Passive and grammaticalization in Hausa
Hausa uses a (...)LH-u verbal morphology to derive (i) typical passive forms with an optional intensive/completive meaning, and (ii) some non-passive verbs with an obligatory intensive meaning and which are based on intransitive verbs. After a detailed description of the two forms, I propose that originally, the (...)LH-u morphology was only applied to intransitive middle verbs to derive intensive forms. Later however, the (...)LH-u morphology was grammaticalized and applied to transitive verbs to derive passive forms. I will show that the Hausa passive has continued its grammaticalization process, weakening its intensive and stative semantics, and allowing non-patient nominals to be passive subjects. This analysis implies that previously, Hausa had no passive, and this fits with the general situation in Chadic languages where indeed passive is a rare construction.
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