Chapter published in:
Functionalist and Usage-based Approaches to the Study of Language: In honor of Joan L. Bybee
Edited by K. Aaron Smith and Dawn Nordquist
[Studies in Language Companion Series 192] 2018
► pp. 127153


Abramowicz, Łukasz
2007Sociolinguistics meets Exemplar Theory: Frequency and recency effects in (ing). Papers from NWAV 35. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics 13(2): 27–37.Google Scholar
Amastae, Jon
1989The intersection of s-aspiration/deletion and spirantization in Honduran Spanish. Language Variation and Change, 1, 169–183. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Amastae, J.
(1995) Variable spirantization: constraint weighting in three dialects. Hispanic Linguistics, 6, 267–286.Google Scholar
Barrutía, Richard & Schwegler, Armin
1994Fonética y fonología españolas. New York NY: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
Bates, Douglas, Maechler, Martin, Bolker, Ben & Walker, Steven
2015lme4: Linear Mixed-Effects Models Using Eigen and S4. R package version 1.1–10. http://​CRAN​.R​-project​.org​/package​=lme4
Boersma, Paul & Weenink, David
2005Praat: Doing Phonetics by Computer, version 5.2.18 [Computer program]. http://​www​.praat​.org (1 March 2011).
Browman, Catherine P. & Goldstein, Louis
1992Articulatory phonology: An overview. Phonetica 49:155–180. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Brown, Earl
2008A Usage-based Account of Syllable- and Word-final /s/ Reduction in Four Dialects of Spanish. PhD dissertation, University of New Mexico.Google Scholar
Brown, Earl K. & Brown, Esther L.
2012Syllable-final and syllable-initial /s/ reduction in Cali, Colombia: One variable or two? In Linguistic Studies in Colombian Varieties of Spanish, Richard File-Muriel & Rafael Orozco (eds), 89–106. Madrid: Iberoamericana.Google Scholar
Brown, Esther L.
2013Word classes in studies of phonological variation: Conditioning factors or epiphenomena? In Selected Proceedings of the 15th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium, Chad Howe, Sarah Blackwell & Margaret Lubbers Quesada (eds), 179–186). Somerville MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.Google Scholar
2015The role of discourse context frequency in phonological variation: A usage-based approach to bilingual speech production. International Journal of Bilingualism 19: 387–406. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Brown, Esther L. & Raymond, William D.
2012How discourse context shapes the lexicon: Explaining the distribution of Spanish f-/h- words. Diachronica 29(2): 139–161. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2014Contextual frequency effects in Spanish phonology. Paper presented at the Georgetown University Round Table, Washington DC, March.
Bybee, Joan L.
1999Usage-based phonology. In Functionalism and Formalism in Linguistics, Vol. 1 [Studies in Language Companion Series 41], Michael Darnell, Edith Moravcsik, Frederick J. Newmeyer, Michael Noonan & Kathleen Wheatly (eds), 212–242. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2001Phonology and language use. Cambridge: CUP. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2002Word frequency and context of use in the lexical diffusion of phonetically conditioned sound change. Language Variation and Change 14: 261–290. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2010Language, Usage and Cognition. Cambridge: CUP. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2012Patterns of lexical diffusion and articulatory motivations for sound change. In The Initiation of Sound Change: Perception, Production, and Social Factors [Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 323], Maria Josep Solé & Daniel Recasens (eds), 211–234. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Canfield, D. Lincoln
1981Spanish Pronunciation in the Americas. Chicago IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Carrasco, Patricio, Hualde, José Ignacio & Simonet, Miquel
2012Dialectal differences in Spanish voiced obstruent allophony: Costa Rican vs. Iberian Spanish. Phonetica 69: 149–179. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Cole, Jennifer, Hualde, José Ignacio & Iskarous, Khalil
1999Effects of prosodic and segmental context on /g/-lenition in Spanish. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Linguistics and Phonetics Conference, Osamu Fujimura, Brian D. Joseph & Bohomil Palek (eds), 575–589. Thessaloniki: University Studio Press.Google Scholar
Davies, Mark
2002– Corpus del Español (100 million words, 1200s-1900s), http://​www​.corpusdelespanol​.org
Drager, Katie & Kirtley, Joelle
2016Awareness, salience, and stereotypes in Exemplar-Based models of speech production and perception. In Awareness and Control in Sociolinguistic Research, Anna Babel (ed.), 1–24. Cambridge: CUP. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Eddington, D.
2011What are the contextual phonetic variants of /β ð ɣ/ in colloquial Spanish. Probus 23: 1–19. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Eddington, David, & Channer, Caitlin
2010American English has go? a lo? of glottal stops: Social diffusion and linguistic motivation. American Speech 85: 338–351. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ernestus, Mirjam
2014Acoustic reduction and the roles of abstractions and exemplars in speech processing. Lingua 142: 27–41. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Foulkes, Paul & Hay, Jennifer B.
2015The emergence of sociophonetic structure. In The Handbook of Language Emergence, Brian MacWhinney & William O’Grady (eds), 292–313. Malden MA: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
Fowler, Carol
2005Compensation for coarticulation reflects gesture perception, not spectral contrast. Perception and Psychophysics 68(2): 161–77. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Gahl, Susanne
2008“Thyme” and “time” are not homophones: The effect of lemma frequency on word durations in spontaneous speech. Language 84: 474–496. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Gries, Stefan T.
