Part of
Theories of Reading Development
Edited by Kate Cain, Donald L. Compton and Rauno K. Parrila
[Studies in Written Language and Literacy 15] 2017
► pp. 7598


Alcock, K., & Ngorosho, D.
(2007) Learning to spell and learning phonology: The spelling of consonant clusters in Kiswahili. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 20, 643–670. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Annual Status of Education Report (ASER)
(2014) New Delhi: ASER Centre.Google Scholar
Asher, R. E. & Kumari T. C.
(1997) Malayalam. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Bhide, A., Gadgil, S., Zelinsky, C. M., & Perfetti, C.
(2014) Does reading in an alphasyllabary affect phonemic awareness? Inherent schwa effects in Marathi-English bilinguals. Writing Systems Research, 6, 73–93. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Bright, W.
(Ed.) (1992) International encyclopaedia of linguistics. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
(2000) A matter of typology: Alphasyllabaries and abugidas. Studies in the Linguistic Sciences (Urbana), 30, 63–71.Google Scholar
Chili Pili Cheela
(2007) Kannada reading cards. Bangalore, India: The Promise Foundation, National Institute of Advanced Studies and Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (Karnataka).Google Scholar
Chen, X., Hao, M., Geva, E., Zhu, J. & Shu, H.
(2009) The role of compound awareness in Chinese children’s vocabulary acquisition and character reading. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 22, 615–631. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Chen, X., & Kao, H. S. R.
(2002) Visual-spatial properties and orthographic processing of Chinese characters. In H. S. R. Kao, C.-K. Leong, & D.-G. Gao (Eds.), Cognitive neuroscience studies of the Chinese language (pp. 175–194). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.Google Scholar
Daniels, P. T.
(1990) Fundamentals of grammatology. Journal of the American Oriental Society, 110, 727–731. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Das T., Kumar U., Bapi R. S., Padakannaya P., & Singh N. C.
(2009) Neural representation of an alphasyllabary: The story of Devanagari. Current Science, 97,1033–1038.Google Scholar
Dyer, C.
(2008) Early years literacy in Indian urban schools: Structural, social and pedagogical issues. Language and Education, 22,237–253. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Ehri, L. C.
(2005) Learning to read words: theory, findings, and issues. Scientific Studies of Reading, 9, 167–188. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
García, R. & Cain, K.
(2014) Decoding and reading comprehension: A meta-analysis to identify which reader and assessment characteristics influence the strength of the relationship in English. Review of Educational Research, 84, 74–111. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Geetha, V.
(2012) Literacy and reading: A Tamil experiment. Contemporary Education Dialogue, 9, 63–84. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Gibson, E.
(2000) Dependency Locality Theory: A distance-based theory of linguistic Complexity. In A. Marantz, Y. Miyashita, & W. O’Neil (Eds.), Image, language, brain: Papers from the First Mind Articulation Project Symposium. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Gupta, A.
(2004) Reading difficulties of Hindi speaking children with developmental dyslexia. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 17, 79–99. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Husain, S., Vasishth, S. & Narayanan, S.
(2015) Integration and prediction difficulty in Hindi sentence comprehension: Evidence from an eye-tracking corpus. Journal of Eye Movement Research, 8, 1–12.Google Scholar
Jayaram, K.
(2008a) Early Literacy Project: Explorations and reflections. Part 1: Theoretical Perspectives. Contemporary Education Dialogue, 5, 133–174. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
(2008b) Early Literacy Project: Explorations and reflections. Part 2: Interventions in Hindi classrooms. Contemporary Education Dialogue, 5, 175–211. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Joshi, M. R.; Padakannaya, P. & Nishanimath, S.
(2010) Dyslexia and hyperlexia in bilinguals. Dyslexia. 16, 99–118.Google Scholar
Kandhadai, P. & Sproat, R.
(2010) Impact of spatial ordering of graphemes in alphasyllabic scripts on phonemic awareness in Indic languages. Writing Systems Research, 2, 105–116. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Kar, S.
(2009) The syllable structure of Bangla in Optimality Theory and its application to the analysis of verbal inflectional paradigms in distributed morphology. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Tubingen, Germany.Google Scholar
Karanth, P.
(2003) Cross-linguistic study of acquired reading disorders. Dordrecht, Holland: Kluwer Academic Publishers. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Karanth, P., Mathew A., & Kurien, P.
