In this paper. we offer a preliminary investigation of some aspects of individual and group variation in sign rate and rhythm,
considering the sociolinguistic factors of Age (younger and older adults), Gender, and Sign Variety (Black and Mainstream American
Sign Language). Differences in sign rate and rhythmic structure among signers were found in signers’ elicited narratives. A novel
approach to phrasal rhythm is introduced, called “rhythm ratio”, which considers sign duration and transition duration together
and is similar in spirit to the “normalized pairwise variability index” (nPVI) in spoken languages. This measure appears to be
promising as a method for identifying rhythm class in sign languages; however, due to the small number of signers in each group
these results can only be suggestive.
1965Studies in phonetics and linguistics. London: Oxford University Press.
1989Sociolinguistic aspects of the Black Deaf community. In Ceil Lucas (ed.), The sociolinguistics of the Deaf community, 103–119. San Diego: Academic Press.
2009Phonetic and social selectivity in speech accommodation. Berkeley, CA: University of California PhD dissertation.
Barr, Dale, Roger Levy, Christoph Scheepers & Harry Tily
2013Random effects structure for confirmatory hypothesis testing: Keep it maximal. Journal of Memory and Language 681. 255–278.
1978Lexical borrowing in American Sign Language. Silver Spring: MD: Linstok Press. [reprinted 2002, Sign Media, Burtonsville, MD]
Bayley, Robert, Ceil Lucas & Mary Rose
2000Variation in American Sign Language: The case of DEAF. Journal of Sociolinguistics 4(1). 81–107.
Bertinetto, Pier Marco
1989Reflections on the dichotomy of “stress” vs. “syllable-timing”. Revue de Phonétique Appliquée 91–931. 99–130.
Bonat, Wagner, Paulo Ribeiro Jr. & Walmes Zeviani
2015Likelihood analysis for a class of beta mixed models. Journal of Applied Statistics 42(2). 252–266.
Boyes Braem, Penny
1999Rhythmic temporal patterns in the signing of early and late learners of Swiss German Sign Language. Language and Speech 42(2/3). 177–208.
1998A prosodic model of sign language phonology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Brentari, Diane & Howard Poizner
1994A phonological analysis of a deaf Parkinsonian signer. Language and Cognitive Processes 9(1). 69–100.
Brentari, Diane, Carolina González, Amanda Seidl & Ronnie Wilbur
2011Sensitivity to visual prosodic cues in signers and nonsigners. Language and Speech 54(1). 49–72.
Brentari, Diane, Marie Nadolske & George Wolford
2012Can experience with gesture influence the prosody of a sign language?: ASL prosodic cues in bimodal bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 15(2). 402–412.
Brentari, Diane, Joshua Falk & George Wolford
2015The acquisition of American Sign Language prosody. Language, 91(3). e144–e168.
Browman, Catherine & Louis Goldstein
1990Tiers in articulatory phonology, with some implications for casual speech. In John Kingston (ed.), Papers in laboratory phonology, vol. 1: Between the grammar and physics of speech, 341–376. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2009Voices of Jim Crow: Early urban African American English in the segregated south. Durham, NC: Duke University PhD dissertation.
2009American Sign Language poetry: Literature in motion. San Diego, CA: University of California MA thesis.
Crasborn, Onno & Han Sloetjes
2008Enhanced ELAN functionality for sign language corpora. In Proceedings of LREC 2008, Sixth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation, 39–43.
Dachkovsky, Svetlana, Christina Healy & Wendy Sandler
2013Visual intonation in two sign languages. Phonology 301. 211–252.
Duarte, Kyle & Sylvie Gibet
2010Reading between the signs: How are transitions built in signed languages. Presentation at the 10th International Conference on Theoretical Issues in Sign Language Research, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA, Sept. 30-Oct. 2.
Fenlon, Jordan, Adam Schembri, Ramas Rentelis & Kearsy Cormier
2013Variation in handshape and orientation in British Sign Language: The case of the ‘1’ handshape configuration. Language & Communication 331. 69–91.
1975Arbitrariness and iconicity. Language 511. 696–719.
Gelman, Andrew & Jennifer Hill
2007Data analysis using regression and multilevel/ hierarchical models. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Gibet, Sylvie, Nicolas Courty, Kyle Duarte & Thibaut Le Naour
2011The Signcom system for data-driven animation of interactive virtual signers: Methodology and evaluation. In ACM transactions on interactive intelligent systems (TiiS).
Grabe, Esther & Ee Ling Low
2002Durational variability in speech and the rhythm class hypothesis. In Carlos Gussenhoven & Natasha Warner (eds.), Papers in laboratory phonology 71, 515–546. Berlin: Mouton.
Hairston, Ernest & Linwood Smith
1983Black Deaf students. In Lois Bragg (ed.), Deaf World: historical reader and primary sourcebook. New York: NYU Press.
2011Vowel epenthesis. In Marc van Oostendorp, Colin Ewen, Elizabeth Hume & Karen Rice (eds.), The Blackwell companion to phonology, 1576–1596. Oxford: Blackwell.
Halle, Morris & Jean-Roger Vergnaud
1987An essay on stress. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Harrell, Frank E.
2001Regression modeling strategies: With applications to linear models, logistic regression, and survival analysis. New York: Springer.
2015The marking of information structure in German Sign Language. Lingua 1651. 277–297.
2012Language attitudes in the American Deaf community. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.
Kieschnick, Robert & Bruce McCullough
2003Regression analysis of variates observed on (1,0): percentages, proportions and fractions. Statistical Modeling 3(3). 193–213.
