Peter of Spain

Language in Dispute

An English translation of Peter of Spain's Tractatus called afterwards Summulae Logicales, based on the critical edition by L.M. de Rijk

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This volume presents an English translation of Petrus Hispanus Portugalensis’ (d. 1277) Tractatus — called afterwards Summulae Logicales — on the basis of the critical edition established by L. M. de Rijk (1972). The Summulae’s first part (I-V) introduces Aristotelian ideas familiar enough at the time to be called Old Logic; the second (VI-XII) studies properties of terms, then considered novelties of Modern Logic. The two most important properties of terms were Supposition (meaning-as-reference) and Signification (meaning-as-sense). Among the questions raised were how senses and referents are related. Classifications recorded by Hispanus became part of Western traditional education. His Summulae was widely required as a text for generations, and later texts borrowed, amended, rejected or extended parts of it. The Summulae is also worth evaluating in the light of debate about the ‘scientific’ status of Linguistics. Hispanus claimed Dialectic was a study prerequisite to all others, because it shows how to test their fundamental assumptions. Norms he proposed for this rigorous interpretation of language are public, refutable, and countable, all characteristics claimed for ‘science’.
Publishing status: Available
Table of Contents
Acknowledgements
v
Foreword
vi
Contents
vii
Introduction
xvii
Summulae Logicales
Tract I: On Introductory Notions
On Dialectic
1
On Sound
1
On Vocal Expression (Vox)
2
On the Noun
2
On the Verb
2
On the Word - Group (oratio)
3
On the Proposition
3
On the Categoric Proposition and its threefold division
4
On the Hypothetic Proposition and its Division
8
On Mode
11
On Modal Propositions
11
Tract II: On Predicables
17
On Predicable
17
On Commonalities and Differences of Predicables
23
On Predication
24
On Denominatives
24
Tract III: On Predicaments
On some prefatory notions
25
On Substance
27
On Quantity
30
On Compared-to-Another (Relation)
30
On Quality
32
On Action
33
On Passion (to undergo: Pati)
34
On a four-fold opposition
34
On Prior
35
On Together
35
On Change (Motus)
36
On Possession (Habere)
36
Tract IV: On Syllogisms
On the Proposition
38
On the Syllogism
38
On the First Figure
40
On the Second Figure
42
On Reduction through the Impossible
44
On the Third Figure
44
On some Rules
46
On unusable Connexities (conjugatio)
48
Tract V: On Topics
On the multiple ambiguity of Ratio
49
On Argument and Argumentation
49
On Topic in General
51
On Intrinsic Topics
52
On the Topic from Substance
52
On the Topic from Concomitants of Substance
55
On the Topic from Cause
59
On the Topic from Generation
61
On the Topic from Corruption
61
On the Topic from Uses
61
On the Topic from Things Commonly Co-occurring
62
On Extrinsic Topics
62
On the Topic from Opposites
62
On the Topic from the Greater and the Lesser
64
On the Topic from Like
65
On the Topic from Proportion
65
On the Topic from Transfer
65
On the Topic from Authority
66
On Mediate Topics
66
On the Topic from Conjugates
67
On the Topic from Derivates (cases)
67
On the Topic from Division
67
Tract VI: On Suppositions
On Signification
69
On Supposition and Copulation
69
On the Division of Supposition
70
Tract VII: On Fallacies
Introduction
76
On the Definition of Disputation
76
On the Division of Disputation
77
On Sophistical Disputation and its Ends
79
On the thirteen Fallacies
81
On Linguistic Fallacies
81
On Equivocation
83
On the Definition of Fallacy
83
On the Definition of Equivocation
83
On the Division of Equivocation
84
On Amphiboly
90
On the Definition of Amphiboly
90
On the Modes Common to Equivocation and Amphiboly
92
On Composition and Division
98
On Potential Polysemy
98
Objections
99
On Composition
100
On Division
107
On Accent
109
On the Definition of Accent
109
On the Causes and Modes of Accent
109
Doubts
111
On Word-Figure
113
On the Mode of Signifying in a Word (dictio)
113
On Figure
115
On Word-Figure
115
On Causes and Modes of Word-Figure
116
On Extralinguistic Fallacies
126
On Accident
126
On Causes and Modes of Accident
128
On The Fallacy After-A-Fashion and Simply
137
On the Definition of these Terms
137
On Causes and Modes of this Fallacy
137
On Ignoring Refuting Evidence
141
On Refutation (elenchus)
141
On Ignorance
142
On Ignorantia elenchi
143
On the Causes and Modes of this Fallacy
143
On Assuming the Point at Issue
146
On its Definition
146
On Causes amd Modes of this Fallacy
146
On The Fallacy of Consequent
149
On Consequence
149
On Causes and Modes of this Fallacy
150
On the Fallacy of Non-Cause as Cause
153
On two kinds of Syllogism
153
On the Fallacy of Non-cause as Cause
154
On the Causes of this Fallacy
154
On the Fallacy of Many Questions as One
156
On Statement, Proposition, Interrogation and Conclusion
156
On Reduction of all Fallacies
159
On two kinds of Ignoring the Point at issue
159
On generic Reduction
160
On specific Reduction
161
Tract VIII: On Relatives
164
On two kinds of Relative
164
On Substantive Relatives
164
On Identical Relatives
164
Questions
165
Doubts
166
On Relatives of Diversity
167
On a rule about a Relative of Diversity
168
On a rule about a relative of Identity given by predecessors
168
Objections
169
On a certain rule about a Relative of Identity
170
On Relatives of Accident
170
On division of a Relative of Accident
170
On Relatives of Accidental Identity
171
On the words such, so great, so many, as often, so often
171
Tract IX: On Extensions
172
On Personal Supposition
172
On Restriction and Extension
172
On the Division of Extension
172
A Sophism
173
On two Rules
173
Tract X: On Appellations
175
On the Definition of Appellation
175
On the Division of Appellation
175
On the Appellation of a Common Term
175
Tract XI: On Restrictions
On the Definition of Restriction
177
On the Division of Restriction
177
Tract XII: On Distributions
185
On the Definition of Distribution
185
On Universal Markers
185
Index of References
206
Index of Words and Things
208
Index of Sophisms and Examples
262
Subjects
BIC Subject: CF – Linguistics
BISAC Subject: LAN009000 – LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / General
U.S. Library of Congress Control Number:  89018528
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