Discourse-Pragmatic Variation in Context

Eight hundred years of LIKE

| University of Victoria
ISBN 9789027259523 | EUR 95.00 | USD 143.00
e-Book Buy from our e-platform
ISBN 9789027265319 | EUR 95.00 | USD 143.00
Like is a ubiquitous feature of English with a deep history in the language, exhibiting regular and constrained variable grammars over time. This volume explores the various contexts of like, each of which contributes to the reality of contemporary vernaculars: its historical context, its developmental context, its social context, and its ideological context. The final chapter examines the ways in which these contexts overlap and inform current understanding of acquisition, structure, change, and embedding. The volume also features an extensive appendix, containing numerous examples of like in its pragmatic functions from a range of English corpora, both diachronic and synchronic. The volume will be of interest to students and scholars of English historical linguistics, grammaticalization, language variation and change, discourse-pragmatics and the interface of these fields with formal linguistic theory.
[Studies in Language Companion Series, 187]  2017.  xx, 235 pp.
Publishing status: Available
Table of Contents
List of figures
List of tables
Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. Empirical context
Chapter 3. Historical context
Chapter 4. Developmental context
Chapter 5. Social context
Chapter 6. Ideological context
Chapter 7. Contextual interfaces
Appendix. Anthology of like
“With this book, Alexandra D’Arcy has produced the definitive reference work on like. Pulling together decades of research, she teases apart like’s many functions and weaves together their histories to draw a rich, multi-layered picture of how the word has systematically expanded its functional scope over centuries. Along the way, the book usefully tackles myth after myth about the newness, ‘wrongness,’ femaleness, and randomness of like, a word that has so captured the popular imagination.”
“A treasure trove of illustrative examples and insightful analyses of that ubiquitous, pesky, little element like in all its different guises and a must-read for all researchers interested in discourse-pragmatic variation.”
“Alexandra D’Arcy has written an impressive and highly readable account of like based on an exceptionally rich set of historical and contemporary vernacular spoken data. With anexemplary clarity of prose and a conscientious approach to empirical data, the author sheds fresh light on diachrony and patterns of synchronic variation, convincingly detailing the developmental cline of the discourse marker and discourse particle and providing accurate timing of the emergence of new functions and contexts of use. This is certainly among the most enlightening work on like that I have read. Truly fascinating and a joy to read.”
BIC Subject: CFF – Historical & comparative linguistics
BISAC Subject: LAN009010 – LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / Historical & Comparative
U.S. Library of Congress Control Number:  2017018299


Abbott, Barbara
2006Definite and indefinite. In Encyclopedia of Language & Linguistics, 2nd edn, Keith Brown (ed.), 392–399. Oxford: Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B0‑08‑044854‑2/01089‑0
Abney, Steven Paul
1987The English Noun Phrase in its Sentential Aspect. PhD dissertation, MIT.
Adger, David
2003Core Syntax: A Minimalist Approach. Oxford: OUP.
Aijmer, Karin
1988 ‘Now may we have a word on this’: The use of ‘now’ as a discourse particle. In Corpus Linguistics, Hard and Soft: Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on English Language Research on Computerized Corpora, Merja Kytö, Ossi Ihalainen & Matti Rissanen (eds), 15–34. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
1997 I think – an English modal particle. In Modality in Germanic Languages: Historical and Comparative Perspectives, Toril Swan & Olaf Jansen Westvik (eds), 1–48. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110889932.1
2002English Discourse Particles: Evidence from a Corpus [Studies in Corpus Linguistics 10]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.10
2013Understanding Pragmatic Markers: A Variational Pragmatic Approach. Edinburgh: EUP.
Aitchison, Jean
1981Language Change: Progress or Decay? London: Fontana.
Alexiadou, Artemis
1999On the Syntax of Nominalization and Possession: Remarks on Patterns of Ergativity. PhD dissertation, University of Potsdam.
Alexiadou, Artemis & Stavrou, Melita
1998(A)symmetries in DPs and clauses: Evidence from derived nominals. The Linguistic Review 15(2): 257–276.
Algeo, John
1988British and American grammatical differences. International Journal of Lexicography 1(1): 1–31. https://doi.org/10.1093/ijl/1.1.1
Allen, Cynthia L.
1986Reconsidering the history of like. Journal of Linguistics 22(2): 375–409. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022226700010847
Allerton, David John & Cruttenden, Alan
1974English sentence adverbials: Their syntax and their intonation in British English. Lingua 34: 1–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/0024‑3841(74)90074‑6
Altenberg, Bengt
1987Prosodic Patterns in Spoken English. Studies in the Correlation Between Prosody and Grammar for Text-to-Speech Conversion. Lund: Lund University Press.
1990Spoken English and the dictionary. In The London-Lund Corpus of Spoken English: Description and Research, Jan Svartvik (ed.), 193–211. Lund: Lund University Press.
Altmann, Gabriel H., von Buttar, Haro, Rott, Walter & Strauss, Udo
1983A law of change in language. In Historical Linguistics, Barron Brainerd (ed.), 104–115. Bochum: Brockmeyer.
Amador-Moreno, Carolina P.
2010An Introduction to Irish English. London: Equinox.
2012A corpus-based approach to contemporary Irish writing: Ross O’Carroll-Kelly’s use of like as a discourse marker. International Journal of English Studies 12(2): 19–38.
To appear. Orality in Written Texts: Using Historical Corpora to Investigate Irish English, 1700–1900. London: Routledge.
Amador-Moreno, Carolina P. & McCafferty, Kevin
2015 ‘Sure this is a great country for drink and rowing at elections’: Discourse markers in the Corpus of Irish English Correspondence, 1750–1940. In Amador-Moreno et al. (eds), 270–291. https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.258.12ama
Amador-Moreno, Carolina P., McCafferty, Kevin & Vaughan, Elain
(eds) 2015Pragmatic Markers in Irish English [Pragmatics & Beyond New Series 258]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.258
Andersen, Gisle
1997 ‘They gave us these yeah, and they like wanna see like how we talk and all that’: The use of ‘like’ and other discourse markers in London teenage speech. In Ungdomsspråk i Norden, Ulla-Brit Kostinas, Anna-Brita Stenström & Anna-Malin Karlsson (eds), 83–95. Stockholm: Stockholms universitet, Institutionene für nordiska språk.
1998The pragmatic marker like from a relevance-theoretic perspective. In Jucker & Ziv (eds), 147–170.
2000The role of pragmatic marker like in utterance interpretation. In Pragmatic Markers and Propositional Attitude [Pragmatics & Beyond New Series 79], Gisle Andersen & Thorstein Fretheim (eds), 17–38. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.79.02and
2001Pragmatic Markers and Sociolinguistic Variation. A Relevance-theoretic Approach to the Language of Adolescents [Pragmatics & Beyond New Series 84]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.84
Anderson, Wendy
2008Corpus linguistics in the UK: Resources for sociolinguistic research. Language and Linguistics Compass 2(2): 352–371.
Archive of Ontario
1987Farm Work and Farm Life in Ontario Since 1890 Oral History Project. Ontario Government Record Series RG 16–200.
Arnon, Inbal & Snider, Neal
2010More than words: Frequency effects for multi-word phrases. Journal of Memory and Language 63: 67–82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2009.09.005
Baghdikian, Sonia
1977 To say and to tell in present-day British English. Studia Neophilologica 49(1): 3–18. https://doi.org/10.1080/00393277708587666
Bailey, Charles J. N.
1973Variation and Linguistic Theory. Washington DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.
Baker, Paul
2010Sociolinguistics and Corpus Linguistics. Edinburgh: EUP.
Barth, Dagmar & Elizabeth Couper-Kuhlen
2002On the development of final though: A case of grammaticalization? In New Reflections on Grammaticalization [Typological Studies in Language 49], Ilse Wischer & Gabriele Diewald (eds), 345–361. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.49.22bar
Bartlett, Joanne
2013 Oh I just talk normal like: A corpus-based, longitudinal study of constituent-final like in Tyneside English. Newcastle Working Papers in Linguistics 19(1): 1–21.
Bauer, Laurie
2002Inferring variation and change from public corpora. In Chambers et al. (eds), 97–114.
Bauer, Laurie, & Trudgill, Peter
(eds) 1998Language Myths. London: Penguin.
Becker, Misha
2004Is isn’t be. Lingua 114(4): 399–418. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0024‑3841(03)00066‑4
Beckner, Clay & Bybee, Joan
2009A usage-based account of constituency and reanalysis. Language Learning 59(1): 27–46. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2009.00534.x
Beal, Joan C., Corrigan, Karen P. & Moisl, Hermann L.
(eds) 2007aCreating and Digitizing Language Corpora, Vol. 1: Synchronic Databases. Houndmills: Palgrave-Macmillan.
(eds) 2007bCreating and Digitizing Language Corpora, Vol. 2: Diachronic Databases. Houndmills: Palgrave-Macmillan.
Berglund, Eva, Eriksson, Mårten & Westerlund, Monica
2005Communicative skills in relation to gender, birth order, childcare and socioeconomic status in 18-month-old children. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 46(6): 485–491. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467‑9450.2005.00480.x
Bernstein, Judy
2001The DP hypothesis: Indentifying clausal properties in the nominal domain. In The Handbook of Contemporary Syntactic Theory, Mark Baltin & Chris Collins (eds), 536–561. Oxford: Blackwell. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470756416.ch17
Bernstein, July
2008Reformulating the determiner phrase analysis. Language and Linguistics Compass 2(6): 1246–1270. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749‑818X.2008.00091.x
Biber, Douglas, Johansson, Stig, Leech, Geoffrey, Conrad, Susan & Finegan, Edward
1999Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Harlow: Longman.
Bittner, Maria & Hale, Kenneth
1996The structural determination of case and agreement. Linguistic Inquiry 27(1): 1–68.
Blakemore, Diane
1987Semantic Constraints on Relevance. Oxford: Blackwell.
1988 ‘So’ as a constraint on relevance. In Mental Representations: The Interface Between Language and Reality, Ruth M. Kempson (ed.), 183–195. Cambridge: CUP.
Blese, Dorthe, Vach, Werner, Slott, Marlene, Wehberg, Sonja, Thomsen, Pia, Madsen, Thomas O. & Basbøll, Hans
2008The Danish Communicative Developmental Inventory: Validity and main developmental trends. Journal of Child Language 35(3): 651–669.
Blyth Carl Jr., Recktenwald, Sigrid & Wang, Jenny
1990 I’m like, ‘Say what?!’ A new quotative in American oral narrative. American Speech 65(3): 215–227. https://doi.org/10.2307/455910
Boberg, Charles
2004Real and apparent time in language change: Late adoption of changes in Montreal English. American Speech 79(3): 250–269. https://doi.org/10.1215/00031283‑79‑3‑250
Bod, Rens
2001Sentence memory: The storage vs. computation of frequent sentences. In Proceedings CUNY-2001 Conference on Sentence Processing, Philadelphia PA.
