The study examines turns-at-talk with which a participant directs another in a mobile instructional setting, i.e., directive actions produced by an instructor to a student during a driving session. The data comprise video recordings from voluntary training for car drivers who have a valid license but little practical experience. The study focuses on the instructor’s directive actions that are formatted as second-person imperatives. In contrast with other turn formats that promote an activity as a joint one, second-person imperatives define what the recipient is individually responsible for. Such directive actions either reinstate and make explicit roles and responsibilities that have not yet been followed through to an adequate degree, or set up certain roles and responsibilities for the participants based on their positions in space and their access to instrumentation relevant for the activity. In this way, imperatively formatted directives address the participants’ expectations about how the activity should appropriately unfold – expectations that are constantly being constructed through and reflected in the formatting of single actions.
2009 “Same Token, Different Actions: A Conversation Analytic Study of Social Roles, Embodied Actions, and ok in German Business Meetings.” Journal of Business Communication 46: 120–149.
Broth, Mathias, and Leelo Keevallik
2014 “Getting Ready to Move as a Couple: Accomplishing Mobile Formations in a Dance Class.” Space and Culture 17: 107–121.
Couper-Kuhlen, Elizabeth, and Marja Etelämäki
2014 “On Divisions of Labor in Request and Offer Environments.” In Requesting in Social Interaction, ed. by Paul Drew, and Elizabeth Couper-Kuhlen, 115–144. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Couper-Kuhlen, Elizabeth, and Marja Etelämäki
2015 “Nominated Actions and Their Targeted Agents in Finnish Conversational Directives.” Journal of Pragmatics 78: 7–24.
1984 “Subsequent Versions of Invitations, Offers, Requests, and Proposals Dealing with Potential or Actual Rejection.” In Structures of Social Action, ed. by J. Maxwell Atkinson, and John Heritage, 102–128. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1990 “Modifications of Invitations, Offers and Rejections.” In Interaction Competence, ed. by George Psathas, 149–180. Washington, DC: International Institute for Ethnomethodology and Conversation Analysis and University Press of America.
De Stefani, Elwys, and Anne-Danièle Gazin
2014 “Instructional Sequences in Driving Lessons: Mobile Participants and the Temporal and Sequential Organization of Actions.” Journal of Pragmatics 65: 63–79.
2015 “When Recipient Design Fails: Egocentric Turn-Design of Instructions in Driving School Lessons Leading to Breakdowns of Intersubjectivity.” Gesprächsforschung – Online-Zeitschrift Zur Verbalen Interaktion 16: 63–101. Available at [URL].
Drew, Paul, and John Heritage
1992 “Analyzing Talk at Work: An Introduction.” In Talk at Work: Interaction in Institutional Settings, ed. by Paul Drew, and John Heritage, 3–65. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1971Relations in Public: Microstudies of the Public Order. New York: Harper & Row.
Goodwin, Marjorie Harness, and Asta Cekaite
2013 “Calibration in Directive/Response Sequences in Family Interaction.” Journal of Pragmatics 46: 122–138.
2010 “Turn-Taking for Turntaking: Mobility, Time, and Action in the Sequential Organization of Junction Negotiations in Cars.” Research on Language and Social Interaction 43: 372–400.
2012 “Movement in Action: Initiating Social Navigation in Cars.” Semiotica 191: 147–170.
2013 “Directing the Driver: Passenger-Initiated Junction-Negotiations in a Car.” In Interaction and Mobility: Language and the Body in Motion, ed. by Pentti Haddington, Lorenza Mondada, and Maurice Nevile, 179–209. Berlin: de Gruyter.
Haddington, Pentti, and Tiina Keisanen
2009 “Location, Mobility and the Body as Resources in Selecting a Route.” Journal of Pragmatics 41: 1938–1961.
Heritage, John, and Sue Sefi
1992 “Dilemmas of Advice: Aspects of the Delivery and Reception of Advice in Interactions between Health Visitors and First-Time Mothers.” In Talk at Work: Interaction in Institutional Settings, ed. by Paul Drew, and John Heritage, 359–417. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2012 ““Uh-Oh, We Were Going There”: Environmentally Occasioned Noticings of Trouble in In-Car Interaction.” Semiotica 191: 197–222.
Keisanen, Tiina, and Mirka Rauniomaa
2012 “The Organization of Participation and Contingency in Prebeginnings of Request Sequences.” Research on Language and Social Interaction 45: 323–351.
2012 “Compliance, Resistance and Incipient Compliance When Responding to Directives.” Discourse Studies 14: 711–730.
2015 “Dealing with Ambiguities in Informings: Finnish Aijaa as a “Neutral” News Receipt.” Research on Language and Social Interaction 48: 365–387.