Klima, Edward & Ursula Bellugi
1979The signs of language. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
1990The intersection of sex and social class in the course of linguistic change, Language Variation and Change 191. 205–254.
2001Principles of linguistic change, volume 2: Social factors. Oxford, UK & Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
2015The Oxford handbook of African American language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
1975The intonation system of English. Cambridge, MA: MIT PhD dissertation.
Low, Ee Ling, Esther Grabe & Francis Nolan
2001Quantitative characterisations of speech rhythm: Syllable-timing in Singapore English. Language and Speech 43 (4). 377–401.
2013Conducting sociolinguistic interviews in Deaf communities. In Christine Mallison, Becky Childs & Gerard Van Herk (eds.), Data collection in sociolinguistics: Methods and applications, 105–109. Oxon, UK: Routledge.
Lucas, Ceil & Clayton Valli
1989Language contact in the American Deaf Community. In Ceil Lucas (ed.), The sociolinguistics of the Deaf Community, 11–40. San Diego: Academic Press.
Lucas, Ceil & Clayton Valli
1992Linguistics of American Sign Language: A resource text for ASL users. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.
Lucas, Ceil, Robert Bayley & Clayton Valli
2001Sociolinguistic variation in American Sign Language. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.
Lucas, Ceil, Robert Bayley, Mary Rose & Alyssa Wulf
2002Location variation in American Sign Language. Sign Language Studies 2(4). 407–440.
Lucas, Ceil, Robert Bayley & Clayton Valli
2003What’s your sign for PIZZA? An introduction to variation in American Sign Language. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.
Lucas, Ceil & Robert Bayley
2010Variation in American Sign Language. In Diane Brentari (ed.), Sign languages: A Cambridge language survey, 451–475. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press..
McCaskill, Carolyn, Ceil Lucas, Robert Bayley & Joseph Hill
2011The hidden treasure of Black ASL: Its history and structure (book and DVD). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.
1996Coping with linguistic diversity: The infant’s viewpoint. In James L. Morgan & Katherine Demuth (eds.), Signal to syntax: Bootstrapping from speech to grammar in early acquisition, 101–116. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
1996Phonologie de la langue des signes québecoise: Structure simultanée et axe temporel. Montreal: Université de Québec a Montréal PhD dissertation.
Nespor, Marina & Wendy Sandler
1999Prosody in Israeli Sign Language. Language and Speech 421. 143–176.
Nespor, Marina & Irene Vogel
1986Prosodic phonology. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Nevalainen, Terttu & Helena Raumolin-Brunberg
2003Historical sociolinguistics: Language change in Tudor and Stuart England. London: Pearson Education Ltd.
Nunes, Terzinha, Ursula Pretzlik & Jenny Olsson
2001Deaf children’s social relationships in mainstream schools. Journal of Deaf Education International 31. 123–136.
2008Music, language, and the brain. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Pardo, Jennifer S.
2006On phonetic convergence during conversational interaction. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 1191. 2382–2393.
Peperkamp, Sharon & Jacques Mehler
1999Signed and spoken language: A unique underlying system?Language and Speech 42 (2/3). 333–346.
Pfau, Roland & Josep Quer
2010Nonmanuals: Their grammatical and prosodic roles. In Diane Brentari (ed.), Sign languages: A Cambridge language survey, 381–402. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2002Acoustic correlates of linguistic rhythm: Perspectives. In Bernard Bell & Isabelle Marlien (eds.), Proceedings of speech prosody, 115–120. Aix-en-Provence, France: Laboratoire Parole et Langage.
Ramus, Franck, Marina Nespor & Jacques Mehler
1999Correlates of linguistic rhythm in the speech signal. Cognition 731. 265–292.
2011Prosody and syntax in sign languages. Transactions of the Philological Society 1081. 298–328.
2012Visual prosody. In Roland Pfau, Markus Steinbach & Bencie Woll (eds.), Sign language. An international handbook, 55–73. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
Sandler, Wendy & Diane Lillo-Martin
2006Sign language and linguistic universals. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press.
Schembri, Adam, David McKee, Rachel McKee, Sarah Pivac, Trevor Johnston & Della Goswell
2009Phonological variation and change in Australian and New Zealand Sign Languages: The location variable. Language Variation and Change 211. 193–231.
2010Sociolinguistic variation in British, Australian, and New Zealand Sign Languages. In Diane Brentari (ed.), Sign languages: A Cambridge language survey, 476–496. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2010Prosody and movement in American Sign Language: A task-dynamics approach. Proceedings from Speech Prosody 2010, Chicago, IL.
1993Poetics of American Sign Language poetry. The Union Institute Graduate School PhD dissertation.
1999Stress in ASL: Empirical evidence and linguistic issues. Language and Speech 42(2/3). 229–250.
2009Effects of varying rate of signing on ASL manual signs and nonmanual markers. Language and Speech 521. 245–285.
Wilbur, Ronnie, Edward Klima & Ursula Bellugi
1983Roots: On the search for the origins of signs in ASL. Proceedings from the Chicago Linguistics Society, 314–336. Chicago, IL: Chicago Linguistics Society.
1976Black Southern signing. Language in Society 51. 211–218.
Woodward, James, Carol Erting & Susan Oliver
1976Facing and hand(l)ing variation in American Sign Language. Sign Language Studies 101. 43–52.
Woodward, James & Susan DeSantis
1977Two to one it happens: Dynamic phonology in two sign languages. Sign Language Studies 171. 329–346.
Cited by 1 other publications
2019. Sign Language Phonology,
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 29 may 2023. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers.
Any errors therein should be reported to them.