And Along Came Boas

Continuity and revolution in Americanist anthropology

| University of Western Ontario
HardboundAvailable
ISBN 9789027245748 (Eur) | EUR 120.00
ISBN 9781556196232 (USA) | USD 180.00
 
PaperbackAvailable
ISBN 9789027245847 (Eur) | EUR 44.00
ISBN 9781556198991 (USA) | USD 66.00
 
e-Book
ISBN 9789027275608 | EUR 120.00/44.00*
| USD 180.00/66.00*
 
The advent of Franz Boas on the North American scene irrevocably redirected the course of Americanist anthropology. This volume documents the revolutionary character of the theoretical and methodological standpoint introduced by Boas and his first generation of students, among whom linguist Edward Sapir was among the most distinguished. Virtually all of the classic Boasians were at least part-time linguists alongside their ethnological work. During the crucial transitional period beginning with the founding of the Bureau of American Ethnology in 1879, there were as many continuities as discontinuities between the work of Boas and that of John Wesley Powell and his Bureau. Boas shared with Powell a commitment to the study of aboriginal languages, to a symbolic definition of culture, to ethnography based on texts, to historical reconstruction on linguistic grounds, and to mapping the linguistic and cultural diversity of native North America. The obstacle to Boas’s vision of anthropology was not the Bureau but the archaeological and museum establishment centred in Washington, D.C. and in Boston. Moreover, the “scientific revolution” was concluded not when Boas began to teach at Columbia University in New York in 1897 but around 1920 when first generation Boasians cominated the discipline in institutional as well as theoretical terms. The impact of Boas is explored in terms of theoretical positions, interactional networks of scholars, and institutions within which anthropological work was carried out. The volume shows how collaboration of universities and museums gradually gave way to an academic centre for anthropology in North America, in line with the professionalization of American science along German lines during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
The author is Professor of Anthropology and Director of the Centre for Research and Teaching of Canadian Native Languages at the University of Western Ontario, Canada. She is a fellow of the Royal Society of Canada.
[Studies in the History of the Language Sciences, 86]  1998.  xviii, 333 pp.
Publishing status: Available
Table of Contents
Frontispiece
v
Preface
xi
Introduction: Continuities Across Scientific Revolutions
1
I. The Bureau of American Ethnology
9
1 The Development of Professional Anthropology in America
11
2 Government-Sponsored Science
19
2.1 Joseph Henry and the Smithsonian Institution
19
2.2 Spencer Baird and the Collection of Specimens
22
2.3 The Geological Surveys
24
2.4 The Curtailment of Government Science
25
2.5 From Geology to Ethnology
27
3 Constraints of Government Anthropology
31
3.1 Bureau Archaeology
32
3.2 Finances of the Bureau
34
3.3 Applied Anthropology
36
3.4 The Limitation to the American Indian
40
4 The Mapping of North America
45
4.1 The Myth Concordance
47
4.2 Linguistic Manuscripts
47
4.3 Bibliographies
48
4.4 ‘Introduction to the Study of Indian Languages’
50
4.5 The Definition of Linguistic Families
51
4.6 Brinton's Linguistic Classification
57
4.7 The Authorship of the Powell Classification
60
5 Organizing Anthropological Research in America
69
5.1 Problems in Professional Standards
70
5.2 Bureau Fieldwork
73
5.3 Collaboration
79
5.4 The Missisonary Question