Bod, Rens, Hay, Jennifer & Jannedy, Stefanie
(eds) 2003Probabilistic Linguistics. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press.
Bornstein, Marc H., Hahn, Chun-Shin & Haynes, Maurice O.
2004Specific and general language performance across early childhood: Stability and gender considerations. First Language 24(3): 267–305. https://doi.org/10.1177/0142723704045681
Boskovic, Zeljko
1994Categorial status of null operator relatives and finite declarative complements. Language Research 30: 387–417.
Boyland, Joyce Tang
1996Morphosyntactic Change in Progress: A Psycholinguistic Approach. PhD dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.
Bresnan, Joan & Ford, Marilyn
2010Predicting syntax: Processing dative constructions in American and Australian varieties of English. Language 86(1): 186–213.
Brinton, Laurel J.
1996Pragmatic Markers in English: Grammaticalization and Discourse Functions. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110907582
2005Processes underlying the development of pragmatic markers: The case of ‘(I) say’. In Opening Windows on Texts and Discourses of the Past [Pragmatics & Beyond New Series 134], Janne Skaffari, Matti Peikola, Ruth Carroll, Risto Hiltunen & Brita Wårvik (eds), 279–299. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.134.23bri
2006Pathways in the development of pragmatic markers in English. In The Handbook of the History of English, Ans van Kemenade & Bettelou Los (eds), 307–334. Oxford: Blackwell. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470757048.ch13
2008The Comment Clause in English: Syntactic Origins and Pragmatic Development. Cambridge: CUP. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511551789
Brinton, Laurel J. & Traugott, Elizabeth Closs
2005Lexicalization and Language Change. Cambridge: CUP. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511615962
Brook, Marisa
2014Comparative complementizers in Canadian English: Insights from Early Fiction. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics 20(2): Article 2. repository.upenn.edu/​pwpl/​vol20/​iss2/​2 (30 June 2015).
Brook, Marisa A.
2016Syntactic Categories Informing Variationist Analysis: The Case of English Copy-Raising. PhD Dissertation, University of Toronto.
Bucholtz, Mary
2010White Kids: Language, Race and Styles of Youth Identity. Cambridge: CUP. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511975776
Buchstaller, Isabelle
2006aDiagnostics of age-graded linguistic behaviour: The case of the quotative system. Journal of Sociolinguistics 10(1): 3–30. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360‑6441.2006.00315.x
2006bSocial stereotypes, personality traits and regional perception displaced: Attitudes towards the ‘new’ quotatives in the U.K. Journal of Sociolinguistics 10(3): 362–381. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360‑6441.2006.00332.x
2008The localization of global linguistic variants. English World-Wide 29(1): 15–44. https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.29.1.03buc
2014Quotatives: New Trends and Sociolinguistic Implications. Malden MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Buchstaller, Isabelle & Traugott, Elizabeth Closs
2006 The lady was al demonyak: Historical aspects of adverb all. English Language and Linguistics 10(2): 345–370. https://doi.org/10.1017/S136067430600195X
Buchstaller, Isabelle, Rickford, John R., Traugott, Elizabeth Closs, Wasow, Tom & Zwicky, Arnold
2010The sociolinguistics of a short-lived innovation: Tracing the development of quotative all across spoken and Internet newsgroup data. Language Variation and Change 22(2):191–219. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394510000098
Buchstaller, Isabelle & van Alphen, Ingrid
2012Preface: Introductory remarks and new and old quotatives. In Buchstaller & van Alphen (eds), xi–xxx.
(eds) 2012Quotatives: Cross-linguistic and Cross-disciplinary Perspectives [Converging Evidence in Language and Communication Research 15]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/celcr.15
Burzio, Luigi
1986Italian Syntax: Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory. Dordrecht: Reidel. https://doi.org/10.1007/978‑94‑009‑4522‑7
Butters, Ronald R.
1982Editor’s note [on ‘be + like’]. American Speech 57(2): 149.
Buttny, Richard
1998Putting prior talk into context: Reported speech and the reported context. Research on Language and Social Interaction 31(1): 45–58. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327973rlsi3101_3
Bybee, Joan
2001Phonology and Language Use. Cambridge: CUP. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511612886
2002Word frequency and context of use in the lexical diffusion of phonetically conditioned sound change. Language Variation and Change 14(3): 261–290. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394502143018
2003Mechanism of change in grammaticalization: The role of frequency. In Joseph & Janda (eds), 602–623.
2006From usage to grammar: The minds response to repetition. Language 82(4): 711–733. https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2006.0186
Bybee, Joan & Paul Hopper
(eds) 2001Frequency and the Emergence of Linguistic Structure [Typological Studies in Language 45]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.45
Bybee, Joan, Perkins, Revere & Pagliuca, William
1994The Evolution of Grammar: Tense, Aspect and Modality in the Languages of the World. Chicago IL: University of Chicago Press.
Cameron, Deborah
1995Verbal Hygiene. London: Routledge.
Campbell-Kibler, Kathryn
2011The sociolinguistic variant as the carrier of social meaning. Language Variation and Change 22(3): 423–441. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394510000177
2012The implicit association test and sociolinguistic meaning. Lingua 122(7): 753–763. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2012.01.002
Caxaj-Ruiz, Paul & Kaminskaïa, Svetlana
2014Compétences discursives de locuteurs du français L1 et L2 en contexte minoritaire. Revue de Nouvel-Ontario 39: 165–193. https://doi.org/10.7202/1027468ar
. A Corpus of English Dialogues 1560–1760 2006 Compiled under the supervision of Merja Kytö (Uppsala University) and Jonathan Culpeper (Lancaster University).
Chafe, Wallace
1984How people use adverbial clauses. In Proceedings of the Tenth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, Claudia Brugman & Monica Macaulay (eds), 437–449. Berkeley CA: BLS.
Chambers, J. K.
2000Region and language variation. English World-Wide 21(2): 169–199. https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.21.2.02cha
Chambers, J. K., Trudgill, Peter & Schilling-Estes, Natalie
(eds) 2002The Handbook of Language Variation and Change. Malden MA: Blackwell.
Chapman, Robert
1986New Dictionary of American Slang. New York NY: Harper and Row.
Cheshire, Jenny
2007Discourse variation, grammaticalisation and stuff like that. Journal of Sociolinguistics 11(2): 155–193. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467‑9841.2007.00317.x
Cheshire, Jenny, Kerswill, Paul, Fox, Sue & Torgersen, Eivind
2011Contact, the feature pool and the speech community: The emergence of Multicultural London English. Journal of Sociolinguistics 15(2): 151–196. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467‑9841.2011.00478.x
Cinque, Guglielmo
1999Adverbs and Functional Heads: A Cross-Linguistic Perspective. Oxford: OUP.
2004Issues in adverbial syntax. Lingua 114(6):683–710. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0024‑3841(03)00048‑2
Chomsky, Noam
1970Remarks on nominalization. In Readings in English Transformational Grammar, Roderick A. Jacobs & Peter S. Rosenbaum (eds), 184–221. Waltham MA: Ginn.
1971Deep structure, surface structure, and semantic interpretation. In Semantics: An Interdisciplinary Reader in Philosophy, Linguistics, and Psychology, Danny D. Steinberg & Leon A. Jakobovits (eds), 183–217. Cambridge: CUP.
1995The Minimalist Program. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press.
Clark, Herbert H. & Gerrig, Roland J.
1990Quotations as demonstrations. Language 66(4): 764–805. https://doi.org/10.2307/414729
Coates, Jennifer
2016Women, Men and Language, 3rd edn. New York NY: Routledge.
Collins, Daniel E.
2001Reanimated Voices: Speech Reporting in a Historical-Pragmatic Perspective [Pragmatics & Beyond 85]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.85
Coopmans, Peter
1989Where stylistic and syntactic processes meet: Locative inversion in English. Language 65(4): 728–751. https://doi.org/10.2307/414932
Corrigan, Karen P.
2010Irish English, Vol. 1: Northern Ireland. Edinburgh: EUP. https://doi.org/10.3366/edinburgh/9780748634286.001.0001
2015 ‘I always think of people here, you know, saying like after every sentence’: The dynamics of discourse-pragmatic markers in Northern Irish English. In Amador-Moreno et al. (eds), 37–64. https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.258.02cor
Corrigan, Karen P., Buchstaller, Isablle, Mearns, Adam & Moisl, Hermann
2010–2012A linguistic ‘time capsule’ for the ‘Google Generation’: The Diachronic Electronic Corpus of Tyneside English. Research Grant. . #AH/H037691/1.
Corrigan, Karen P., Buchstaller, Isabelle, Mearns, Adam & Moisl, Hermann
2012The Diachronic Electronic Corpus of Tyneside English. research.ncl.ac.uk/​decte/​
Coupland, Nikolas
2014Sociolinguistic change, vernacularization, and British broadcast media. In Mediatization and Sociolinguistic Change, Jannis Androutsopoulos (ed.), 67–96. Berlin: De Gruyter.
Christophersen, Paul
1939The Articles: A Study of their Theory and Use in English. Copenhagen: Munksgaard.
Culpeper, Jonathan & Kytö, Merja
1997Towards a corpus of dialogues, 1550–1750. In Language in Time and Space. Studies in Honour of Wolfgang Viereck on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday (Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik – Beihefte, Heft 97), Heinrich Ramisch & Kenneth Wynne (eds), 60–73. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner.
2000Data in historical pragmatics: Spoken interaction (re)cast as writing. Journal of Historical Pragmatics 1(2): 175–199. https://doi.org/10.1075/jhp.1.2.03cul
2010Early Modern English Dialogues: Spoken Interaction as Writing. Cambridge: CUP.
Curme, George O.
1931A Grammar of the English Language, Vol. 3: Syntax. Boston MA: D.C. Heath and Company.
Dailey-O’Cain, Jennifer
2000The sociolinguistic distribution of and attitudes toward focuser like and quotative like. Journal of Sociolinguistics 4(1): 60–80. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467‑9481.00103
D’Arcy, Alex
2004Contextualizing St. John’s youth English within the Canadian quotative system. Journal of English Linguistics 32(4): 323–345. https://doi.org/10.1177/0075424204269752
2005aThe development of linguistic constraints: Phonological innovations in St. John’s English. Language Variation and Change 17(3): 327–355.
D’Arcy, Alexandra
2005b Like: Syntax and Development. PhD dissertation, University of Toronto.