Laurier, Eric, Hayden Lorimer, Barry Brown, Owain Jones, Oskar Juhlin, Allyson Noble, Mark Perry, Daniele Pica, Philippe Sormani, Ignaz Strebel, Laurel Swan, Alex S. Taylor, Laura Watts, and Alexandra Weilenmann
2008 “Driving and Passengering: Notes on the Natural Organization of Ordinary Car Travel.” Mobilities 3: 1–23.
Levin, Lena, Jakob Cromdal, Mathias Broth, Anne-Danièle Gazin, Pentti Haddington, Paul McIlvenny, Helen Melander, and Mirka Rauniomaa
2017 “Unpacking Corrections in Mobile Instruction: Error-occasioned Learning Opportunities in Driving, Cycling and Aviation Training.” Linguistics and Education 38: 11–23.
2012 “Talking and Driving: Multiactivity in the Car.” Semiotica 191: 223–256.
2013 “Coordinating Mobile Action in Real Time: The Timely Organization of Directives in Video Games.” In Interaction and Mobility. Language and the Body in Motion, ed. by Pentti Haddington, Lorenza Mondada, and Maurice Nevile, 300–341. Berlin: De Gruyter.
2014aConventions for Multimodal Transcription. Basel: Romanisches Seminar der Universität Basel. ([URL])
2014b “Requesting Immediate Action in the Surgical Operating Room: Time, Embodied Resources and Praxeological Embeddedness.” In Requesting in Social Interaction, ed. by Paul Drew, and Elizabeth Couper-Kuhlen, 269–302. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
2007 “Action in Time: Ensuring Timeliness for Collaborative Work in the Airline Cockpit.” Language in Society 36: 233–257.
2012 “Interaction as Distraction in Driving: A Body of Evidence.” Semiotica 191: 169–196.
2014 “Balancing Multiple Roles through Consensus: Making Revisions in Haircutting Sessions.” Text & Talk 34: 713–736.
2013 “Giving Reasons for Doing Something Now or at Some Other Time.” Research on Language and Social Interaction 46: 105–124.
2004 ““Mitäs me sovittais”. S-partikkelin sisältävien hakukysymysten tehtävistä [On the use of the particle ‑s in open ended questions].” Virittäjä 108: 531–558.
Rauniomaa, Mirka, and Tiina Keisanen
2012 “Two Multimodal Formats for Responding to Requests.” Journal of Pragmatics 44: 829–842.
2012 “Bilateral and Unilateral Requests: The use of Imperatives and Mi X? Interrogatives in Italian.” Discourse Processes 49: 426–458.
1976 “A Classification of Illocutionary Acts.” Language in Society 5: 1–23.
Sorjonen, Marja-Leena, and Liisa Raevaara
2014 “On the Grammatical Form of Requests at the Convenience Store: Requesting as Embodied Action.” In Requesting in Social Interaction, ed. by Paul Drew, and Elizabeth Couper-Kuhlen, 243–268. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Stevanovic, Melisa, and Jan Svennevig
2015 “Introduction: Epistemics and Deontics in Conversational Directives.” Journal of Pragmatics 78: 1–6.
Summala, Heikki, Esko Lehtonen, Isa Dahlström, Harri Hiltunen, Jarkko Hietamäki, and Jami Pekkanen
2011 ”Ajamaan uudelleen pitkän tauon jälkeen? Ikäkuljettajien koulutuskokeilu automaatti‑ ja käsivälitteisellä autolla [Driving again after a long pause? An experiment in training elderly drivers with automatic and manual car].” Trafis Publications 13/2011.
VISK = Hakulinen, Auli, Maria Vilkuna, Riitta Korhonen, Vesa Koivisto, Tarja Riitta Heinonen, and Irja Alho2004Iso suomen kielioppi [A Comprehensive Grammar of Finnish]. Helsinki: Finnish Literature Society. Online. Available at [URL].
2015 “Contingent Control over Shared Goods. ‘Can I have X’ Requests in British English Informal Interaction.” Journal of Pragmatics 82: 23–38.
Cited by 8 other publications
Betz, Emma, Carmen Taleghani-Nikazm & Peter Golato
2018. Noticings with instructional implications in post‐licence driver training. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 28:2 ► pp. 326 ff.
Stevanovic, Melisa & Arniika Kuusisto
2019. Teacher Directives in Children’s Musical Instrument Instruction: Activity Context, Student Cooperation, and Institutional Priority. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research 63:7 ► pp. 1022 ff.
Taleghani-Nikazm, Carmen, Veronika Drake, Andrea Golato & Emma Betz
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 9 november 2023. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers.
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