(2004) Orthography and reading speed: Data from native readers of Kannada. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 17, 101–120. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Kintsch, W., & Rawson, K. A.
(2005) Comprehension. In M. J. Snowling & C. Hulme (Eds.), The science of reading: A handbook (pp. 209–226). Malden, MA: Blackwell. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Kumar, U., Das, T., Bapi, R. S., Padakannaya, P., Joshi, R. M, & Singh, N. C.
(2010) Reading different orthographies: An fMRI study of phrase reading in Hindi – English bilinguals. Reading and Writing, 23, 239–255. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
McBride, C. A.
(2016) Is Chinese special? Four aspects of Chinese literacy acquisition that might distinguish learning Chinese from learning alphabetic orthographies. Educational Psychology Review, 28, 523–549. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Mishra, R. K., Pandey, A., & Srinivasan, N.
(2010) Revisiting the scrambling complexity hypothesis in sentence processing: A self-paced reading study on anomaly detection and scrambling in Hindi, Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 24, 709–727. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Mishra, R., & Stainthorp, R.
(2007) The relationship between phonological awareness and word reading accuracy in Oriya and English: A study of Oriya-speaking fifth-graders. Journal of Research in Reading, 30, 23–37. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Mohanan, K. P.
(1982) Lexical Phonology, Doctoral dissertation, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Distributed by the Indiana University Linguistics Club, Bloomington, Indiana.Google Scholar
Nag, S.
(2007) Early reading in Kannada: The pace of acquisition of orthographic knowledge and phonemic awareness. Journal of Research in Reading, 30, 7–22. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
(2008) Promoting controlled inferences when reading: Reflections from a Language Programme in India. Paper presented in ESRC Seminar, Sussex, UK.
(2011) The akshara languages: What do they tell us about children’s literacy learning? In R. Mishra & N. Srinivasan (Eds.), Language-Cognition: State of the Art (pp. 291–310). Germany: Lincom Publishers.Google Scholar
(2014) Akshara-phonology mappings: The common yet uncommon case of the consonant cluster. Writing Systems Research, 6, 105–119. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
in press). Learning to read Kannada and other languages of South Asia. In C. Perfetti & L. Verhoeven Eds. Reading acquisition across languages and writing systems Cambridge Cambridge University Press
Nag, S., Chiat, S., Torgerson C., & Snowling, M. J.
(2013) Literacy, foundation learning and assessment in developing countries. Report of a rigorous review. Department of International Development, UK.Google Scholar
Nag, S., Snowling, M. J., Quinlan P., & Hulme, C
(2014) Child and symbol factors in learning to read a visually complex writing system, Scientific Studies of Reading, 18, 1–16. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Nag, S., & Sircar, S.
(2008) Learning to read in Bengali: report of a survey in five Kolkata primary schools. The Promise Foundation, Bangalore, India.Google Scholar
Nag, S., & Snowling, M. J.
(June 2011a) Reading comprehension, decoding and oral language. The EFLU Journal, English and Foreign Languages University, 2, 75–93.Google Scholar
Nag S., & Snowling M. J.
(July 2011b) Cognitive profiles of poor readers of Kannada. Reading and Writing: an Interdisciplinary Journal, 24, 657–676. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Nag, S., & Snowling, M. J.
(2012) Reading in an alphasyllabary: Implications for a language-universal theory of learning to read. Scientific Studies of Reading, 16, 404–423. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Nag, S., Treiman, R., & Snowling, M. J.
(2010) Learning to spell in an alphasyllabary: The case of Kannada. Writing Systems Research, 2, 41–52. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Nakamura, P. R. & de Hoop, T.
(Nov. 2014) Facilitating Reading Acquisition in Multilingual Environments in India (FRAME-India): Final report. American Institutes for Research.Google Scholar
Nakamura, P. R., Koda, K., & Joshi, R. M.
(2014) Biliteracy acquisition in Kannada and English: A developmental study. Writing Systems Research, 6, 132–147. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Pandey, P.
(2014) Akshara-to-sound rules for Hindi. Writing Systems Research, 6, 54–72. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Patel J., Bapi, R. S., & Nag, S.
(2013) Akshara counts in child directed print: A pilot study with 101 texts. Manuscript in preparation.Google Scholar
Patel, P. G.
(2004) Reading acquisition in India: Models of learning and dyslexia. New Delhi: Sage Publishers.Google Scholar
Perfetti, C. A., Landi, N., & Oakhill, J. V.