2006Lexical replacement and the like(s). American Speech 81(4): 339–357. https://doi.org/10.1215/00031283‑2006‑024
2007 Like and language ideology: Disentangling fact from fiction. American Speech 82(4): 386–419. https://doi.org/10.1215/00031283‑2007‑025
2008Canadian English as a window to the rise of like in discourse. Anglistik: International Journal of English Studies 19(2): 125–140.
2011–2014Victoria English: Its development and current state. Research Grant. . #410–2011–0219.
2012The diachrony of quotation: Evidence from New Zealand English. Language Variation and Change 24(3): 343–369. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394512000166
2014Discourse. In The Routledge Handbook of Historical Linguistics, Claire Bowern & Bethwyn Evans (eds), 410–422. New York NY: Routledge.
2015aQuotation and advances in understanding syntactic systems. Annual Review of Linguistics 1: 3–61. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev‑linguist‑030514‑125220
2015bStability, stasis and change: The longue durée of intensification. Diachronica 32(4): 449–493. https://doi.org/10.1075/dia.32.4.01dar
2015cVariation, transmission, incrementation. In The Handbook of Historical Phonology, Patrick Honeybone & Joseph Salmons (eds), 583–602. Oxford: OUP.
Davies, Mark
2008–The Corpus of Contemporary American English: 450 million words, 1990–present. corpus.byu.edu/​coca/​
2009The 385 + million word Corpus of Contemporary American English (1990–2008): Design, architecture, and linguistic insights. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 14(2): 159–190. https://doi.org/10.1075/ijcl.14.2.02dav
2010The Corpus of Contemporary American English as the first reliable monitor corpus of English. Literary and Linguistic Computing 25(4): 447–464. https://doi.org/10.1093/llc/fqq018
2010–The Corpus of Historical American English: 400 million words, 1810–2009. corpus.byu.edu/​coha/​
2012Expanding horizons in historical linguistics with the 400-million-word Corpus of Historical American English. Corpora 7(2): 121–157. https://doi.org/10.3366/cor.2012.0024
Denis, Derek
2015The Development of Pragmatic Markers in Canadian English. PhD dissertation, University of Toronto.
2016Oral histories as a window to linguistic history and language history: Exploring earlier Ontario English with the Farm Work and Farm Life Since 1890 Oral History Collection. Audio feature. American Speech 91(4): 513–516. https://doi.org/10.1215/00031283‑4153153.
Denis, Derek & Tagliamonte, Sali A.
2016Innovation, right? Change, you know? Utterance final tags in Canadian English. In Pichler (ed.), 86–112.
de Klerk, Vivian
2006Codeswitching, borrowing and mixing in a corpus of Xhosa English. The International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 9(5): 597–614. https://doi.org/10.2167/beb382.0
De Quincey, Thomas
1840–1841Style. Blackwood’s Magazine. Repr. in De Quincey’s Works, Vol. 10: Style and Rhetoric and Other Essays, 158–292. Edinburgh: Black.
Diamond, S. J.
2000Like it or not, ‘like’ is probably here to stay. Los Angeles Times. August 21: 2.
Diewald, Gabrielle
2011Pragmaticalization (defined) as grammaticalization of discourse functions. Linguistics 49(2): 365–390. https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.2011.011
Dines, Elizabeth
1980Variation in discourse ‘and stuff like that’. Language in Society 9(1): 13–31. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500007764
Dinkin, Aaron
2016Variant-centered variation and the Like Conspiracy. Linguistic Variation 16(2): 221–246. https://doi.org/10.1075/lv.16.2.03din
Diskin, Chloe
2013Integration and identity: Acquisition of Irish-English by Polish and Chinese migrants in Dublin, Ireland. Newcastle Working Papers in Linguistics 19(1): 67–89.
D’Onofrio, Annette
2015Persona-based information shapes linguistic perception: Valley Girls and California vowels. Journal of Sociolinguistics 19(2): 241–256. https://doi.org/10.1111/josl.12115
Drager, Katie
2011Sociophonetic variation and the lemma. Journal of Phonetics 39(4): 694–707. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2011.08.005
2015Linguistic Variation, Identity Construction and Cognition. Berlin: Language Science Press. https://doi.org/10.26530/OAPEN_603352
2016Constructing style: Phonetic variation in discursive functions of like. In Pichler (ed.), 232–251.
Dubois, Sylvie
1992Extension particles, etc. Language Variation and Change 4(2): 179–203. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394500000740
Dubois, Sylvie & Horvath, Barbara
1999When the music changes, you change too: Gender and language change in Cajun English. Language Variation and Change 11(3): 287–314. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394599113036
Dubois, Sylvie & Sankoff, David
2001The variationist approach toward discourse structural effects and socio-interactional dynamics. In The Handbook of Discourse Analysis, Deborah Schiffrin, Deborah Tannen & Heidi E. Hamilton (eds), 252–303. Malden MA: Blackwell.
Durham, Mercedes, Haddican, Bill, Zweig, Eytan, Johnson, Daniel E., Baker, Zipporah, Cockeram, David, Danks, Esther & Tyler, Louise
2012Constant linguistic effects in the diffusion of be like. Journal of English Linguistics 40(4): 316–337. https://doi.org/10.1177/0075424211431266
Eckert, Penelope
1989The whole woman: Sex and gender differences in variation. Language Variation and Change 1(3): 245–267. https://doi.org/10.1017/S095439450000017X
Eckert, Penelope & McConnell-Ginet, Sally
2003Language and Gender. Cambridge: CUP. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511791147
Elliott, Amy-Mae
20155 steps for, like, literally cutting the word ‘like’ out of your life. Mashable. mashable.com/​2015/​04/​04/​stop-saying-like/​#rxEg.DtIkZqt (29 January 2016).
Ellis, Nick C.
1996Sequencing in SLA. Phonological memory, chunking, and points of order. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 18: 91–126. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263100014698
1998Emergentism, connectionism and language learning. Language Learning 48(4): 631–664. https://doi.org/10.1111/0023‑8333.00063
Elsness, Johan
1997The Perfect and the Preterite in Contemporary and Earlier English. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110810264
Erman, Britt
1987Pragmatic Expression in English: A Study of ‘you know’, ‘you see’ and ‘I mean’ in Face-to-Face Conversation. Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell.
2001Pragmatic markers revisitied with a focus on you know in adult and adolescent talk. Journal of Pragmatics 33(9): 1337–1359. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378‑2166(00)00066‑7
Erman, Britt & Kotsinas, Ulla-Britt
1993Pragmaticalization: The case of ba and you know. Studier i modern språkvetenskap [Acta Universitatis Stockhomiensis New series 10, 76–93. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.
Erman, Britt & Warren, Beatrice
2000The idiom principle and the open choice principle. Text & Talk 20(1): 29–62.
Even-Zohar, Itamar
1982The emergence of speech organizers in a renovated language: The case of Hebrew void pragmatic connectives. In Impromptu Speech: A Symposium, N. E. Enkvist (ed.), 179–193. Åbo: Åbo Akademi.
Feldman, Heidi M., Dollaghan, Christine A., Campbell, Thomas F., Kurs-Lasky, Marcia, Janosky, Janine E. & Paradise, Jack L.
2000Measurement properties of the MacArthur communicative development inventories at ages one and two years. Child Development 71(2): 310–322. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467‑8624.00146
Fenson, Larry, Dale, Philip S., Reznick, J. Steven, Bates, Elizabeth, Thal, Donna J. & Pethick, Stephen J.
1994Variability in early communicative development. Monographs for the Society for Research in Child Development 59(5): 1–185. https://doi.org/10.2307/1166093
Ferrara, Kathleen & Bell, Barbara
1995Sociolinguistic variation and discourse function of constructed dialogue introducers: The case of be + like. American Speech 70(3): 265–290. https://doi.org/10.2307/455900
Fidelholtz, James
1975Word frequency and vowel reduction in English. Chicago Linguistics Society 11: 200–213.
Fischer, Olga C. M. & van der Leek, Frederike C.
1983The demise of the Old English impersonal construction. Journal of Linguistics 19(2): 337–368. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022226700007775
Fleischman, Suzanne
1999Pragmatic markers in comparative and historical perspective: Theoretical implications of a case study. Paper presented at the 14th International Conference on Historical Linguistics, Vancouver, Canada.
Follett, Wilson
1966Modern American Usage. A Guide. New York NY: Hill and Wang.
Foster, Brian
1970The Changing English Language. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.
Foulkes, Paul, Docherty, Gerard & Watt, Dominic
1999Tracking the emergence of structured variation: Realisations of (t) by Newcastle children. Leeds Working Papers in Linguistics 7: 1–23.
2005Phonological variation in child-directed speech. Language 81(1): 177–206. https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2005.0018
Fox, Barbara A. & Robles, Jessica
2010It’s like mmm: Enactments with it’s like. Discourse Studies 12(6): 715–738. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461445610381862
Fox Tree, Jean E.
2007Folk notions of um and uh, you know and like. Text & Talk 27(3): 297–314. https://doi.org/10.1515/TEXT.2007.012
Frank-Job, Barbara
2006A dynamic-interactional approach to discourse markers. In Approaches to Discourse Particles, Kerstin Fischer (ed.), 359–374. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Fraser, Bruce
1988Types of English discourse markers. Acta Linguistica Hungarica 38(1): 19–33.
1990An approach to discourse markers. Journal of Pragmatics 14(3): 383–395. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378‑2166(90)90096‑V
1996Pragmatic markers. Pragmatics 6(2): 167–190. https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.6.2.03fra
Fuller, Janet
2003aDiscourse marker use across speech contexts: A comparison of native and non-native speaker performance. Multilingua 22(2): 185–208. https://doi.org/10.1515/mult.2003.010
2003bThe influence of speaker roles on discourse marker use. Journal of Pragmatics 35(1): 23–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378‑2166(02)00065‑6
2003cUse of the discourse marker like in interviews. Journal of Sociolinguistics 7(3): 365–377. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467‑9481.00229
van Gelderen, Elly
1993The Rise of Functional Categories [Linguistik Aktuell/Linguistics Today 9]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/la.9
1998 For to in the history of English. American Journal of Germanic Language and Literature 10(1): 45–72. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1040820700002225
2004Grammaticalization as Economy [Linguistik Aktuell/Linguistics Today 71]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/la.71
Gilquin, Gaëtanelle & Gries, Stefan T.
2009Corpora and experimental methods: A state-of-the-art review. Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory 5(1): 1–26. https://doi.org/10.1515/CLLT.2009.001
Givón, Talmy
1975Serial verbs and syntactic change: Niger-Congo. In Word Order and Word Order Change, Charles N. Li (ed.), 47–112. New York NY: Academic Press.
