Universal History of Linguistics

India, China, Arabia, Europe

| University of Turku, Finland
HardboundAvailable
ISBN 9789027245526 (Eur) | EUR 125.00
ISBN 9781556193606 (USA) | USD 188.00
 
e-Book
ISBN 9789027277671 | EUR 125.00 | USD 188.00
 
This wide-ranging book presents the linguistic achievements of four major cultures to readers presumably conversant with modern theoretical linguistics. The chapter on India discusses in detail Pāṇini's (c. 400 B.C.) grammar Ast-adhy-ay-i as well as the work of his commentators Kātyāyana, Patanjali, and Bhartṛhari. In the Chinese tradition, the Confucian doctrine of the Rectification of Names' is singled out for treatment. Arabic linguistics is represented by Sibawaihi's (d. 793) grammar al-Kitāb, in particular its syntax, as well as the subsequent commentary tradition. The chapter on Europe, which is the most comprehensive of the four, covers the time span from antiquity to the 20th century; special attention is devoted to the contributions of Plato, Aristotle, the Stoics, Varro, Apollonius Dyscolus, and the Modistae. The achievements of the cultures in linguistics are treated throughout from a deliberately value-laden point of view. The achievements of Western antiquity and the Middle Ages are shown to be much more than the average linguist is inclined to believe. Even more importantly, it is shown that the Indian and the Arab traditions have been superior to the European tradition at least until the 20th century. The fact that a linguistic theory created some 2,400 years ago is fully as adequate as our best theories today must have far-reaching implications for the notion of 'scientific progress'. More precisely, it proves necessary to distinguish between 'progress in the human sciences' and 'progress in the natural sciences'. These issues, which pertain to the general philosophy of science, are treated in the final chapter of the book.
Publishing status: Available
Table of Contents
1. Introduction
1
2. India
5
2.1 The Relation of Linguistic Theory to Hinduism
5
2.2 Linguistics before Pāṇini
10
2.3 Pāṇini
12
2.4 Linguistics after Pāṇini
70
2.5 Conclusion: Pāṇini and the Riddle of ‘Progress’
83
Notes
85
3. China
89
3.1 Confucius
89
3.2 Mencius
95
3.3 The School of Names
97
3.4 The Taoist School
102
3.5 Mo Tzu and His School
108
3.6 Hsün Tzu
113
3.7 The Legalist School
115
3.8 The Aftermath
116
3.9 Conclusion: Pāṇini and Confucius
119
Notes
122
4. Arabia
125
4.1 The Cultural Context of Arab Linguistics
125
4.2 General Characteristics of the Arab Linguistic Tradition
128
4.3 Central Aspects of the Arab Syntactic Theory
132
4.4 Metatheoretical Implications
145
4.5 Sībawaihi's Conception of ‘Discourse-Based’ Linguistics
149
4.6 Residual Issues
157
4.7 Conclusion: Pāṇini, Confucius, and Sībawaihi
159
Notes
161
5. Europe
165
5.1 Linguistic Thinking in Greek Philosophy
166
5.2 The Alexandrian School
191
5.3 Linguistics in the Middle Ages
219
5.4 Grammatical Theory 1500–1900
252
5.5 The 20th Century
292
5.6 Conclusion: Unity in Variety
320
Notes
322
6. Implications for the Philosophy of Science
325
6.1 The Notion of Progress
325
6.2 Relativism vs. Universalism
338
6.3 Externalism vs. Internalism
344
Notes
346
7. Conclusion
347
References
349
Name Index
363
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Subjects
BIC Subject: CF – Linguistics
BISAC Subject: LAN009000 – LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / General
U.S. Library of Congress Control Number:  91030574