Chapter published in:Imperative Turns at Talk: The design of directives in action
Edited by Marja-Leena Sorjonen, Liisa Raevaara and Elizabeth Couper-Kuhlen
[Studies in Language and Social Interaction 30] 2017
► pp. 357–380
Managing compliance in violin instruction
The case of the Finnish clitic particles -pA and -pAs in imperatives and hortatives
The chapter considers the verbal design of Finnish second-person singular imperative and first-person plural hortative turns, asking whether and how those turns where there is a clitic particle -pA or -pAs attached to the finite verb differ from the non-cliticized turns, and whether -pA and -pAs are used in similar or dissimilar ways. The imperative and hortative turns used in the analysis are drawn from a data set of four violin lessons with a 5-year-old child and her teacher as the participants. All the imperative and hortative turns analyzed were spoken by the teacher to the child.The analysis shows that the non-cliticized imperative or hortative turns and the ones with -pA or -pAs are used differently. The non-cliticized turns are common in contexts where the speaker and the recipient are actively engaged in an ongoing collaboration. The imperative and hortative turns with ‑pA occur characteristically after the recipient’s immediately preceding failures, which need to be remedied for the participants to be able to continue what they are up to. The imperatives and hortatives with ‑pAs are frequently used at activity transitions, where the speaker demonstrates her right to determine the broader agenda of the participants’ joint activity.The chapter suggests that the linguistic design of Finnish second-person singular imperative and first-person plural hortative turns is informed by the speaker’s understanding of the extent to which, and the particular sense in which, the participants’ current actions are to be seen as joint ones. While the selection between imperatives and hortatives is warranted by the identity of the agent(s) of the nominated action (whether it is the recipient alone, or both the speaker and the recipient together), it is in and through the choices between the cliticized and non-cliticized formats that speakers invoke and manage the more specific basis upon which the recipient’s compliance can be expected.
Keywords: directives, imperatives, hortatives, Finnish particle clitics, deontic status, instructional interaction, violin lessons, joint activity, commitment, institutional agenda
Published online: 18 August 2017
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Cited by 4 other publications
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