Golato, Andrea
2012Impersonal quotation and hypothetical discourse. In Buchstaller & van Alphen (eds), 3–36.
Goossens, Louis
1985Framing the linguistic action scene in Old and Present-day English: OE cweþan, secgan, sprecan and Present-day English speak, talk, say and tell compared. In Papers from the 6th International Conference on Historical Linguistics [Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 34], Jacek Fisiak (ed.), 149–170. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Gordon, Elizabeth, Campbell, Lyle, Hay, Jennifer, Maclagan, Margaret, Sudbury, Andrea & Trudgill, Peter
2004New Zealand English: Its Origins and Evolution. Cambridge: CUP. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511486678
Gordon, Elizabeth, Hay, Jennifer & Maclagan, Margaret
2007The ONZE Corpus. In Creating and Digitizing Language Corpora, Vol. 2: Diachronic Databases. Houndmills: Palgrave-Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230223202_4
Grant, William & Dixon, James Main
1921Manual of Modern Scots. Cambridge: CUP.
Greenbaum, Sidney
1992A new corpus of English: ICE. In Directions in Corpus Linguistics: Proceedings of Nobel Symposium 82, Stockholm, 4–8 August 1991, Jan Svartvik (ed.), 171–183. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110867275.171
(ed.) 1996Comparing English Worldwide: The International Corpus of English. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Günthner, Susanne & Mutz, Katrin
2004Grammaticalization vs. pragmaticalization? The development of pragmatic markers in German and Italian. In What Makes Grammaticalization? A Look from its Fringes and its Components, Walter Bisang, Nikolaus P. Himmelmann & Björn Wiemer (eds). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Gup, Ted
2012Diss ‘like’. The Chronicle of Higher Education. chronicle.com/​article/​Diss-Like/​130202/​ (29 January 2016).
Guy, Greg
1988Advanced VARBRUL analysis. In Linguistic Change and Contact, Kathleen Ferrara, Becky Brown, Keith Walters & John Baugh (eds), 124–136. Austin TX: University of Texas at Austin.
Haddican, William & Zweig, Eytan
2012The syntax of manner quotative constructions in English and Dutch. Linguistic Variation 12(1): 1–26. https://doi.org/10.1075/lv.12.1.01had
Haegeman, Liliane
2014West-Flemish verb-based discourse markers and the articulation of the Speech ‘act layer. Studia Linguistica 68(1): 116–139. https://doi.org/10.1111/stul.12023
Haegeman, Liliane, & Hill, Virginia
2013The syntactization of discourse. In Syntax and its Limits, Raffaella Folli, Christina Sevdali & Robert Truswell (eds), 370–390. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199683239.003.0018
Haiman, John
1994Ritualization and the development of language. In Perspectives on Grammaticalization [Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 109], William Pagliuca (ed.), 3–28. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.109.07hai
Hale, Ken & Keyser, Samuel Jay
1993On argument structure and the lexical expression of syntactic relations. In The View from Building 20: Essays in Honor of Sylvain Bromberger, Ken Hale & Samuel Jay Keyser (eds), 53–109. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press.
2002Prolegomenon to a Theory of Argument Structure. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press.
Halliday, M. A. K.
1967Notes on transitivity and theme in English, Part 2. Journal of Linguistics 3(2): 199–244. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022226700016613
Halliday, M. A. K. & Matthiessen, Christian M. I. M.
2014An Introduction to Functional Grammar, 3rd edn. London: Hodder Arnold.
Han, Chung-Hye
2000The Structure and Interpretation of Imperatives. New York NY: Garland.
Harley, Heidi & Noyer, Rolf
1998Licensing in the non-lexicalist lexicon: Nominalizations, vocabulary items and the encyclopedia. MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 32: 119–137.
Harris, John
1993The grammar of Irish English. In Real English: The Grammar of English Dialects in the British Isles, James Milroy & Leslie Milroy (eds), 139–186. London: Longman.
Hasting County Historical Society
1975Belleville Oral History Archive. Opportunities for Youth 1975. City of Belleville, Ontario.
Hasund, Ingrid Kristine
2003The Discourse Markers like in English and liksom in Norwegian Teenage Language: A Corpus-based, Cross-linguistic Study. PhD dissertation, University of Bergen and Agder University College.
Hedevind, Bertil
1967The Dialect of Dentdale in the West Riding of Yorkshire [Societas Anglistica Upsaliensis 5]. Uppsala: University of Uppsala.
Heim, Irene
1982The Semantics and Definite and Indefinite Noun Phrases. PhD dissertation, University of Massachusetts.
1983File change semantics and the familiarity theory of definiteness. In Meaning, Use and the Interpretation of Language, Rainer Bäuerle, Christoph Schwarze & Arnim von Stechow (eds), 164–189. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110852820.164
Heim, Johannes, Keupdjio, Hermann, Lam, Zoe Wai-Man, Osa-Gómez, Adriana & Wiltschko, Martina
2014How to do things with particles. Proceedings of the 2014 Annual Conference of the Canadian Linguistic Association. cla-acl.ca/​wp-content/​uploads/​Heim_​Keupdjio_​Lam_​Osa-Gomez_​Wiltschko-2014.pdf (12 May 2016).
Heine, Bernd
2003Grammaticalization. In Joseph & Janda (eds), 575–601.
Heine, Bernd, Claudi, Ulrike & Hünnemeyer, Friederike
1991Grammaticalization: A Conceptual Framework. Chicago IL: Chicago University Press.
Heine, Bernd & Reh, Mechtild
1984Grammaticalization and Reanalysis in African Languages. Hamburg: Buske.
Henry, Alison, Maclaren, Rose, Wilson, John & Finlay, Cathy
1997The acquisition of negative concord in non-standard English. In Proceedings of the 21st Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development, Elizabeth Hughes, Mary Hughes & Annabel Greenhill (eds), 269–280. Somerville MA: Cascadilla Press.
Hesson, Ashley & Shellgren, Madeline
2015Discourse marker like in real time: Characterizing the time-course of sociolinguistic impression making. American Speech 90(2): 154–186. https://doi.org/10.1215/00031283‑3130313
Herlyn, Anne
1999So he says to her, he says, ‘Well,’ he says…: multiple dialogue introducers from a historical perspective. In Historical Dialogue Analysis [Pragmatics & Beyond New Series 66], Andreas H. Jucker, Gerd Fritz & Franz Lebsanft (eds), 313–330. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.66.13her
Hickey, Raymond
2007Irish English. History and Present-day Forms. Cambridge: CUP. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511551048
Hill, Virginia
2013Vocatives: How Syntax Meets with Pragmatics. Leiden: Brill. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004261389
Hock, Hans Henrich
1986Principles of Historical Linguistics. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Hoekstra, Teun
1984Transitivity: Grammatical Relations in Government-Binding Theory. Dordrecht: Foris.
Hoekstra, Teun & Mulder, René
1990Unergatives as copular verbs: Locational and existential predication. The Linguistic Review 7: 1–79. https://doi.org/10.1515/tlir.1990.7.1.1
Hölker, Klaus
1991Fransösisch: Partikelforschung. In Lexikon der romantischen Linguistik, Vol. 5: Französisch, Okzitanisch, Katatanisch, Günter Holtus, Michael Metzeltin & Christian Schmitt (eds), 77–88. Tübingen: Niemeyer.
Hooper, Joan
1976Word frequency in lexical diffusion and the source of morpho-phonological change. In Current Progress in Historical Linguistics, William M. Christie (ed.), 95–105. Amsterdam: North Holland.
Horn, Laurence
1980Affixation and the unaccusative hypothesis. In Papers from the 16th Regional Meeting of the CLS, Jody Kreiman & Almerindo Ojeda (eds), 134–146. Chicago IL: Chicago Linguistic Society.
Horne, Merle, Hansson, Petra, Bruce, Gösta, Frid, Johan & Filipsson, Marcus
2001Cue words and the topic structure of spoken discourse: The case of Swedish ‘men’ ‘but’. Journal of Pragmatics 33(7): 1061–1081. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378‑2166(00)00044‑8
Hopper, Paul J. & Traugott, Elizabeth Closs
2003Grammaticalization, 2nd edn. Cambridge: CUP. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139165525
Huber, Magnus
2007The Old Bailey Proceedings, 1674–1834: Evaluating and annotating a corpus of 18th and 19th-century spoken English. In Studies in Variation, Contacts and Change in English 1: Annotating Variation and Change, Anneli Meurman-Solin & Arja Nurmi (eds). www.helsinki.fi/​varieng/​series/​volumes/​01/​huber/​ (19 July 2016).
Huddleston, Rodney & Pullum, Geoffrey K.
The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Cambridge: CUP. https://doi.org/10.1515/zaa‑2005‑0209
Hyman, Larry
2001The limits of phonetic determinism in phonology. *NC revisited. In The Role of Speech Perception in Phonology, Elizabeth Hume & Keith Johnson (eds), 141–185. San Diego CA: Academic Press.
Iyeiri, Yoko, Yaguchi, Michiko & Okabe, Hiroko
2005Gender and style: The discourse particle like in the Corpus of Spoken Professional American English. English Corpus Studies 12: 37–51.
Jackendoff, Ray
1972Semantic Interpretation in Generative Grammar. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press.
1997The Architecture of the Language Faculty. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press.
2002Foundations of Language. Oxford: OUP. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198270126.001.0001
Jespersen, Otto
1927A Modern English Grammar on Historical Principles, Part 3: Syntax. London: Allen & Unwin.
1942A Modern English Grammar on Historical Principles, Part 6: Morphology. Copenhagen: Munksgaard.
John, Oliver P., Naumann, Laura P. & Soto, Christopher J.
2008Paradigm shift to the integrative Big-Five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and conceptual issues. In Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research, 3rd edn, Oliver P. John, Richard W. Robins & Lawrence A. Pervin, Lawrence A. (eds), 114–158. New York NY: Guilford Press.
Jones-Sargent, Val
1983Tyne Bytes. A Computerised Sociolinguistic Study of Tyneside. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.
Jørgensen, Anette M. & Stenström, Anna-Brita
2009Dos marcadores pragmáticos contrastados en el lenguaje juvenil: el inglés like y el español como. Español Actual 92: 103–121.
Joseph, Brian D. & Janda, Richard D.
2003On language, change, and language change – or, of history, linguistics, and historical linguistics. In Joseph & Janda (eds), 3–180.
(eds) 2003The Handbook of Historical Linguistics. Malden MA: Blackwell. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470756393
Jucker, Andreas H.
1993The discourse marker well: A relevance theoretical account. Journal of Pragmatics 19(5): 435–452. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378‑2166(93)90004‑9
Jucker, Andreas H. & Smith, Sara W.