85
5.5 Powell's Evolutionary Synthesis
87
5.6 The End of an Era in the Bureau
93
II. The Development of Institutional Alternatives
97
6 Early Attempts at University Anthropology
99
6.1 Graduate Education in America
100
6.2 False Starts in Academic Anthropology
104
6.3 The University of Pennsylvania
105
6.4 Clark University
107
6.5 The University of Chicago
110
6.6 The Temporary Insufficiency of Academic Anthropology
114
7 The Tradition of Museum Research
117
7.1 The Peabody Museum
118
7.2 The Bureau and the National Museum
123
7.3 Changing Times in the Bureau
125
8 Uneasy Institutional Cooperation
133
8.1 The Field Columbian Museum
133
8.2 The American Museum of Natural History
139
8.3 The University of California, Berkeley
148
9 Boasian University Programs
157
9.1 Boas's Teaching at Columbia
157
9.2 The University of Pennsylvania
161
9.3 Boasian Anthropology at Chicago
166
9.4 The Geological Survey of Canada
167
9.5 The Autonomy of Academic Anthropology
168
III. Continued Mapping of North America
177
10 Boas and the Bureau of American Ethnology
179
10.1 From Synonymy to Handbook
180
10.2 Boas's ‘Handbook of American Indian Languages’
182
10.3 The Myth Concordance
192
10.4 The Phonetics Committee
195
11 Mapping the Languages of California
199
11.1 ‘The Handbook of California Indians’
202
11.2 California Institutional Cooperation
204
12 Revising the Linguistic Classification
211
12.1 ‘Diffusional Cumulation’ and ‘Archaic Residue’
217
12.2 The Linguistic Stocks of California
223
12.3 The Sapir Classification
229
12.4 Radin and the Genetic Unity of All American Languages
241
IV. Boasian Hegemony Consolidated
243
13 Formalizations in the Face of Opposition
245
13.1 The Establishment of a National Journal
246
13.2 The American Anthropological Association
249
13.3 The National Association Becomes Boasian
251
13.4 The American Folklore Society
254
13.5 The American Council of Learned Societies
260
13.6 Confrontations with the Old Establishment
261
13.7 Boasians in the Bureau
265
14 Articulating the Boasian Paradigm
271
14.1 The Content of the Boasian Paradigm
273
14.2 Boasian Ethnology
276
14.3 The Distribution of Folklore Elements
279
14.4 Boasian Fieldwork
280
14.5 The Culture Area Concept
282
14.6 The Critique of Evolution
285
14.7 The Emphasis on Cultural Wholes
288
14.8 Theoretical Syntheses
290
14.9 Envoi
296
List of Illustrations
299
Illustration Credits
299
List of Figures
300
References
301
Index of Biographical Names
321
Index of Subjects and Terms
327
“It’s a measure of any really good book, ..., that it makes you change your mind. For me, Darnell’s work falls squarely into this category.”
“This is a fascinating and insightful work that makes a major contribution to documenting the history of anthropology.”
“[...] an ‘adequate history’ of American anthropology that successfully brings together theories, institutional structures, and networks of anthropologists and thereby convincingly demonstrates existing continuities across the Powellian and Boasian paradigms. [...] Darnell’s account of the shift from the Powellian to the Boasian paradigm makes fascinating reading and should be obligatory for anybody seriously interested in the history of American anthropology and linguistics.”
“[...] Darnell’s dissertation has been the most important unpublished source for the history of the professionalization of North American anthropology, and it is a great pleasure to see it now become available, strongly updated, appropriately expanded, and compactly argued, to a wider audience.”
“[...] a model of intellectual history [...]

