Chapter published in:Space in Diachrony
Edited by Silvia Luraghi, Tatiana Nikitina and Chiara Zanchi
[Studies in Language Companion Series 188] 2017
► pp. 179–206
A diachronic take on the Source–Goal asymmetry
Evidence from inner Asia Minor Greek
A bulk of typological and crosslinguistic evidence on the internal structure of motion events has shown that Goals and Sources behave asymmetrically. This asymmetry exhibits several morphosyntactic and semantic realizations: Goal markers are morphologically simpler than Source markers; there tend to be more fine-grained semantic distinctions within the Goal domain than within the Source domain, leading to higher numbers of markers for the encoding of Goal than of Source (type level); Goals are more frequently zero-marked than Sources; and, Goal relations are encoded more frequently in discourse (token level). In this chapter, we report similar imbalances in the behavior of Sources and Goals in inner Asia Minor Greek. We find that Goal markers are more numerous than markers denoting Source and that Goal paths are more often explicitly expressed in discourse. Additionally, we test the diachronic validity of these findings, which have been reached on the basis of mostly synchronic investigations, by examining the historical developments that the Modern Greek dialects of inner Asia Minor underwent in the formal expression of Goal and Source. We analyze the (a)symmetrical relations that hold between the two locative roles as evidenced by the qualitative and quantitative use of the prepositions se ‘to, at’, os ‘up to, until’, tʃax/tʃáus ‘up to, until’, and apó ‘from’, focusing specifically on the implications that the diachronic loss of se, the most frequent Goal marker, had for the spatial system of inner Asia Minor Greek. Our analysis shows that overt Goal markers remain morphologically less complex than Source markers across diachronic stages; and, that the Goal marker develops into a zero marker earlier than the Source marker. These findings support the Goal-over-Source predominance hypothesis. However, our analysis also indicates that the asymmetry could under certain circumstances work in the opposite direction.
Keywords: Source–Goal asymmetry, spatial zeroes, adpositions, Asia Minor Greek, Cappadocian, Silliot
Published online: 14 August 2017
Andriotis, Nikolaos P.
2016 Ki as a spurious complementizer in Pharasiot Greek. Paper presented at the 12th International Conference on Greek Linguistics, Freie Universität Berlin, 16–19 September 2015.
Dawkins, Richard M.
Dressler, Wolfgang U. & Acson, Veneeta
1985 On the diachrony of subtractive operations: evidence for semiotically based models of Natural Phonology and Natural Morphology from Northern and Anatolian Greek dialects. In Papers from the 6th International Conference on Historical Linguistics [Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 34], Jacek Fisiak (ed.), 105–128. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Fillmore, Charles J.
Fosteris, Dimitrios & Kesisoglou, Ioannis I.
2008 Ps in Motion: On the Semantics and Syntax of P lements and Motion Events. PhD dissertation, Utrecht University.
2013 The source–goal asymmetry in Ancient Greek motion events. Paper presented at the 21st International Conference on Historical Linguistics, University of Oslo, 5–9 August.
Georgakopoulos, Thanasis & Sioupi, Athina
2007 Vasika topika epirimata se ilektronika somata kimenon: Prokatarktikes paratirisis (Βασικά τοπικά επιρρήματα σε ηλεκτρονικά σώματα κειμένων: προκαταρκτικές παρατηρήσεις) (Basic local adverbs in electronic corpora: Preliminary observations). In Glossikos Periplous: Meletes afieromenes sti Dimitra Theophanopoulou-Kontou, Tomeas Glossologias, Panepistimiou Athinon (ed), 36–46. Athens: Kardamitsa (Καρδαμίτσα).
Huddleston, Rodney & Pullum, Geoffrey K.
1999 Greek, Turkish and Cappadocian relatives revis(it)ed. In Ελληνική Γλωσσολογία: Πρακτικά του 3ου Διεθνούς Γλωσσολογικού Συνεδρίου για την Ελληνική Γλώσσα (Greek Linguistics: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Greek Linguistics), Amalia Moser (ed), 453–462. Athens: Ellinika Grammata (Ελληνικά Γράμματα).
2003 Palio krasi se kainourgia askia: Tourkoellinika “anaforika” stin kentriki Mikrasia (Παλιό κρασί σε καινούρια ασκιά: τουρκοελληνικά «αναφορικά» στην κεντρική Μικρασία) [Old wine in new skins: Turkish-Greek “relatives” in Central Asia Minor]. In Neoelliniki Dialektologia 4: Praktika tou Tetartou Diethnous Synedriou Neoellinikis Dialektologias (Νεοελληνική Διαλεκτολογία 4: Πρακτικά του Τέταρου Διεθνούς Συνεδρίου Νεοελληνικής Διαλεκτολογίας) (Modern Greek Dialectology 4: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference of Modern Greek Dialectology), 173–182. Athens: Etaireia Neoellinikis Dialektologias (Εταιρεία Νεοελληνικής Διαλεκτολογίας).
Johnston, Judith R. & Slobin, Dan I.
2011a A Study of Cappadocian Greek Nominal Morphology from a Diachronic and Dialectological Perspective. PhD dissertation, University of Cambridge.
Karatsareas, Petros & Georgakopoulos, Thanasis
Kesisoglou, Ioannis I.
Kopecka, Anetta & Narasimhan, Bhuvana
Kostakis, Thanasis P.
Lakusta, Laura M.
2005 Source and Goal Asymmetry in Non-linguistic Motion Event Representations. PhD disseration, Johns Hopkins University.
Lakusta, Laura M. & Landau, Barbara
Landau, Barbara & Zukowski, Andrea
2010 The Space of Case. PhD dissertation, Romboud University Nijmegen.
2014 Modal markers in Pontic and Cappadocian: Disentangling the evidences. Paper presented at the 6th International Conference on Modern Greek Dialects and Linguistic Theory, University of Patras, 25–28 September.
Mavrochalyvidis, Georgios & Kesisoglou, Ioannis I.
2004 Goal and source: Asymmetry in their syntax and semantics. Paper presented at the Workshop on Event Structures in Linguistic Form and Interpretation, Universität Leipzig, Germany, 17–19 March.
2014 The many ways to find the “right” and “left”: On dynamic projection models in the encoding of spatial relations. In Proceedings of the 38th Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, Christine Sheil, Florian Carpenter Lionnet, Kim Kayla, David Kyung-ah, Tammy Stark Oana & Vivian Wauters (eds), 338–354. Berkeley CA: BLS.
Nikitina, Tatiana & Spano, Marianna
2016 To rimatiko epithima -(i)sk stin Kappadokiki (Το ρηματικό επίθημα -(ι)σκ στην Καππαδοκική) (The verbal suffix -(ι)σκ in Cappadocian). Proceedings of the 6th Modern Greek Dialects and Linguistic Theory Meeting (MGDLT6), Patras, 25–28 September 2014, 133–142. Patras: University of Patras.
Rice, Sandra & Kabata, Kaori
Stefanowitsch, Anatol & Rohde, Ada
Stolz, Thomas, Lestrade, Sander & Stolz, Christel
Thomason, Sarah Grey & Kaufman, Terrence
Cited by 2 other publications
Kopecka, Anetta & Marine Vuillermet
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 20 october 2021. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.