Nominalized verb phrases have been identified as a possible source of passive and impersonal constructions by Langacker & Munro (1975), Langacker (1976), and Givón (1981), with exemplification drawn almost exclusively from Uto-Aztecan languages, but have received relatively less attention than other sources (reflexive markers, generalized subject constructions, 3rd person plural constructions, inactive auxiliaries + resultative participles, etc.). The aim of this article is to review the available evidence concerning passive and impersonal constructions derived from nominalized VPs, with a view to establishing whether they are cross-linguistically recurrent and robust as a type. Such a review reveals that there are overall a few instances of passive/impersonal constructions that are likely to derive from nominalized VPs. In many of the other cases in which a nominalized VP has been hypothesized to be the source of a given passive or impersonal construction there is no conclusive evidence for reconstructing such a source, and in some cases even an alternative source can be posited. Even in this unfavourable situation, however, a tentative scenario of how nominalized VPs might evolve into passive and impersonal constructions may be sketched, in order to account for the few cases in which such a development is likely to have taken place. The onset stage of this development, in particular, capitalizes on the possibility offered by nominalized VPs to manipulate the argument structure of the verb by keeping the initiator of the event off the stage.
2011Word-class changing derivation in typological perspective. In Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald & Robert M.W. Dixon (eds.), Language at large. Essays on syntax and semantics, 221–289. Leiden: Brill.
Armendáriz, Rolando Gpe. Félix
2005A grammar of River Warihío. PhD Dissertation, Houston, Rice University.
van den Berg, René
2008Integration and interdependence in Oceanic research: An SIL perspective. Paper presented at the
Conference on Directions in Oceanic Research
, Newcastle, Australia, December 9-11.
van den Berg, René & Brenda H. Boerger
2011A Proto-Oceanic passive? Evidence from Bola and Natügu. Oceanic Linguistics 50(1): 221–246.
2003Syntactic approaches to possessive constructions in Nuuchahnulth. In J.C. Brown & Michele Kalmar (eds.), Papers for the 38th International Conference on Salish and Neighbouring Languages, 7–22. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Working Papers in Linguistics.
2011Introduction. In Andrej Malchukov & Anna Siewierska (eds.), Impersonal constructions. A cross-linguistic perspective, 1–15. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Matisoff, James A
1972Lahu nominalization, relativization, and genetivization. In John P. Kimball (ed.), Syntax and Semantics, Vol. 11, 237–257. New York: Academic Press.
Meira, Sérgio & Sebastian Drude
2013Sobre a origem histórica dos “prefixos relacionais” das línguas Tupí-Guaraní. Cadernos de Etnolingüística 5(1). [URL]
Meira, Sérgio, Spike Gildea & Berend J. Hoff
2010On the origin of Ablaut in the Cariban Family. International Journal of American Linguistics 76(4): 477–515.
1974Topics in Mojave syntax. San Diego, CA: University of California at San Diego PhD dissertation.
1997Functions of the Nootka (Nuu-chah-nulth) “Passive” Suffix. International Journal of American Linguistics 63(3): 412–431.
1992A grammar of Lango. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
2008Nominalization in Bodic languages. In María José López-Couso & Elena Seoane (eds.), Rethinking Grammaticalization: New perspectives, 219–237. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Olawsky, Knut J
2006A grammar of Urarina. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
2007No smoke without fire: Invisible agent constructions in South Asian languages. Kobe Papers in Linguistics 51: 175–191.
1994The Tupí-Guaraní inverse. In Barbara Fox & Paul J. Hopper (eds.), Voice. Form and Function, 313–340. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Post, Mark W
2011Nominalization-based constructions in Tibeto-Burman: Typology and evolution. Paper presented at the
9th Biennial Conference of the Association for Linguistic Typology
, University of Hong Kong, July 22, 2011.
2005Grammatical possession in Nuu-chah-nulth. Vancouver: University of British Columbia MA thesis.
1986The Ainu language: The morphology and syntax of the Shizunai Dialect. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press.
Riehl, Claudia Maria
2001Zur Grammatikalisierung der deutschen werden-Periphrasen (vom Germanischen zum Frühneuhochdeutschen). In Birgit Igla & Th. Stolz (eds.), “Was ich noch sagen wollte…” – A multilingual Festschrift for Norbert Boretzky on occasion of his 65th birthday, 469–487. Berlin: Akademie.