It will become a standard reference for the early years of American anthropology.

“[...] of interest not only to historians but also to anyone in anthropology — especially linguistics anthropology [...]

[...] to anyone who wants to understand more about what occurs at the critical junctures when theories change[...]

Cited by

Cited by other publications

No author info given
2005.  In A Companion to Linguistic Anthropology,  pp. 518 ff. Crossref logo
No author info given
2008.  In Anthropological Intelligence,  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo
No author info given
2008.  In Anthropological Intelligence,  pp. 18 ff. Crossref logo
No author info given
2008.  In Anthropological Intelligence,  pp. 53 ff. Crossref logo
No author info given
2008.  In Anthropological Intelligence,  pp. 74 ff. Crossref logo
No author info given
2008.  In Anthropological Intelligence,  pp. 91 ff. Crossref logo
No author info given
2008.  In Anthropological Intelligence,  pp. 117 ff. Crossref logo
No author info given
2008.  In Anthropological Intelligence,  pp. 143 ff. Crossref logo
No author info given
2008.  In Anthropological Intelligence,  pp. 171 ff. Crossref logo
No author info given
2008.  In Anthropological Intelligence,  pp. 200 ff. Crossref logo
No author info given
2008.  In Anthropological Intelligence,  pp. 220 ff. Crossref logo
No author info given
2008.  In Anthropological Intelligence,  pp. 262 ff. Crossref logo
No author info given
2008.  In Anthropological Intelligence,  pp. 283 ff. Crossref logo
No author info given
2008.  In Anthropological Intelligence,  pp. 317 ff. Crossref logo
No author info given
2013. The Origin of the ‘Chicago Method’ Excavation Techniques: Contributions of William Nickerson and Frederick Starr. Bulletin of the History of Archaeology 23:2  pp. 4 ff. Crossref logo
No author info given
2015.  In A Companion to the History of American Science,  pp. 566 ff. Crossref logo
No author info given
2016.  In Collecting, Ordering, Governing,  pp. 291 ff. Crossref logo
No author info given
2016. Revitalising Language in Provence: A Critical Approach. Transactions of the Philological Society 114  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo
No author info given
2017.  In Beyond Settler Time,  pp. 241 ff. Crossref logo
No author info given
2020.  In Last Papers in Linguistic Historiography [Studies in the History of the Language Sciences, 128], Crossref logo
Baker, Lee D.
2019.  In The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology,  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo
BARGHEER, STEFAN
2017. ANTHROPOLOGY AT WAR: ROBERT H. LOWIE AND THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE CULTURE CONCEPT, 1904 to 1954. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 53:2  pp. 133 ff. Crossref logo
Bauman, Richard & Charles L. Briggs
2003.  In Voices of Modernity, Crossref logo
Bennett, Tony
2015. Cultural Studies and the Culture Concept. Cultural Studies 29:4  pp. 546 ff. Crossref logo
Bens, Jonas
2016. Anthropology and the law: historicising the epistemological divide. International Journal of Law in Context 12:3  pp. 235 ff. Crossref logo
Blommaert, Jan
2005.  In Discourse, Crossref logo
Bronner, Simon J.
2005. ?Gombo? Folkloristics: Lafcadio Hearn's Creolization and Hybridization in the Formative Period of Folklore Studies. Journal of Folklore Research: An International Journal of Folklore and Ethnomusicology 42:2  pp. 141 ff. Crossref logo
Darnell, Regna
1999. Translation. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 9:1-2  pp. 251 ff. Crossref logo
Darnell, Regna
2000. Reenvisioning Boas and Boasian Anthropology:Franz Boas among the Inuit of Baffin Island, 1883-1884: Journals and Letters.;Franz Boas: The Early Years, 1858-1906.. American Anthropologist 102:4  pp. 896 ff. Crossref logo
Darnell, Regna
2005.  In Handbook of Pragmatics,  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo
Darnell, Regna
2020. Walking alongside Wisahketchak: Fieldwork, a Retrospective Exercise That Takes a Long Time. Journal of Anthropological Research 76:1  pp. 44 ff. Crossref logo
Eisheuer, Florian
2016.  In Klassiker der Sozialwissenschaften,  pp. 142 ff. Crossref logo
Epps, Patience L., Anthony K. Webster & Anthony C. Woodbury
2017. A Holistic Humanities of Speaking: Franz Boas and the Continuing Centrality of Texts. International Journal of American Linguistics 83:1  pp. 41 ff. Crossref logo
Fowler, Don D. & Nancy J. Parezo
2018. Nomenclature Wars: Ethnologists and Anthropologists Seeking to Be Scientists, 1840–1910. Journal of Anthropological Research 74:3  pp. 388 ff. Crossref logo
Garbutt, Rob, Ros Sten, Jenny Smith, Dianne Harrington, Thelma James & Mickey Ryan
2017. ‘Why did they take him away?’ The theft of Neddy Larkin. History and Anthropology 28:5  pp. 584 ff. Crossref logo
Glass, Aaron
2018. Drawing on Museums: Early Visual Fieldnotes by Franz Boas and the Indigenous Recuperation of the Archive. American Anthropologist 120:1  pp. 72 ff. Crossref logo
Goodman, Alan H.
