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
Anderson-Mejías, Pamela L
2005“Generation and Spanish Language Use in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas.”Southwest Journal of Linguistics 24 (1-2): 1–12.
Appel, R., and P. Muysken
1987Language Contact and Bilingualism. London: Edward Arnold.
Arispe y Azevedo, Baltazar, Jr
2009“The Geographic and Demographic Challenges To the Regional Institutionalization Of the Texas Lower Rio Grande Valley.”Norteamérica 4 (2): 37–69.
2014In Laredo Independent School District. Retrieved on May 3, 2014 from [URL].
Bilingual/ESL/Dual Language/Foreign Language
2014In United Independent School District. Retrieved on May 3, 2014 from [URL].
2014In Brownsville Independent. Retrieved on May 3, 2014 from [URL].
2014In ECISD. Retrieved on May 3, 2014 from [URL].
2014In McAllen Independent School District. Retrieved on May 3, 2014 from [URL].
2013In Mission CISD. Retrieved on May 3, 2014 from [URL].
Bills, Garland D., Eduardo Hernández Chávez, and Alan Hudson
1995“The Geography of Language Shift: Distance from the Mexican Border and Spanish Language Claiming in the Southwestern US.”International Journal of the Sociology of Language 114 (1): 9–28.
Bohner, G., and M. Wanke
2002Attitudes and Attitude Change. Hove: Psychology Press.
Calderón, Roberto Ramón
1993“Mexican Politics in the American era, 1846-1900: Laredo.” University of California.
Coronado, Roberto A., and Keith Phillips
2007“Exported Retail Sales along the Texas-Mexico Border.”Journal of Borderlands Studies 22 (1): 19–37.
Dailey, René M., Howard Giles, and Laura L. Jansma
2005“Language Attitudes in an Anglo-Hispanic Context: The Role of the Linguistic Landscape.”Language and Communication 251: 27–38.
De la Zerda Flores, N., and Robert Hopper
1975“Mexican American’s Evaluations of Spoken Spanish and English.”Speech Monographs 42 (2): 91–98.
1982“Language Attitudes and their Implications among English Speakers.” In Attitudes towards Language Variation: Social and Applied Contexts, ed. by Ryan Bouchard and Howard Giles, 20–33. London: E. Arnold.
1984The Sociolinguistics of Society. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
1995“Language Attitudes Toward Spanish and English Varieties: A Chicano Perspective.”Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 17 (1): 77–79.
2010Attitudes to Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2002“Evolución de las ciudades mexicanas en el siglo XX.”Notas: Revista de información y análisis 191 (7–16).
Giles, Howard, and Nikolas Coupland
1991“Language Attitudes: Discursive, Contextual, and Gerontological Considerations.” In Bilingualism, Multiculturalism, and Second Language Learning: The McGill Conference in Honour of Wallace E. Lambert, ed. by Allan G. Reynolds, 21–37. New Jersey/London: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Hickey Cavazos, Concepción María
2012Spanish language use and linguistic attitudes in Laredo, Texas, between 1860 and 1930. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Texas A&M University.
2001“An Integrative Approach to Language Attitudes and Identity in Brittany.”Journal of Sociolinguistics 51 (1, Feb): 73–84.
Ihemere, Kelechukwu U
2006“An Integrated Approach to the Study of Language Attitudes and Change in Nigeria: The Case of the Ikwerre of Port Harcourt City.”
36th Annual Conference on African Linguistics
2012In Laredo Development Foundation. Retrieved on April 3, 2013 from [URL].
Irvine, Judith T., and Susan Gal
2000 “Language ideology and Linguistic Differentiation.” In Regimes of Language, ed. by P. Kroskrity, 35–83. Santa Fe: SAR Press.
Lambert, W.E., R.C. Hodgson, R.C. Gardner, and S. Fillenbaum
1960“Evaluational Reactions to Spoken Languages.”The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 60 (1): 44–51.
López, José Joaquín
2006“Dynamic growth in the Rio Grande Valley.”Southwest EconomyMarch/April: 11–14.
Loureiro-Rodríguez, Verónica, May Boggess, and Anne Goldsmith
2013“Language Attitudes in Galicia: Using the Matched-guise Test among High School Students.”Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 34 (2): 136–153.
Martínez, Glenn A
2003“Perceptions of Dialect in a Changing Society: Folk Linguistics along the Texas-Mexico Border.”Journal of Sociolinguistics 71: 38–49.
2004The Mexican Texans. College Station: Texas A&M University Press.
Mejías, Hugo A., and Pamela L. Anderson
1988“Attitude toward Use of Spanish on the South Texas Border.”Hispania 71 (2): 401–407.
Mejías, Hugo A., Pamela L. Anderson-Mejías, and Ralp Carlson
2003“Attitude Update: Spanish on the South Texas Border.”Hispania 86 (1): 138–150.
Monday, Jane Clements, and Frances Brannen Vick
2007Petra’s Legacy: The SouthTexas Ranching Empire of Petra Vela and Mifflin Kenedy. College Station: Texas A&M University Press.
Loureiro-Rodríguez, Verónica, María Irene Moyna & Damián Robles
2018. Hey, baby, ¿Qué Pasó?: Performing bilingual identities in Texan popular music. Language & Communication 60 ► pp. 120 ff.
2022. Bilingualism is good but codeswitching is bad: attitudes about Spanish in contact with English in the Tijuana - San Diego border area. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies► pp. 1 ff.
Michnowicz, Jim, Rebecca Ronquest, Sarah Chetty, Georgia Green & Stephanie Oliver
2023. Spanish in the Southeast: What a Swarm of Variables Can Tell Us about a Newly Forming Bilingual Community. Languages 8:3 ► pp. 168 ff.
Rodrigo-Tamarit, Maria & Verónica Loureiro-Rodríguez
2023. Exploring attitudes towards French, English, and code-switching in Manitoba (Canada). International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism► pp. 1 ff.
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 1 september 2023. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers.
Any errors therein should be reported to them.