1998And people just you know like ‘wow’: Discourse markers as negotiating strategies. In Jucker & Ziv (eds), 171–201.
Jucker, Andreas & Ziv, Jael
(eds) 1998Discourse Markers: Descriptions and Theory [Pragmatics & Beyond New Series 57]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.57
Jucker, Andreas H., Smith, Sara W. & Lüdge, Tanja
2003Interactive aspects of vagueness in conversation. Journal of Pragmatics 35(12): 1737–1769. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378‑2166(02)00188‑1
Kaltenböck, Gunther
2013The development of comment clauses. In The Verb Phrase in English: Investigating Recent Language Change with Corpora, Bas Aarts, Joanne Close, Geoffrey Leech & Sean Wallis (eds), 286–317. Cambridge: CUP. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139060998.013
Kallen, Jeffrey L.
2013Irish English, Vol. 2. The Republic of Ireland. Berlin: De Gruyter. https://doi.org/10.1515/9781614511298
Kaplan, Abby
2016Women Talk More than Men, and Other Myths about Language Explained. Cambridge: CUP. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781316027141
Kärkkäinen, Elise
2003Epistemic Stance in English Conversation: A Description of Interactional Functions, With a Focus on ‘I Think’ [Pragmatics & Beyond New Series 115]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.115
Kastronic, Laura
2011Discourse like in Quebec English. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics 17(2): Article 13. repository.upenn.edu/​pwpl/​vol17/​iss2/​13
Keller, Eric
1979 Gambits: Conversation strategy signals. Journal of Pragmatics 3(3–4): 219–238.
Kendall, Tyler
2011Corpora from a sociolinguistic perspective. In Corpus Studies: Future Directions, Stefan T. Gries (ed.). Special Issue of Revista Brasileira de Linguística Aplicada 11(2): 361–389.
Kendall, Tyler & Van Herk, Gerard
(eds) 2011Corpus linguistics and sociolinguistic inquiry. Special issue of Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory 7(1). https://doi.org/10.1515/cllt.2011.001
Kerswill, Paul
1996Children, adolescents, and language change. Language Variation and Change 8(2): 177–202. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394500001137
Kiparsky, Paul
1995Indo-European origins of Germanic syntax. In Clause Structure and Language Change, Adrian Battye & Ian Roberts (eds), 140–169. Oxford: OUP.
Kortmann, Bernd & Schneider, Edgar W. In collaboration with Burridge, Kate, Mesthrie, Rajend, & Upton, Clive
2004A Handbook of Varieties of English, Vol. 1: Phonology; Vol. 2: Morphology and Syntax. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110197181
Kortmann, Bernd & Lunkenheimer, Kerstin
(eds) 2013The Electronic World Atlas of Varieties of English. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. www.ewave-atlas.org/​ (30 June 2016).
Kotsinas, Ulla-Britt
1994Ungdomsspråk. Uppsala: Hallgren & Fallgren.
Kovac, Ceil & Adamson, Hugh Douglas
1981Variation theory and first language acquisition. In Variation Omnibus, David Sankoff & Herietta Cedergren (eds), 403–410. Edmonton: Linguistic Research.
Kretzschmar, William A., Anderson, Jean, Beal, Joan C., Corrigan, Karen P., Opas-Hänninen, Lena & Plichta, Bartlomiej
2006Collaboration on corpora for regional and social analysis. Journal of English Linguistics 34(3): 172–205. https://doi.org/10.1177/0075424206293598
Kroch, Anthony S.
1989Reflexes of grammar in patterns of language change. Language Variation and Change 1(3): 199–244. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394500000168
Kroch, Anthony & Taylor, Ann
2000The Penn-Helsinki Parsed Corpus of Middle English (PPCME2). Department of Linguistics, University of Pennsylvania. CD-ROM, second edition, release 4. www.ling.upenn.edu/​ppche/​ppche-release-2016/​PPCME2-RELEASE-4
Kroch, Anthony, Santorini, Beatrice & Delfs, Lauren
2004The Penn-Helsinki Parsed Corpus of Early Modern English (PPCEME). Department of Linguistics, University of Pennsylvania. CD-ROM, first edition, release 3. www.ling.upenn.edu/​ppche/​ppche-release-2016/​PPCEME-RELEASE-3
Kroch, Anthony, Santorini, Beatrice & Diertani, Ariel
2016The Penn Parsed Corpus of Modern British English (PPCMBE2). Department of Linguistics, University of Pennsylvania. CD-ROM, second edition, release 1. www.ling.upenn.edu/​ppche/​ppche-release-2016/​PPCMBE2-RELEASE-1
Kytö, Merja & Walker, Terry
2006Guide to A Corpus of English Dialogues 1560–1760. [Studia Anglistica Upsaliensia 130]. Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis.
Labov, William
1972Sociolinguistic Patterns. Philadelphia PA: University of Philadelphia Press.
1982Objectivity and commitment in linguistic science: The case of the Black English trial in Ann Arbor. Language in Society 11(2): 165–201. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500009192
1990The intersection of sex and social class in the course of linguistic change. Language Variation and Change 2(2): 205–254. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394500000338
1994Principles of Linguistic Change, Vol. 1: Internal Factors. Oxford: Blackwell.
2001Principles of Linguistic Change, Vol. 2: Social Factors. Oxford: Blackwell.
2007Transmission and diffusion. Language 83(2): 344–387. https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2007.0082
2016How did it happen? The new verb of quotation in Philadelphia. Presented at New Ways of Analyzing Variation 45, Simon Fraser University and University of Victoria.
Labov, William, Ash, Sharon, Ravindranath, Maya, Weldon, Tracey, Baranowski, Maciej & Nagy, Naomi
2011Properties of the sociolinguistic monitor. Journal of Sociolinguistics 15(4): 431–463. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467‑9841.2011.00504.x
Labov, William & Waletzky, Joshua
1997Narrative analysis: Oral versions of personal experience. Journal of Narrative and Life History 7(1): 3–38. https://doi.org/10.1075/jnlh.7.02nar
Lakoff, Robin
1973Questionable answers and answerable questions. In Papers in Honor of Henry and Renee Kahane, B. Kachru (ed.), 453–467. Urbana IL: University of Illinois Press.
Laserna, Charlyn M., Seih, Yi-Tai & Pennebaker, James W.
2014 Um…who like says you know: Filler word use as a function of age, gender and personality. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 33(3): 328–338. https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X14526993
Lass, Roger
1997Historical Linguistics and Language Change. Cambridge: CUP. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511620928
Lauwereyns, Shizuka
2002Hedges in Japanese conversation: The influence of age, sex, and formality. Language Variation and Change 14(2): 239–259. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394502142049
Lavandera, Beatriz R.
1978Where does the sociolinguistic variable stop? Language in Society 7(2): 171–183. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500005510
Leech, Geoffrey N.
1974Semantics. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Lehmann, Christian
1995[1982]Thoughts on Grammaticalization: A Programmatic Sketch. 2nd edn. Munich: Lincom.
Lehrer, Adrienne
1989Remembering and representing prose: Quoted speech as a data source. Discourse Processes 12(1):105–125. https://doi.org/10.1080/01638538909544721
Lehti-Eklund, Hanna
1990Från adverb till markör i text: Studier i semantisk-syntatisk utveckling i äldre svenska. Helsingfors: Svenska litteratursällskapet.
Levey, Stephen
2003 He’s like ‘Do it now!’ and I’m like ‘No!’: Some innovative quotative usage among young people in London. English Today 19(1): 24–32.
2006The sociolinguistic distribution of discourse marker like in preadolescent speech. Multilingua 25(4): 413–441. https://doi.org/10.1515/MULTI.2006.022
2016The role of children in the propagation of discourse-pragmatic change: insights from the acquisition of quotative variation. In Pichler (ed.), 160–182.
Levin, Beth
1993English Verb Classes and Alternations. Chicago IL: The University of Chicago Press.
Levin, Beth & Rappaport, Malka
1986The formation of adjectival passives. Linguistic Inquiry 17(4): 623–661.
Levin, Beth & Rappaport Hovav, Malka
1995Unaccusativity. At the Syntax-Lexical Semantics Interface. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press.
Levon, Erez & Fox, Sue
2014Social salience and the sociolinguistic monitor. Journal of English Linguistics 42(3): 185–217. https://doi.org/10.1177/0075424214531487
Lewis, Diana M.
2011A discourse-constructional approach to the emergence of discourse markers in English. Linguistics 49(2): 415–443. https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.2011.013
Li, Charles N.
1986Direct and indirect speech: A functional study. In Direct and Indirect Speech, Florian Coulmas (ed.), 29–45. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110871968.29
Liao, Silvie
2009Variation in the use of discourse markers by Chinese teaching assistants in the US. Journal of Pragmatics 41(7): 1313–1328. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2008.09.026
Liberman, Mark
2009“At the end of the day” not management speak. Language Log. languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu/​nll/​?p=​1771 (29 April 2017).
2016 Like youth and sex. Language Log. languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu/​nll/​?p=​3226 (11 April 2016).
Lightfoot, David W.
1979Principles of Diachronic Syntax. Cambridge: CUP.
1981The history of Noun Phrase movement. In The Logical Problem of Language Acquisition, C. L. Baker & John J. McCarthy (eds), 86–119. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press.
Liu, Binmei
2016Effect of L2 exposure: From a perspective of discourse markers. Applied Linguistic Review 7(1): 73–98. https://doi.org/10.1515/applirev‑2016‑0004
Liu, Kris & Fox Tree, Jean E.
2012Hedges enhance memory but inhibit retelling. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 19(5): 892–898. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423‑012‑0275‑1
López-Couso, María José & Méndez-Naya, Belén
2012On the use of as if, as though, and like in Present-Day English complementation structures. Journal of English Linguistics 40(2): 172–195. https://doi.org/10.1177/0075424211418976
2014From clause to pragmatic marker: a study of the development of like-parentheticals in American English. Journal of Historical Pragmatics 15(1): 36–61. https://doi.org/10.1075/jhp.15.1.03lop
Macafee, Caroline
(ed.) 1996Concise Ulster Dictionary. Oxford: OUP.
Macaulay, Ronald
2001You’re like ‘why not?’: The quotative expression of Glasgow adolescents. Journal of Sociolinguistics 5(1): 3–21. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467‑9481.00135
2002Discourse variation. In Chambers et al. (eds), 283–306.
2005Talk That Counts. Age, Gender and Social Class Differences in Discourse. Oxford: OUP. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195173819.001.0001
MacWhinney, Brian
2000The CHILDES Project: Tools for Analyzing Talk, 3rd edn. Mahwah NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Maddeaux, Ruth & Dinkin, Aaron J.
