Chapter published in:
Researching L2 Task Performance and Pedagogy: In honour of Peter Skehan
Edited by Zhisheng (Edward) Wen and Mohammad Javad Ahmadian
[Task-Based Language Teaching 13] 2019
► pp. 95132


Bloom, B., Englehart, M. Furst, E., Hill, W., & Krathwohl, D.
(1956) Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals, Handbook I: Cognitive domain. New York, NY: David McKay.
Brünken, R., Steinbacher, S., Plass, J. L., & Leutner, D.
(2002) Assessment of cognitive load in multimedia learning using dual-task methodology. Experimental Psychology, 49, 109–119. Crossref link
Candlin, C. N.
(1987) Towards task-based language learning. In C. N. Candlin & D. Murphy (Eds.), Lancaster practical papers in English language education, Vol. 7: Language learning tasks (pp.5–22). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Haji, F. A., Cheung, J. J. H., Woods, N., Regehr, G., de Ribaupierre, S., & Dubrowski, A.
(2016) Thrive or overload? The effect of task complexity on novices’ simulation-based learning. Medical Education, 50, 955–968. Crossref link
Long, M. H., & Crookes, G.
(1992) Three approaches to task-based syllabus design. TESOL Quarterly, 26, 27–56. Crossref link
Norris, J. M., Brown, J. D., Hudson, T. D., & Yoshioka, J. (1998) Designing second language performance assessments. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.
Prefontaine, Y., & Kormos, J.
(2015) The relationship between task difficulty and second language fluency: A mixed methods approach. The Modern Language Journal, 99(1), 96–112. Crossref link
Révész, A.
(2014) Towards a fuller assessment of cognitive models of task-based learning: Investigating task-generated cognitive demands and processes. Applied Linguistics, 35, 87–92. Crossref link
Robinson, P.
(2001) Task complexity, cognitive resources, and syllabus design: A triadic framework for examining task influences on SLA. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Cognition and second language instruction (pp.287–318). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
(Ed.) (2011) Second language task complexity: Researching the Cognition Hypothesis of language learning and performance. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Sasayama, S.
(2014) Measuring cognitive task complexity from the learners’ perspective. Paper presented at the TBLT in Asia conference, Osaka, Japan.
(2015) Validating the assumed relationship between task design, cognitive complexity, and second language task performance (Unpublished PhD dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest.
(2016) Is a “complex” task really complex? Validating the assumption of cognitive task complexity. The Modern Language Journal, 100(1), 231–254. Crossref link
Sasayama, S., Malicka, A., Norris, J.
(forthcoming). Cognitive task complexity: A research synthesis and meta-analysis. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Schmidt, R.
(1990) The role of consciousness in second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 11, 129–158. Crossref link
Skehan, P.
(1996) A framework for the implementation of task-based instruction. Applied Linguistics, 17, 38–62. Crossref link
(1998) A cognitive approach to language learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
(2009) Modelling second language performance: Integrating complexity, accuracy, fluency, and lexis. Applied Linguistics, 30, 510–532. Crossref link
(2014) Limited attentional capacity, second language performance, and task-based pedagogy. In P. Skehan (Ed.), Processing perspectives on task performance (pp.211–260). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
(2015) Limited attention capacity and cognition: Two hypotheses regarding second language performance on tasks. In M. Bygate (Ed.), Domains and directions in the development of TBLT: A decade of plenaries from the international conference (pp.123–156). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
(2016) Tasks versus conditions: Two perspectives on task research and their implications for pedagogy. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 36, 34–49. Crossref link
Sweller, J.
(1988) Cognitive load during problem solving: Effects on learning. Cognitive Science, 12, 257–285. Crossref link
(1994) Cognitive load theory, learning difficulty, and instructional design. Learning and Instruction, 4, 295–312. Crossref link
Sweller, J. (2010) Element interactivity and intrinsic, extraneous, and germane cognitive load. Educational Psychology Review, 22, 123–138. Crossref link
Sweller, J., van Merriënboer, J., & Paas, F.
(1998) Cognitive architecture and instructional design. Educational Psychology Review, 10, 251–296. Crossref link
Tavakoli, P.
(2009) Investigating task difficulty: Learners’ and teachers’ perceptions. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 19, 1–25. Crossref link
VanPatten, B.
(1990) Attending to form and content in the input. Studies in Second Language Acquisition , 12, 287–301. Crossref link
Zakay, D., & Block, R. A.
(1997) Temporal cognition. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 12–16. Crossref link