Chapter published in:Imperative Turns at Talk: The design of directives in action
Edited by Marja-Leena Sorjonen, Liisa Raevaara and Elizabeth Couper-Kuhlen
[Studies in Language and Social Interaction 30] 2017
► pp. 103–137
Secondary and deviant uses of the imperative for requesting in Italian
The use of the imperative for requesting has been mostly explained on the basis of estimations of social distance, relative power, and entitlement. More recent research, however, has identified other selection factors to do with the functional and sequential relation of the action requested to the trajectory of the ongoing interaction. In everyday activities among family and friends, the imperative is typically warranted by an earlier commitment of the requestee to a joint project or shared goal which the action requested contributes to. The chapter argues this to be the primary use of the imperative for requesting in Italian informal interaction, and distinguishes it from other uses of the imperative that do not conform to the predominant pattern. These other uses are of two kinds: (i) secondary, that is, less frequent and formally marked imperatives that still orient to social-interactional conditions supporting an expectation of compliance, and (ii) deviant, where the imperative is selected in deliberate violation of the social-interactional conditions that normally support it, attracting special attention and accomplishing more than just requesting. This study extends prior findings on the functional distribution of imperative requests and makes a point of relating and classifying distinct uses of a same form of action, offering new insights into more general aspects of language use such as markedness and normativity.
Keywords: imperative, requests, secondary use, deviant use, project, course of action, benefit, continuity, normativity, markedness
Published online: 18 August 2017
Antaki, Charles, and Alexandra Kent
Blum-Kulka, Shoshana, Juliane House, and Gabriele Kasper
Brown, Penelope, and Stephen C. Levinson
Clayman, Steven E., and John Heritage
Craven, Alexandra, and Jonathan Potter
Curl, Traci S., and Paul Drew
De Stefani, Elwys, and Anne-Danièle Gazin
Dingemanse, Mark, Seàn G. Roberts, Julija Baranova, Joe Blythe, Paul Drew, Simeon Floyd, Rosa S. Gisladottir, Kobin H. Kendrick, Stephen C. Levinson, Elizabeth Manrique, Giovanni Rossi, and N. J. Enfield
Drew, Paul, and Traci S. Walker
Drew, Paul, Traci S. Walker, and Richard Albert Ogden
Enfield, N. J.
Ervin-Tripp, Susan M.
Ervin-Tripp, Susan M., Jiansheng Guo, and Martin Lampert
Floyd, Simeon, Giovanni Rossi, and N. J. Enfield
eds Under review Getting Others to Do Things: A Pragmatic Typology of Recruitments Berlin Language Science Press
Floyd, Simeon, Giovanni Rossi, N. J. Enfield, Julija Baranova, Joe Blythe, Mark Dingemanse, Kobin H. Kendrick, and Jörg Zinken
Goodwin, Charles, and Goodwin, Marjorie H.
Grice, H. Paul
Heritage, John, and Marja-Leena Sorjonen
Lerner, Gene H.
1998 “Completable Projects and Winnable Games: Notes on the Organization of Activity.” Paper presented at the 4th annual Conference on Language, Interaction, and Culture, University of California, Los Angeles.
Levinson, Stephen C.
Michael, John, Natalie Sebanz, and Günther Knoblich
2014b “Requesting Immediate Action in the Surgical Operating Room: Time, Embodied Resources and Praxeological Embeddedness.” In Requesting in Social Interaction, Studies in Language and Social Interaction, ed. by Paul Drew, and Elizabeth Couper-Kuhlen, 267–300. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Pufahl Bax, Ingrid
Roberts, Felicia, and Jeffrey D. Robinson
Robinson, Jeffrey D.
Sadock, Jerrold M., and Arnold Zwicky
Schegloff, Emanuel A.
Schieffelin, Bambi B.
Searle, John R.
Stivers, Tanya, N. J. Enfield, and Stephen C. Levinson
Wootton, Anthony J.
Cited by 3 other publications
Betz, Emma, Carmen Taleghani-Nikazm & Peter Golato
Kim, Stephanie Hyeri & Mary Shin Kim
Taleghani-Nikazm, Carmen, Veronika Drake, Andrea Golato & Emma Betz
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 02 march 2021. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.