2017Is like like like? Evaluating the same variant across multiple variables. Linguistics Vanguard, 3(1). Online. https://doi.org/10.1515/lingvan‑2015‑0032
Maegaard, Marie
2010Linguistic practice and stereotypes among Copenhagen adolescents. In Multilingual Urban Scandinavia: New Linguistic Practices, Pia Quist & Bente A. Svendsen (eds), 189–206. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
Mair, Christian & Leech, Geoffrey
2006Current changes in English syntax. In The Handbook of English Linguistics, Bas Aarts & April McMahon (eds), 318–342. Malden MA: Blackwell. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470753002.ch14
Maschler, Yael
2001aOn the grammaticalization of of ke’ilu ‘like’ in Hebrew talk-in-interaction. Language in Society 31(2): 243–276.
2001b Veke’ilu haragláyim sh’xa nitka’ot bifním kaze (‘and like your feet get stuck inside like’): Hebrew kaze (‘like’), ke’ilu (‘like’), and the decline of Israeli dugri (‘direct’) speech. Discourse Studies 3(3): 295–326. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461445601003003003
Matsumoto, Yo
1988From bound grammatical markers to free discourse markers: History of some Japanese connectives. In Proceedings of the Fourteenth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, Shelley Axmaker, Annie Jaisser & Helen Singmaster (eds), 340–351. Berkeley CA: Berkeley Linguistics Society.
Mauranen, Anna
2004 They’re a little bit different…: observations on hedges in academic talk. In Patterns in Spoken and Written Corpora [Pragmatics & Beyond New Series 120], Karin Aijmer & Anna-Britta Stenström (eds), 173–197. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.120.12mau
McCafferty, Kevin & Amador-Moreno, Carolina P.
In preparation. . The Corpus of Irish English Correspondence. Bergen & Cáceres: University of Bergen and University of Extremadura.
Meehan, Theresa
1991It’s like, ‘What’s happening in the evolution of like?’: A theory of grammaticalization. Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics 16: 37–51.
Megerdoomian, Karine
2008Parallel nominal and verbal projections. In Foundational Issues in Linguistic Theory: Essays in Honor of Jean-Roger Vergnaud, Robert Freidin, Carlos Otero & Maria-Luisa Zubizaretta (eds), 73–103. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press. https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/9780262062787.003.0005
Meillet, Antoine
1948 [1912]Linguistique Historique et Linguistique Générale. Paris: Édouard Champion.
Méndez-Naya, Belén
2003On intensifiers and grammaticalization: The case of swiÞe. English Studies 84(4): 372–391. https://doi.org/10.1076/enst.84.4.372.17388
Meyerhoff, Miriam
2002All the same? The emergence of complementizers in Bislama. In Reported Discourse: A Meeting Ground for Different Linguistic Domains [Typological Studies in Language 52], Tom Güldemann & Manfred von Roncador (eds), 341–359. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.52.21mey
Meyerhoff, Miriam & Niedzielski, Nancy
1998The syntax and semantics of olsem in Bislama. In Recent Papers in Austronesian Linguistics, Matthew Pearson (ed.), UCLA Occasional Papers in Linguistics 20(1): 235–243.
Meyerhoff, Miriam, & Niedzielski, Nancy
2003The globalisation of vernacular variation. Journal of Sociolinguistics 7(4): 534–555. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467‑9841.2003.00241.x
Miller, Jim
2009 Like and other discourse markers. In Comparative Studies in Australian and New Zealand English: Grammar and Beyond [Varieties of English around the World G39], Pam Peters, Peter Collins & Adam Smith (eds), 317–338. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/veaw.g39.18mil
Miller, Jim & Weinert, Regina
1995The function of like in dialogue. Journal of Pragmatics 23(4): 365–393. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378‑2166(94)00044‑F
1998Spontaneous Spoken Language: Syntax and Discourse. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Miller, Karen
2013Acquisition of variable rules: /s/-lenition in the speech of Chilean Spanish-speaking children and their caregivers. Language Variation and Change 25(3): 311–340. https://doi.org/10.1017/S095439451300015X
Miller, Karen & Schmitt, Cristina
2010Effects of variable input in the acquisition of plural in two dialects of Spanish. Lingua 120(5): 1178–1193. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2008.05.009
Milroy, Lesley
2004Language ideologies and linguistic change. In Sociolinguistic Variation: Critical Reflections, Carmen Fought (ed.), 161–177. Oxford: OUP.
Milroy, Lesley, Milroy, James, Docherty, Gerry, Foulkes, Paul & Walshaw, David
1999Phonological variation and change in contemporary English: Evidence from Newcastle-upon-Tyne and Derby. Cuadernos de Filología Inglesa 8: 35–46.
Moore, Collette
2002Reporting direct speech in Early Modern slander depositions. In Studies in the History of the English Language: A Millennial Perspective, Donka Minkova & Robert P. Stockwell (eds), 339–416. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110197143.3.399
2011Quoting Speech in Early English. Cambridge: CUP.
Moreno Ayora, Antonio
1991Sintaxis y Semántica de ‘como’. Málaga: España Librería Agora.
Munn, Alan Boag
1993Topics in the Syntax and Semantics of Coordinate Structures. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland.
1999First conjunct agreement: Against a clausal analysis. Linguistic Inquiry 4(1): 643–668. https://doi.org/10.1162/002438999554246
Nestor, Niamh
2013The positional distribution of discourse like: a case study of young poles in Ireland. In Linguistic and Cultural Acquisition in a Migrant Community, David Singleton, Vera Regan & Ewelina Debaene (eds), 49–72. Bristol: Mutlilingual Matters.
Nestor, Niamh, Ní Chasaide, Caitríona & Regan, Vera
2012Discourse like and identity poles in Ireland. In New Perspectives on Irish English [Varieties of English around the World G44], Bettina Migge & Máire Ní Chiosáin (eds), 327–354. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/veaw.g44.16nes
Nestor, Niamh & Regan, Vera
2015The significance of age and place of residence in the positional distribution of discourse like in L2 speech. In Amador-Moreno et al. (eds), 408–432.
Nevalainen, Terttu & Raumolin-Brunberg, Helena
2003Historical Sociolinguistics: Language Change in Tudor and Stuart England. London: Longman.
Nevalainen, Terttu & Rissanen, Matti
2002Fairly pretty or pretty fair? On the development and grammaticalization of English downtoners. Language Sciences 24. 359–380. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0388‑0001(01)00038‑9
Noël, Dirk
2007Diachronic construction grammar and grammaticalization theory. Functions of Language 14(2): 177–202. https://doi.org/10.1075/fol.14.2.04noe
Norde, Muriel
2009Degrammaticalization. Oxford: OUP. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199207923.001.0001
Ocampo, Francisco
2006Movement towards discourse is not grammaticalization: The evolution of claro from adjective to discourse particle in spoken Spanish. In Selected Proceedings of the 9th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium, Nuria Sagarra & Almeida Jacqueline Toribio (eds), 308–319. Somerville MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
Odato, Christopher V.
2010Children’s Development of Knowledge and Beliefs about English Like(s). PhD dissertation, University of Michigan.
2013The development of children’s use of discourse like in peer interaction. American Speech 88(2): 117–143. https://doi.org/10.1215/00031283‑2346825
OED2. The Oxford English Dictionary
1989 2nd edn. 20 Vols. Oxford: Clarendon.
Old Bailey Proceedings Online
2015 version 7.2. oldbaileyonline.org (19 July 2016).
Onodera, Noriko
1995Diachronic analysis of Japanese discourse markers. In Historical Pragmatics: Pragmatic Developments in the History of English [Pragmatics & Beyond New Series 35], Andreas Jucker (ed.), 393–437. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.35.22ono
Onraët, Lauren A.
2011English as a Lingua Franca and English in South Africa: Distinctions and Overlap. MA thesis, Stellenbosch University.
Östman, Jan-Ola
1982The symbiotic relationship between pragmatic particles and impromptu speech. In Impromptu Speech: A Symposium, Nils Erik Enkvist (ed.), 147–177. Turku: Åbo Akademi.
Overstreet, Maryann
2014The role of pragmatic function in the grammaticalization of English general extenders. Pragmatics 24(1): 105–129. https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.24.1.05ove
Overstreet, Maryann & Yule, George
1997On being inexplicit and stuff in contemporary American English. Journal of English Linguistics 25(3): 250–258. https://doi.org/10.1177/007542429702500307
Owen, Marion L.
1983Apologies and Remedial Exchanges: A Study of Language Use in Social Interaction. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Pascual, Esther
2006Fictive interaction within the sentence: A communicative type of fictivity in grammar. Cognitive Linguistics 17(2): 245–267. https://doi.org/10.1515/COG.2006.006
Perlmutter, David
1978Impersonal passives and the unaccusative hypothesis. In BLS 4: Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, 157–189. Berkeley CA: BLS.
Pesetsky, David
1982Paths and Categories. PhD dissertation, MIT.
Phillips, Betty
1980Old English an ~ on: A new appraisal. Journal of English Linguistics 14: 20–23. https://doi.org/10.1177/007542428001400103
Pichler, Heike
2010Methods in discourse variation analysis: Reflections on the way forward. Journal of Sociolinguistics 14(5): 581–608. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467‑9841.2010.00455.x
2013The Structure of Discourse-Pragmatic Variation [Studies in Language Variation 13]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/silv.13
(ed.) 2016Discourse-Pragmatic Variation and Change in English: New Methods and Insights. Cambridge: CUP. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107295476
Pichler, Heike & Levey, Stephen
2010Variability in the co-occurrence of discourse features. University of Reading Language Studies Working Papers 2: 17–27.
2011In search of grammaticalization in synchronic dialect data: General extenders in northeast England. English Language and Linguistics 15(3): 441–471. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1360674311000128
Pinson, Mathilde
2009Norme et variation en Anglais contemporain. Étude variationniste de quelques subordonnants: Complémentation de help et like conjonction. PhD dissertation, Université de la Sorbonne Nouvelle, Paris III.
Pintzuk, Susan
1991Phrase Structures in Competition: Variation and Change in Old English Word Order. PhD dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.
1993Verb seconding in Old English: Verb movement to Infl. The Linguistic Review 10(1): 5–35. https://doi.org/10.1515/tlir.1993.10.1.5
1996Cliticization in Old English. In Approaching Second: Second Position Clitics and Related Phenomena, Aaron L. Halpern & Arnold M. Zwicky (eds), 375–409. Stanford CA: CSLI.
1999Phrase Structures in Competition: Variation and Change in Old English Clause Structure. New York NY: Garland.
2003Variationist approaches to syntactic change. In Joseph & Janda (eds), 509–528.