2012Introduction. In Frequency Effects in Language Learning and Processing, Stefan T. Gries & Dagmar Divjak (eds), 1–6. The Hague: Mouton de Gruyter. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Guy, Gregory R.
2014Linking usage and grammar: Generative phonology, exemplar theory, and variable rules. Lingua 142: 57–65. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Harper, David
2014An Analysis of Perceptual Factors in the Evolution of Spanish Approximants. PhD dissertation, University of Colorado, Boulder CO.Google Scholar
Hay, J., & Foulkes, P.
(2016) The evolution of medial /t/ over real and remembered time. Language, 92(2), 298–330.Google Scholar
Hinskens, Frans, Hermans, Ben & van Oostendorp, Marc
2014Grammar or lexicon. Or: Grammar and lexicon? Rule-based and usage-based approaches to phonological variation. Lingua 142: 1–26. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hualde, José Ignacio, Simonet, Miquel & Nadeu, Marianna
2011Consonant lenition and phonological recategorization. Laboratory Phonology 2(2): 301–329. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, Keith
1997Speech perception without speaker normalization: An exemplar model. In Talker Variability in Speech Processing, Keith Johnson & John W. Mullennix (eds), 145–165. San Diego CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Jurafsky, Daniel, Bell, Alan, Fosler-Lussier, Eric, Girand, Cynthia & Raymond, William D.
1998Reduction of English function words in Switchboard. Proceedings of the International Conference on Spoken Language Processing 7: 3111–3114.Google Scholar
Jurafsky, Daniel, Bell, Alan, Gregory, Michelle & Raymond, William D.
2001aThe effect of language model probability on pronunciation reduction. Proceedings of ICASSP-01 2: 801–804.Google Scholar
2001bProbabilistic relations between words: Evidence from reduction in lexical production. In Frequency and the Emergence of Linguistic Structure [Typological Studies in Language 45], Joan L. Bybee & Paul Hopper (eds), 229–254. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lipski, John
1994Latin American Spanish. London: Longman.Google Scholar
2011Socio-phonological variation in Latin American Spanish. In The Handbook of Hispanic Sociolinguistics, Manuel Díaz-Campos (ed.), 72–97. Malden MA: Blackwell. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Martínez-Gil, Fernando
2014Main phonological processes. In The Handbook of Hispanic Linguistics, José Ignacio Hualde, Antxon Olarrea & Erin O’Rourke (eds), 111–132. Malden MA: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
Méndez Dosuna, Julian
1985La duración de S en los grupos SP, ST, SK: A propósito del orden regular de difusión en algunos cambios fonéticos. In Symbolae Ludovico Mitxelena Septuagenario Oblatae, Jose L. Melena (ed.), 647–655. Vitoria: Universidad del Pais Vasco.Google Scholar
Nielsen, Kuniko
2011Specificity and abstractness of VOT imitation. Journal of Phonetics 39: 132–142. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ortega-Llebaria, M.
2004Interplay between phonetic and inventory constraints in the degree of spirantization of voiced stops: Comparing intervocalic /b/ and intervocalic /g/ in Spanish and English. In Laboratory Approaches to Spanish Phonology [Phonology and Phonetics 7], Timothy L. Face (ed.), 237–253. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Phillips, Betty S.
2006Word Frequency and Lexical Diffusion. New York NY: Palgrave Macmillan. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Pierrehumbert, Janet B.
2001Exemplar dynamics: Word frequency, lenition, and contrast. In Bybee & Hopper (eds), 137–157. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
R Development Core Team
2012R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. http://​www​.R​-project​.org/ (1 April 2011).
Raymond, William D., Dautricourt, Robin & Hume, Elizabeth
2006Word-medial /t-d/ deletion in spontaneous speech: Modeling the effects of extra-linguistic, lexical, and phonological factors. Language Variation and Change 18: 55–97. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Raymond, William D. & Brown, Esther L.
2012Are effects of word frequency effects of context of use? An analysis of initial fricative reduction in Spanish. In Frequency Effects in Language, Vol 2: Learning and Processing, Stefan T. Gries & Dagmar S. Divjak (eds), 35–52. The Hague: Mouton de Gruyter. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
In preparation. Cumulative contextual effects on initial /d-/ articulations in Spanish.
Raymond, William D., Brown, Esther L. & Healy, Alice
2016Cumulative context effects and variant lexical representations: Word use and English final t/d deletion. Language Variation and Change 28: 175–202. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Recasens, Daniel
2016The effect of contextual consonants on voiced stop lenition: Evidence from Catalan. Language and Speech 59: 139–161. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Tagliamonte, Sali
2006Analysing Sociolinguistic Variation. Cambridge: CUP. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Tamminga, Meredith J.
2014Persistence in the Production of Linguistic Variation. PhD dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
Terrell, Tracy
1979Final /s/ in Cuban Spanish. Hispania 62: 599–612. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Teschner, Richard V.
2000Camino oral: Fonética, fonología y práctica de los sonidos del español, 2nd edn. New York NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
Waltermire, Mark
2010Variants of intervocalic /d/ as markers of sociolinguistic identity among Spanish-Portuguese bilinguals. Spanish in Context 7: 279–304. CrossrefGoogle Scholar