2018.  In The International Encyclopedia of Biological Anthropology,  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo
Harkin, Michael E.
2018. Editor’s introduction. Reviews in Anthropology 47:1-2  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo
Harkin, Michael E.
2019. Editor’s introduction. Reviews in Anthropology 48:1  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo
Hicks, Dan
2013. Four-Field Anthropology. Current Anthropology 54:6  pp. 753 ff. Crossref logo
Johnson, Adam Fulton
2019. Documenting the multisensory and ephemeral: Navajo Chantway singers and the troubles of a “science” of ceremonialism. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 55:3  pp. 230 ff. Crossref logo
Kan, Sergei
2018.  In The International Encyclopedia of Anthropology,  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo
Karlander, David
2018. Linguistic Prerequisites to Cultural Analysis: Lars Levander’s Reocentric Vision of Vernacular Language and Swedish Peasant Life. Signs and Society 6:3  pp. 504 ff. Crossref logo
Klassen, Pamela E.
2014.  In A Companion to the Anthropology of Religion,  pp. 344 ff. Crossref logo
Koelsch, William A.
2004. Franz Boas, geographer, and the problem of disciplinary identity. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 40:1  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo
Lassiter, Luke Eric & Elizabeth Campbell
2010. What Will We Have Ethnography Do?. Qualitative Inquiry 16:9  pp. 757 ff. Crossref logo
LEWIS, HERBERT S.
2008. Franz Boas: Boon or Bane?. Reviews in Anthropology 37:2-3  pp. 169 ff. Crossref logo
McCarty, Teresa L. & Lu Liu
2016.  In Research Methods in Language and Education,  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo
McCarty, Teresa L. & Lu Liu
2017.  In Research Methods in Language and Education,  pp. 53 ff. Crossref logo
McElvenny, James
2017. Linguistic Aesthetics from the Nineteenth to the Twentieth Century: The Case of Otto Jespersen’s “Progress in Language”. History of Humanities 2:2  pp. 417 ff. Crossref logo
MORRIS-REICH, AMOS
2013. Anthropology, standardization and measurement: Rudolf Martin and anthropometric photography. The British Journal for the History of Science 46:3  pp. 487 ff. Crossref logo
Murray, Stephen O. & Regna Darnell
2000. Margaret Mead and Paradigm Shifts Within Anthropology During the 1920s. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 29:5  pp. 557 ff. Crossref logo
Nichols, Catherine A.
2018. The Smithsonian Institution's “Greatest Treasures”: Valuing Museum Objects in the Specimen Exchange Industry. Museum Anthropology 41:1  pp. 13 ff. Crossref logo
Nolte, Insa, Keith Shear & Kevin A. Yelvington
2018. From ethnographic knowledge to anthropological intelligence: An anthropologist in the office of strategic services in Second World War Africa. History and Anthropology 29:1  pp. 52 ff. Crossref logo
Oppenheim, Robert
2005. ”The West“ and the Anthropology of Other People's Colonialism: Frederick Starr in Korea, 1911–1930. The Journal of Asian Studies 64:3  pp. 677 ff. Crossref logo
Radick, G.
2002. Darwin on Language and Selection. Selection 3:1  pp. 7 ff. Crossref logo
Radin, Joanna
2018. Ethics in Human Biology: A Historical Perspective on Present Challenges. Annual Review of Anthropology 47:1  pp. 263 ff. Crossref logo
Rogan, Bjarne
2012.  In A Companion to Folklore,  pp. 598 ff. Crossref logo
Schaffer, Gavin
2008.  In Racial Science and British Society, 1930–62,  pp. 63 ff. Crossref logo
Schulte-Tenckhoff, Isabelle
2001.  In Expanding the Economic Concept of Exchange,  pp. 167 ff. Crossref logo
Stuhl, Andrew
2017.  In Arctic Environmental Modernities,  pp. 21 ff. Crossref logo
Szabó, Péter
2015. Historical ecology: past, present and future. Biological Reviews 90:4  pp. 997 ff. Crossref logo
Timmerman, Nicholas A.
2020. Contested Indigenous Landscapes: Indian Mounds and the Political Creation of the Mythical “Mound Builder” Race. Ethnohistory 67:1  pp. 75 ff. Crossref logo
Tomalin, Marcus
2008. Reassessing Nineteenth-Century Missionary Linguistics on the Pacific Northwest Coast. Historiographia Linguistica 35:1-2  pp. 83 ff. Crossref logo
Watters, David R. & Oscar Fonseca Zamor
2003. Becoming a Museum Anthropologist: C. V. Hartman's International Networking a Century Ago. Museum Anthropology 26:2  pp. 63 ff. Crossref logo
Watters, David R. & Oscar Fonseca Zamora
2003. Becoming a Museum Anthropologist: C. V. Hartman's International Networking a Century Ago. Museum Anthropology 26:2  pp. 63 ff. Crossref logo
Willoughby-Herard, Tiffany
2014.  In The Truly Diverse Faculty,  pp. 157 ff. Crossref logo
Zwartjes, Otto
2012. The Historiography of Missionary Linguistics. Historiographia Linguistica 39:2-3  pp. 185 ff. Crossref logo

This list is based on CrossRef data as of 02 may 2020. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.

Subjects
BIC Subject: CF – Linguistics
BISAC Subject: LAN009000 – LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / General
U.S. Library of Congress Control Number:  98028940