Pintzuk, Susan & Kroch, Anthony
1989The rightward movement of complements and adjuncts in the Old English of Beowulf. Language Variation and Change 1(2): 115–144. https://doi.org/10.1017/S095439450000003X
Podlubny, Ryan G., Geeraert, Kristina & Tucker, Benjamin V.
2015It’s all about, like, acoustics. Proceedings of the 18th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Glasgow, August 2015 <www.internationalphoneticassociation.org/​icphs-proceedings/​ICPhS2015/​Papers/​ICPHS0477.pdf (18 January 2016).
Pollock, Jean-Yves
1989Verb movement, Universal Grammar, and the structure of IP. Linguistic Inquiry 20(3): 365–424.
Poplack, Shana
1980Sometimes I’ll start a sentence in Spanish y termino en espagÑol: Toward a typology of code-switching. Linguistics 18(7–8): 581–618.
2011A variationist perspective on grammaticalization. In The Oxford Handbook of Grammaticalization, Heiko Narrog & Bernd Heine (eds), 209–224. Oxford: OUP.
Poplack, Shana & Tagliamonte, Sali A.
2001African American English in the Diaspora: Tense and Aspect. Malden MA: Blackwell.
Prince, Ellen F.
1981On the inferencing of indefinite this NPs. In Elements of Discourse Understanding, Aravind K. Joshi, Bonnie L. Webber & Ivan A. Sag (eds), 231–250. Cambridge: CUP.
Quirk, Randolph
1972The English Language and Images of Matter. London: OUP.
Quirk, Randolph, Greenbaum, Sidney, Leech, Geoffrey & Svartvik, Jan
1985A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London: Longman.
Ramat, Anna Giacalone, Mauri, Caterina & Molinelli, Piera
(eds) 2013Synchrony and Diachrony: A Dynamic Interface [Studies in Language Companion Series 133]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/slcs.133
Redeker, Gisela
2006Discourse markers as attentional cues at discourse transitions. In Approaches to Discourse Particles, Kerstin Fischer (ed.), 339–358. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Renouf, Antoinette
1993A word in time: First findings from the investigation of dynamic text. In English Language Corpora: Design, Analysis and Exploitation. Papers from the Thirteenth International Conference on English Language Research on Computerized Corpora, Nijmegen 1992, Jan Aarts, Pieter de Haan & Nelleke Oostdijk (eds), 279–288. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
Rickford, John R.
1975Carrying the new wave into syntax: The case of Black English bin. In Analyzing Variation in Language, Ralph W. Fasold & Roger W. Shuy (eds), 162–183. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press.
Roberts, Ian
1998 Have/be raising, move F, and procrastinate. Linguistic Inquiry 29(1): 113–125. https://doi.org/10.1162/002438998553671
Roberts, Ian & Roussou, Anna
2003Syntactic Change: A Minimalist Approach to Grammaticalization. Cambridge: CUP. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511486326
Roberts, Julie
1997aAcquisition of variable rules: A study of (-t,d) deletion in preschool children. Journal of Child Language 24(2): 351–371. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000997003073
1997bHitting a moving target: acquisition of sound change by Philadelphia children. Language Variation and Change 9(2): 249–266. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394500001897
2002Child language acquisition. In Chambers et al. (eds), 333–348.
2005Acquisition of sociolinguistic variation. In Clinical Sociolinguistics, Martin Ball (ed.), 153–164. Oxford: Blackwell. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470754856.ch12
Roberts, Julie & Labov, William
1995Learning to talk Philadelphian: Acquisition of short a by preschool children. Language Variation and Change 7(1): 101–112. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394500000910
Robinson, C. Clough
1876A Glossary of Words Pertaining to the Dialect of Mid-Yorkshire: With Others Peculiare to Lower Nidderdale. Ludgate Hill: Trübner & Co.
Robinson, Philip
2007[1997]Ulster-Scots. A Grammar of the Traditional Written and Spoken Language, 2nd edn. Belfast: The Ullans Press.
Rochemont, Michael & Culicover, Peter
1990English Focus Constructions and the Theory of Grammar. Cambridge: CUP.
Rodríguez Louro, Celeste
2013Quotatives down under: Be like in cross-generational Australian English speech. English World-Wide 34(1): 48–76. https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.34.1.03rod
2016Quotatives across time: West Australian English then and now. In Discourse-Pragmatic Variation and Change in English: New Methods and Insights, Heike Pichler (ed.), 139–159. Cambridge: CUP. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107295476.007
Roeder, Rebecca, Onosson, Sky & D’Arcy, Alexandra
2017Joining the western region: Sociophonetic shift in Victoria. Ms, University of North Carolina at Charlotte and University of Victoria.
Romaine, Suzanne
2008Corpus linguistics and sociolinguistics. In Corpus Linguistics: An International Handbook, Anke Lüdeling & Merja Kytö (eds), 96–111. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Romaine, Suzanne & Lange, Deborah
1991The use of ‘like’ as a marker of reported speech and thought: A case of grammaticalization in progress. American Speech 66(3): 227–279. https://doi.org/10.2307/455799
Rooryck, Johan
2000Configurations of Sentential Complementation: Perspectives from Romance Languages. London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203187654
Ross, J. R. & Cooper, W. E.
1979Like, syntax. In Sentence Processing: Psycholinguistic Studies Presented to Merrill Garrett, William E. Cooper & Edward C. T. Walker (eds), 343–418. Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Russell, Brenda, Perkins, Jenna & Grinnell, Heather
2008Interviewees’ overuse of the word like and hesitations: Effects in simulated hiring decisions. Psychological Reports 102(1): 111–118. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.102.1.111‑118
Said-Mohand, Aixa
2008Aproximación sociolingüística al uso del marcador del discurso como en el habla de jóvenes bilingües en la Florida. Revista Internacional de Lingüística Iberoamericana 2(12): 71–93.
Sams, Jessie
2010Quoting the unspoken: An analysis of quotations in spoken discourse. Journal of Pragmatics 42(11): 3147–3160. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2010.04.024
Sankoff, Gillian
1973Above and beyond phonology in variable rules. In New Ways of Analyzing Variation in English, Charles-James N. Bailey & Roger W. Shuy (eds), 44–62. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press.
Sankoff, Gillian & Blondeau, Hélène
2007Language change across the lifespan: /r/ in Montreal French. Language 83(3): 560–588. https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2007.0106
Sankoff, Gillian, Thibault, Pierette, Nagy, Naomi, Blondeau, Hélène, Fonollosa, Marie-Odile & Gagnon, Lucie
1997Variation in the use of discourse markers in a language contact situation. Language Variation and Change 9(2): 191–217. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394500001873
Santorini, Beatrice
1992Variation and change in Yiddish subordinate clause word order. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 10(4): 595–640. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00133331
1993The rate of phrase structure change in the history of Yiddish. Language Variation and Change 5(3): 257–283. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394500001502
Schiffrin, Deborah
1987Discourse Markers. Cambridge: CUP. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511611841
1992Anaphoric then: Aspectual, textual, and epistemic meaning. Linguistics 30(4): 753–792. https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.1992.30.4.753
Schleef, Erik & Turton, Danielle
2016Sociophonetic variation of like in British dialects. Effects of function, contexts and predictability. English Language and Linguistics.   https://doi.org/10.1017/S136067431600023X
Schneider, Edgar W.
2002Investigating variation and change in written documents. In Chambers et al. (eds), 67–96.
Schourup, Lawrence Clifford
1985Common Discourse Particles in English Conversation. New York NY: Garland.
Schourup, Lawrence
1999Discourse Markers. Lingua 107: 227–265. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0024‑3841(96)90026‑1
Schweinberger, Martin
2012A variational approach towards discourse marker like in Irish-English. In New Perspectives on Irish English [Varieties of English around the World G44], Bettina Migge & Máire Ní Chiosáin (eds), 179–202. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/veaw.g44.09sch
2013A sociolinguistic analysis of discourse marker like in Northern Ireland. A look behind the scenes at quantitative reasoning. In New Approaches to the Analysis of Linguistic Variability, Markus Bieswanger & Amei Koll-Stobbe (eds), 13–39. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.
2015The Discourse Marker like: A Corpus-based Analysis of Selected Varieties of English, 2nd revised version. PhD dissertation, University of Hamburg.
Siegel, Muffy
2002 Like: The discourse particle and semantics. Journal of Semantics 19(1): 35–71. https://doi.org/10.1093/jos/19.1.35
Siemund, Peter, Maier, Georg & Schweinberger, Martin
2009Towards a more fine-grained analysis of the areal distributions of non-standard features of English. In Language Contacts Meet English Dialects: Studies in Honour of Markku Filppula, Esa Pentillä & Heli Paulasto, 19–46. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars.
Sinclair, John
1992The automatic analysis of corpora. In Directions in Corpus Linguistics. Proceedings of Nobel Symposium 82, Stockholm 1991, Jan Svartvik (ed.), 379–397. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110867275.379
Singler, John V.
2001Why you can’t do a VARBRUL study of quotatives and what such a study can show us. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics 7(3): 257–278.
Smith, Jennifer, Durham, Mercedes, & Fortune, Liane
2007 Mam, ma trousers is fa’in doon! Community, caregiver, and child in the acquisition of variation in a Scottish dialect. Language Variation and Change 19(1): 63–99. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394507070044
2009Universal and dialect-specific pathways of acquisition: caregivers, children, and t/d deletion. Language Variation and Change 21(1): 69–95. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394509000039
Speas, Peggy, & Tenny, Carol
2003Configurational properties of point of view roles. In Asymmetry in Grammar, Vol. 1 [Linguistik Aktuell/Linguistics Today 57], Anna Maria Di Sciullo (ed.), 315–343. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/la.57.15spe
Stenström, Anna-Brita, Andersen, Gisle, Hasund, Kristine, Monstad, Kristine & Aas, Hanne
1998User’s Manual to Accompany the Bergen Corpus of London Teenage Language (COLT). Bergen: Department of English at the University of Bergen.
Strang, Barbara
1968The Tyneside Linguistic Survey. Zeitschrift fuer Mundartforschung, Neue Folge 4: 788–794.
Stubbe, Maria & Holmes, Janet
1995‘You know’, ‘eh’ and other “exasperating expressions”: An analysis of social and stylistic variation in the use of pragmatic devices in a sample of New Zealand English. Language and Communication 15(1): 63–88. https://doi.org/10.1016/0271‑5309(94)00016‑6
Szmrecsanyi, Benedikt
2017Variationist sociolinguistics and corpus-based variationist linguistics: Overlap and cross-pollination potential. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 62(4).
Tagliamonte, Sali A.
