Article published in:Adverbs: Functional and diachronic aspects
Edited by Karin Pittner, Daniela Elsner and Fabian Barteld
[Studies in Language Companion Series 170] 2015
► pp. 133–156
Between inflection and derivation
Adverbial suffixes in English and German
The question of whether adverbial suffixes are derivational or inflectional elements has been controversially discussed in recent decades. Based on general differences between inflection and derivation, we argue that the English adverbial suffix -ly has more characteristics of an inflectional than of a derivational element and has acquired great generality as an adverb marker in present-day English. German, in contrast, has not developed a general adverb marker. Due to phonological changes, a widespread adverb marker in earlier stages of German and English (OHG -o, OE and MHG -e) disappeared. The element -lich which was a frequent adverbial suffix in MHG, is no longer productive. Another possible candidate in German for becoming a new adverb marker was -(er)weise, which, however, has been used since the 19th century for a differentiation between sentence adverbs and manner adverbs. We argue that this lexical differentiation between sentence and manner adverbs, which has no parallel in English or the Romance languages, can be related to the more flexible word order in German. Whereas English and some Romance languages differentiate between sentence adverbs and manner adverbs by their positions in the sentence, German employs lexical means for this differentiation.
Published online: 24 September 2015
Cited by other publications
De Cesare, Anna-Maria, Ana Albom, Doriana Cimmino & Marta Lupica Spagnolo
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 27 december 2020. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.
Baayen, R. Harald & Renouf, Antoinette
1998 Ambiguität und Alternation. Methodologie und Theoriebildung in der Lexikonforschung. Habilitation thesis, University of Munich.
Fleischer, Wolfgang & Barz, Irmhild
Frey, Werner & Pittner, Karin
Giegerich, Heinz J.
Huddleston, Rodney & Pullum, Geoffrey K.. et al.
2000 Is it, stylewise or otherwise, wise to use -wise? Domain adverbs and the history of English -wise . In Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on English Historical Linguistics. Santiago de Compostela, 7-11 September, 2000 [Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 223] Teresa Fanego, Javier Pérez-Guerra & María José López-Couso (eds), 157–180. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
2011 A focus on adverbial connectors: Connecting, partitioning and focusing attention in the history of English. In Connectives in Synchrony and Diachrony in European Languages [Studies in Variation, Contacts and Change in English 8], Anneli Meurman-Solin & Ursula Lenker (eds). Helsinki: VARIENG. http://www.helsinki.fi/varieng/journal/volumes/08/lenker/
2014 Knitting and Splitting Information: Medial Placement of Linking Adverbials in the History of English. In Contact, Variation and Change in the History of English [Studies in Language Companion Series 159], Simone E. Pfenninger, Olga Timofeeva, Anne-Christine Gardner, Alpo Honkapohja, Marianne Hundt & Daniel Schreier (eds), 11–38. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Payne, John, Huddleston, Rodney & Pullum, Geoffrey K.
Quirk, Randolph, Greenbaum, Sidney, Leech, Geoffrey & Svartvik, Jan
Ramat, Paolo & Ricca, Davide
Sugioka, Yoko & Lehr, Rachel
Tagliamonte, Sali & Ito, Rika
Traugott, Elizabeth C.