2009A hierarchical indexation system: The example of Emerillon (Teko). In Patience Epps & Alexander Arkhipov (eds.), New challenges in typology. Transcending the borders and refining the distinctions, 63–83. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
2002The history and transitivity of western Austronesian voice and voice-marking. In Fay Wouk & Malcolm Ross (eds.), The history and typology of Western Austronesian voice systems, 17–62. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
2009Proto-Austronesian verbal morphology: A reappraisal. In Alexander Adelaar & Andrew Pawley (eds.), Austronesian historical linguistics and culture history: A Festschrift for Robert Blust, 295–326. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
2003Degrees of event elaboration. Passive constructions in Italian and Spanish. Milan: Franco Angeli.
2015Where do antipassives come from? A study in diachronic typology. Paper presented at the
22nd International Conference on Historical Linguistics
. Naples (Italy), July 2015.
Sansò, Andrea & Anna Giacalone Ramat
2016Deictic motion verbs as passive auxiliaries. The case of Italian andare ‘go’ (and venire ‘come’). Transactions of the Philological Society 114(1): 1–24.
1930Southern Paiute, A Shoshonean Language. Proceedings of the
American Academy of Arts and Sciences
2011Na passive and na- associative in Abma: Shared properties; Shared origin?Oceanic Linguistics 50(2): 380–398.
2008Introduction: Impersonalization from a subject-centered vs. agent-centered perspective. Transactions of the Philological Society (Special issue: Impersonal Constructions in Grammatical Theory) 106(2): 1–23.
2013Passive Constructions. In Matthew S. Dryer & Martin Haspelmath (eds.), The World Atlas of language structures online. Leipzig: MPI for Evolutionary Anthropology. ([URL]).
2001The Korean language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sridhar, Shikaripur R
1990Kannada. London: Routledge.
Starosta, Stanley, Andrew K. Pawley & Lawrence A. Reid
1982The evolution of focus in Austronesian. In Amran Halim, Lois Carrington & Stephen A. Wurm (eds.), Papers from the Third International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics, Vol. 2: Tracking the Travellers, 145–170. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
Starosta, Stanley, Andrew K. Pawley & Lawrence A. Reid
2009The evolution of focus in Austronesian. [Unabridged version of Starosta, et al. 1982.] In Elizabeth Zeitoun (ed.), Formosan Linguistics: Stanley Starosta’s Contributions, Vol. 21, 329–481. Taipei: Academia Sinica.
2011Clausal nominalization in Budai Rukai. In Foong Ha Yap, Karen Grunow-Hårsta & Janick Wrona (eds.), Nominalization in Asian languages: Diachronic and typological perspectives, 523–559. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
2010Patterns of nominalization in Numic. International Journal of American Linguistics 76(1): 71–100.
Vajda, Edward, Andrey Nefedov & Andrej Malchukov
2011Impersonal constructions in Ket. In Andrej Malchukov & Anna Siewierska (eds.), Impersonal constructions. A cross-linguistic perspective, 439–458. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
van den Berg, René (see Berg)
Van Dijk, Teun A
2008Critical discourse analysis and nominalization: problem or pseudo-problem?Discourse and Society 19(6): 821–828.
2008Voice and transitivity in Guaraní. In Mark Donohue & Søren Wichmann (eds.), The typology of semantic alignment, 380–395. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Vogel, Petra Maria
2006Das unpersönliche Passiv. Eine funktionale Untersuchung unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Deutschen und seiner historischen Entwicklung. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Vries, Lourens de
1995Demonstratives, referent identification and topicality in Wambon and some other Papuan languages. Journal of Pragmatics 241: 513–533.
Weber, David John
1989A grammar of Huallaga (Huánuco) Quechua. Berkeley: University of California Press.
2004The evolution of passives as grammatical constructions in Northern Slavic and Baltic languages. In Walter Bisang, Nikolaus P. Himmelmann & Bjorn Wiemer (eds.), What makes grammaticalization? A look from its fringes and components, 271–331. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 29 may 2023. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers.
Any errors therein should be reported to them.