1996–1998Roots of identity: Variation and grammaticalization in contemporary British English. Research Grant. . #R00238287.
Tagliamonte, Sali
1998 Was/were variation across the generations: View from the city of York. Language Variation and Change 10(2): 153–191. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394500001277
2001 Come/came variation in English dialects. American Speech 76(1): 42–61. https://doi.org/10.1215/00031283‑76‑1‑42
2001–2003Back to the roots: The legacy of British dialects. Research Grant. . #R00239097.
Tagliamonte, Sali A.
2003–2006Linguistic changes in Canada entering the 21st century. Research Grant. . #410–2003–0005.
2006 So cool, right? Canadian English entering the 21st century. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 51(2–3): 309–331. https://doi.org/10.1353/cjl.2008.0018
2007–2010Directions of change in Canadian English. Research Grant. . #410–070–048.
2012Variationist Sociolinguistics: Change, Observation, Interpretation. Malden MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
2013Roots of English: Exploring the History of Dialects. Cambridge: CUP.
2016aAntecedents of innovation: Exploring general extenders in conservative dialects. In Discourse-Pragmatic Variation and Change in English: New Methods and Insights, Heike Pichler (ed.), 115–138. Cambridge: CUP. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107295476.006
2016bTeen Talk: The Language of Adolescents. Cambridge: CUP. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139583800
Tagliamonte, Sali A. & D’Arcy, Alex
2004 He’s like, she’s like: The quotative system in Canadian youth. Journal of Sociolinguistics 8(4): 493–514. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467‑9841.2004.00271.x
Tagliamonte, Sali A. & D’Arcy, Alexandra
2007Frequency and variation in the community grammar: Tracking a new change through the generations. Language Variation and Change 19(2): 199–217. https://doi.org/10.1017/S095439450707007X
2009Peaks beyond phonology: Adolescence, incrementation, and language change. Language 85(1): 58–108. https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.0.0084
Tagliamonte, Sali A., D’Arcy, Alexandra, Rodríguez Louro, Celeste
2016Outliers, impact, and rationalization in linguistic change. Language 92(4): 824–849. https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2016.0074
Tagliamonte, Sali A. & Denis, Derek
2014Expanding the transmission/diffusion dichotomy: Evidence from Canada. Language 90(1): 90–136. https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2014.0016
Tagliamonte, Sali & Hudson, Rachel
1999 Be like et al. beyond America: The quotative system in British and Canadian youth. Journal of Sociolinguistics 3(2): 147–172. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467‑9481.00070
Tagliamonte, Sali & Smith, Jennifer
2002Either it isn’t or it’s not: neg/aux contraction in British dialects. English World-Wide 23(2): 251–281. https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.23.2.05tag
Tannen, Deborah
1986Introducing constructed dialogue in Greek and American conversational and literary narratives. In Direct and Indirect Speech, Florian Coulmas (ed.), 311–322. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110871968.311
2007Talking Voices: Repetition, Dialogue, and Imagery in Conversational Discourse, 2nd edn. Cambridge: CUP. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511618987
Taylor, Ann
1994The change from SOV to SVO in Ancient Greek. Language Variation and Change 6(1): 1–37. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394500001563
Torres Cacoullos, Rena & Walker, James A.
2009On the persistence of grammar in discourse formulas: a variationist study of that. Linguistics 47(1): 1–43. https://doi.org/10.1515/LING.2009.001
2011Collocations in grammaticalization and variation. In The Oxford Handbook of Grammaticalization, Bernd Heine & Heiko Narrog (eds), 225–238. Oxford: OUP.
Tracy, Marc
2013Linguist says you can use ‘like’ more. He’s, like, wrong. New Republic. newrepublic.com/​article/​115440/​linguist-says-you-can-use-more-hes-wrong (29 January 2016).
Traugott, Elizabeth Closs
1982From propositional to textual and expressive meanings: some semantic-pragmatic aspects of grammaticalization. In Perspectives on Historical Linguistics [Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 24], Winfred P. Lehmann & Yakov Malkiel (eds), 245–267. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.24.09clo
1997aThe role of the development of discourse markers in a theory of grammaticalization. Paper at Twelfth International Conference on Historical Linguistics, Manchester, U.K. 1995. www.stanford.edu/​~traugott/​ect-papersonline.html (11 April 2016).
1997bThe discourse connective ‘after all’: A historical pragmatic account. Paper presented at the Sixteenth International Congress of Linguists, Paris.
2003Constructions in grammaticalization. In Joseph & Janda (eds), 624–647.
Traugott, Elizabeth Closs, & Dasher, Richard B.
2002Regularity in Semantic Change. Cambridge: CUP.
Traugott, Elizabeth Closs & Heine, Bernd
(eds) 1991Approaches to Grammaticalization, 2 Vols [Typological Studies in Language 19]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Traugott, Elizabeth Closs & König, Ekkehard
1991The semantics-pragmatics of grammaticalization revisited. In Traugott & Heine (eds), Vol. 1;189–218.
Truesdale, Sarah & Meyerhoff, Miriam
2015Acquiring some like-ness to others: How some Polish teenagers acquire the Scottish pragmatics of like. Te Reo 58: 3–28.
Tummers, José, Heylen, Kris & Geeraerts, Dirk
2005Usage-based approaches in Cognitive Linguistics: A technical state of the art. Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory 1(2): 225–261. https://doi.org/10.1515/cllt.2005.1.2.225
Underhill, Robert
1988Like is like, Focus. American Speech 63(3): 234–246. https://doi.org/10.2307/454820
Underwood, Geoffrey, Schmitt, Norbert & Galpin, Adam
2004The eyes have it: An eye-movement study into the processing of formulaic sequences. In Formulaic Sequences [Language Learning & Language Teaching 9], Norbert Schmitt (ed.), 153–172. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.9.09und
Valentine, Tamara M.
1991Getting the message across: Discourse markers in Indian English. World Englishes 10(3): 325–334. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467‑971X.1991.tb00167.x
Vandelanotte, Lieven
2009Speech and Thought Representation in English: A Cognitive-Functional Approach. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110215373
2012Quotative go and be like: grammar and grammaticalization. In Buchstaller & van Alphen (eds), 173–202.
Vandelanotte, Lieven & Davidse, Kristen
2009The emergence and structure of be like and related quotatives: A constructional approach. Cognitive Linguistics 20(4): 777–807. https://doi.org/10.1515/COGL.2009.032
Van Lancker Sidtis, Diana
2012Formulaic language and language disorders. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 32(1): 62–80. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190512000104
Vincent, Diane
1986Que fait la sociolinguistique avec l’analyse du discourse et vice-versa. Language et Société 38(1): 7–17. https://doi.org/10.3406/lsoc.1986.2069
1992The sociolinguistics of exemplification in spoken French in Montreal. Language Variation and Change 4(2): 137–162. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394500000727
Vincent, Diane & Dubois, Sylvie
1996A study of the use of reported speech in spoken language. In Sociolinguistic Variation: Data, Theory, and Analysis, Jennifer Arnold, Renée Blake, Brad Davidson, Scott Schwenter & Julie Solomon (eds), 361–374. Stanford CA: CSLI.
Vincent, Diane & Sankoff, David
1992Punctors: A pragmatic variable. Language Variation and Change 4(2): 205–216. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394500000752
Visser, F. T.
1970An Historical Syntax of the English Language, Part 1: Syntactical Units with One Verb, 2nd edn. Leiden: Brill.
Wang, William S.-Y.
1977The Lexicon in Phonological Change. The Hague: Mouton de Gruyter. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110802399
Watt, Dominic & Milroy, Lesley
1999Patterns of variation and change in three Newcastle vowels: Is this dialect levelling? In Urban Voices: Accent Studies in the British Isles, Paul Foulkes & Gerard Docherty (eds), 25–46. London: Arnold.
Webster, Noah
1831Rudiments of English Grammar; Being an Abridgement of the Improved Grammar of the English Language. New Haven CT: Durrie & Peck.
Weinreich, Uriel, Labov, William & Herzog, Marvin I.
1968Empirical foundations for a theory of language change. In Directions for Historical Linguistics, W. P. Lehmann, & Yakov Malkiel (eds), 95–195. Austin TX: University of Texas Press.
Wentworth, Harold & Flexner, Stuart Berg
1967Dictionary of American Slang. London: George G. Harap & Co.
. no date. How to stop saying the word ‘like’: 10 steps. www.wikihow.com/​Stop-Saying-the-Word-%22Like%22 (29 January 2016).
Wilson, Kenneth G.
1987Van Winkle’s Return: Change in American English, 1966–1986. Hanover: University Press of New England.
Wiltschko, Martina
2014The Universal Structure of Categories. Toward a Formal Typology. Cambridge: CUP. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139833899
Wiltschko, Martina, Denis, Derek & D’Arcy, Alexandra
2017Deconstructing variation in pragmatic function: A transdisciplinary case study. Ms, University of British Columbia and University of Victoria.
Wiltschko, Martina & Heim, Johannes
2016The syntax of confirmationals: A neo-performative analysis. In Outside the Clause: Form and Function of Extra-Clausal Constituents [Studies in Language Companion Series 178], Gunther Kaltenböck, Evelien Keizer & Arne Lohmann (eds), 303–340. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/slcs.178.11wil
Wischer, Ilse
2000Grammaticalization versus lexicalization. ‘Methinks’ there is some confusion. In Pathways of Change: Grammaticalization in English [Studies in Language Companion Series 53], Olga Fischer, Anette Rosenbach & Dieter Stein (eds), 355–370. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/slcs.53.17wis
Wootton, Anthony J.
1981The management of grantings and rejections by parents in request sequences. Semiotica 37: 59–89. https://doi.org/10.1515/semi.1981.37.1‑2.59
Wray, Alison
2002Formulaic Language and the Lexicon. Cambridge: CUP. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511519772
Wright, Joseph
(ed.) 1902The English Dialect Dictionary. London: Frowde.
Youssef, Valerie
1991Variation as a feature of language acquisition in the Trinidad context. Language Variation and Change 3(1): 75–101. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394500000454
Zwicky, Arnold M.
2005More Illusions. Language Log. itre.cis.upenn.edu/​~myl/​languagelog/​archives/​002407.html (9 February 2016).
Cited by

Cited by other publications

Drummond, Rob
2018.  In Researching Urban Youth Language and Identity,  pp. 59 ff. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73462-0_4
Roeder, Rebecca, Sky Onosson & Alexandra D’Arcy
2018. Joining the Western Region: Sociophonetic Shift in Victoria. Journal of English Linguistics  pp. 007542421775398 ff. https://doi.org/10.1177/0075424217753987

This list is based on CrossRef data as of 10 may 2018. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.