(2005) The acquisition of reading comprehension skill. In M. J. Snowling & C. Hulme (Eds.), The science of reading: a handbook (pp. 227–247). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Prakash, P., Rekha, D., Nigam, R. & Karanth, P.
(1993) Phonological awareness, orthography and literacy. In R. J. Scholes (Ed.), Literacy and language analysis. (pp. 55–70). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Purushothama, G.
(2001) Reading vowels in Kannada script. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23, 198–200. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Ramaa, S., Miles, T. R., & Lalithamma, M. S.
(1993) Dyslexia: Symbol processing difficulty in Kannada language. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 5, 29–41. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Reddy, P. P., & Koda, K.
(2013) Orthographic constraints on phonological awareness in biliteracy development. Writing Systems Research, 5, 110–130. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Salomon, R.
(Spring 2000) Typological observations on the Indic Script Group and its relationship to other alphasyllabaries. Studies on the Linguistic Sciences, 30, 87–103.Google Scholar
Share, D. L. & Daniels, P. T.
(2015) Aksharas, alphasyllabaries, abugidas, alphabets and orthographic depth: Reflections on Rimzhim, Katz and Fowler (2014), Writing Systems Research. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Singh N. C.,& Rao, C.
(2014) Reading in Devanagari: Insights from functional neuroimaging. Indian Journal of Radiology and Imaging, 24, 44–50. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Sircar, S. & Nag, S.
(2013) Children’s intuitive syllabification of intervocalic consonant clusters in Bengali: the role of sonority, phonotactics and akshara. The EFL Journal, 4, 35–52.Google Scholar
(2014) Akshara-syllable mappings in Bengali: a language-specific skill for reading. In H. Winskel & P. Padakannaya (Eds), South and Southeast Asian Psycholinguistics (pp. 409–425). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Stainthorp, R., Stuart, M., Powell, D., Quinlan, P., & Garwood, H.
(2010) Visual processing deficits in children with slow RAN performance. Scientific Studies of Reading, 14, 266–292. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Tiwari, S., Nair, R., & Krishnan, G.
(2011) A preliminary investigation of akshara knowledge in the Malayalam Alphasyllabary: extension of Nag’s (2007) study. Writing Systems Research, 3, 145–151. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Tong, X., & McBride-Chang, C.
(2010) Developmental models of learning to read Chinese words. Developmental Psychology, 46, 1662–1676. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Treiman, R., Zukowski, A., & Richmond-Welty, E. D.
(1995) What happened to the ‘‘n’’ of sink? Children’s spellings of final consonant clusters. Cognition, 55, 1–38. DOI logo.Google Scholar
UNESCO Institute for Statistics
(2014) Country profiles of Education System. Retrieved from [URL]
Vaid, J., & Gupta, A.
(2002) Exploring word recognition in a semi-alphabetic script: The case of Devanagari. Brain and Language, 81, 679–690. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Wang, Y., & McBride, C.
(2016) Character reading and word reading in Chinese: unique correlates for Chinese kindergarteners. Applied Psycholinguistics, 37, 371–386. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Wali, A., Sproat, R., Padakannaya, P., & Bhuvaneshwari, B.
(2009) Model for phonemic awareness in readers of Indian script. Written Language & Literacy, 12, 161–169. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Winskel, H.
(2009) Reading in Thai: The case of misaligned vowels. Reading and Writing. An Interdisciplinary Journal, 22, 1–24. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Winskel, H. & Iemwanthong, K
(2010) Reading and spelling acquisition in Thai children. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 23, 1021–1053. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Winskel, H., & Perea, M.
(2014) Can parafoveal-on-foveal effects be obtained when reading an unspaced alphasyllabic script (Thai)? Writing Systems Research, 6, 94–104. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Wijayathilake, D. & Parrila, R.
(2014) Predictors of word reading in good and struggling readers in Sinhalese. Writing Systems Research, 6, 120–131. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Ziegler, J. C., & Goswami, U.
(2006) Becoming literate in different languages: similar problems, different solutions. Developmental Science, 9, 429–436. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Cited by

Cited by 19 other publications

Agrawal, Aakash, K. V. S. Hari & S. P. Arun
2019. Reading Increases the Compositionality of Visual Word Representations. Psychological Science 30:12  pp. 1707 ff. DOI logo
Bhide, Adeetee, Wencan Luo, Nivita Vijay, Charles Perfetti, Jingtao Wang, Adrian Maries & Sonali Nag
2019. Improving Hindi decoding skills via a mobile game. Reading and Writing 32:9  pp. 2149 ff. DOI logo
Bhide, Adeetee, Charles A. Perfetti, Wencan Luo, Nivita Vijay, Jingtao Wang, Adrian Maries & Sonali Nag
2021. Spelling Challenges in Hindi. Psychological Studies 66:4  pp. 390 ff. DOI logo
Daniels, Peter T. & David L. Share
2018. Writing System Variation and Its Consequences for Reading and Dyslexia. Scientific Studies of Reading 22:1  pp. 101 ff. DOI logo
Habib, Malikka, Nur Artika Arshad & Beth Ann O’Brien
2022. Acquiring Literacy in the Diglossic Contexts of Malay and Tamil in Singapore: Problems and Prospects in Early Childhood Classrooms. In Handbook of Literacy in Diglossia and in Dialectal Contexts [Literacy Studies, 22],  pp. 273 ff. DOI logo
Nag, Sonali
2021. How children learn to use a writing system. Written Language & Literacy 24:2  pp. 284 ff. DOI logo
Nag, Sonali
2022. Reading the Akshara Writing System. In The Science of Reading,  pp. 372 ff. DOI logo
Nag, Sonali & Balambigai Narayanan
2019. Orthographic Knowledge, Reading and Spelling Development in Tamil: The First Three Years. In Handbook of Literacy in Akshara Orthography [Literacy Studies, 17],  pp. 55 ff. DOI logo
Nakamura, Pooja R. & Chinmaya U. Holla
2023. Literacy and Linguistic Diversity in Multilingual India. In Global Variation in Literacy Development,  pp. 155 ff. DOI logo
O’Brien, Beth A., Malikka Begum Habib Mohamed, Nur Artika Arshad & Nicole Cybil Lim
2020. The Impact of Different Writing Systems on Children’s Spelling Error Profiles: Alphabetic, Akshara, and Hanzi Cases. Frontiers in Psychology 11 DOI logo
Perfetti, Charles & Anne Helder
2022. Progress in Reading Science. In The Science of Reading,  pp. 5 ff. DOI logo
Share, David L.
2021. Is the Science of Reading Just the Science of Reading English?. Reading Research Quarterly 56:S1 DOI logo
Singh, Anisha, Min Wang & Yasmeen Faroqi-Shah
2022. The influence of romanizing a non-alphabetic L1 on L2 reading: the case of Hindi-English visual word recognition. Reading and Writing 35:6  pp. 1475 ff. DOI logo
Vagh, Shaher Banu & Sonali Nag
2019. The Assessment of Emergent and Early Literacy Skills in the Akshara Languages. In Handbook of Literacy in Akshara Orthography [Literacy Studies, 17],  pp. 235 ff. DOI logo
Vaid, Jyotsna, Hsin-Chin Chen & Chaitra Rao
2022. Biscriptal bilingualism differentially affects segmentation of cross-language homophones: Evidence from Hindi and English users. International Journal of Bilingualism 26:1  pp. 13 ff. DOI logo
Vasudevan, Nirmala, Mithun Haridas, Prema Nedungadi, Raghu Raman, Peter T. Daniels & David L. Share
2024. A multi-dimensional framework for characterizing the role of writing system variation in literacy learning: a case study in Malayalam. Reading and Writing 37:3  pp. 581 ff. DOI logo
Verhoeven, Ludo, Sonali Nag, Charles Perfetti & Kenneth Pugh
2023. Introduction. In Global Variation in Literacy Development,  pp. 1 ff. DOI logo
Wijaythilake, M. A. D. K., R. Parrila, Tomohiro Inoue & Sonali Nag
2019. Cognitive predictors of word reading in Sinhala. Reading and Writing 32:7  pp. 1881 ff. DOI logo
Wijaythilake, Marasinghe A. D. K., Rauno Parrila, Tomohiro Inoue & Sonali Nag
2018. Instruction Matters to the Development of Phoneme Awareness and Its Relationship to Akshara Knowledge and Word Reading: Evidence from Sinhala. Scientific Studies of Reading 22:5  pp. 420 ff. DOI logo

This list is based on CrossRef data as of 13 may 2024. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.